1992 Winter Olympics
The 1992 Winter Olympics known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France. They were the last Winter Olympics to be held the same year as the Summer Olympics, the first where the Winter Paralympics were held at the same site. Albertville was selected as host in 1986, beating Sofia, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo and Berchtesgaden; the games were the third Winter Olympics held in France, after Chamonix in 1924 and Grenoble in 1968, the fifth Olympics overall in the country. Only some of the skating and the opening and closing ceremonies took place in Albertville, while the rest of the events took place in the villages of Courchevel, La Plagne, Les Arcs, Les Menuires, Les Saisies, Méribel, Pralognan-la-Vanoise and Val d'Isère. Sixty-four nations with 1,801 athletes participated in the games, including the Unified Team which represented non-Baltic former Soviet republics. Germany participated as a unified team, while five newly independent European countries debuted, as did six "warm-weather" countries.
Short track speed skating and women's biathlon made their debut as an Olympic sport. The games were the last Winter Games until 2014 to have demonstration sports, consisting of curling, ski ballet and speed skiing, it was the last Olympics to have an outdoor speed skating rink. The games were succeeded by the 1992 Winter Paralympics from 25 March to 1 April. Norwegians won every male cross-country skiing race, with Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang both collecting three gold. Ski jumper Toni Nieminen, 16, became the youngest male gold medalist of a Winter Olympic event. Petra Kronberger won both the combined event and the slalom, while Bonnie Blair won both the 500 m and 1000 m speed skating events and Gunda Niemann took both of the longest races. Kim Kihoon earned gold medals in both men's short track events. Ye Qiaobo of China won the country's first medal in the Winter Olympics, a silver in women's 500 metres speed skating. Annelise Coberger of New Zealand won the southern hemisphere's first Winter Olympic medal—a silver in the women's slalom.
Nicolas Bochatay was killed during a training session. Germany won the most gold; the vote to select the host city of the 1992 Winter Olympics was conducted on 17 October 1986, in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the 91st IOC Session. A record of seven different locales bid for these Games; the 1992 Olympic Winter Games marked the last time both the Winter and Summer games were held in the same year. The 1992 Olympics marks the last time France hosted the Olympics. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Albertville 1992 Winter Olympics at USD 2.0 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 137% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Albertville 1992 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of USD 51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. Magique was the Olympic mascot of these Games, was a little imp in the shape of a star and a cube, it was created by Philippe Mairesse and was presented in 1989. His star shape symbolises dreams and imagination, his colours come with a red hat and a blue costume. There were 57 events contested in 6 sports. See the medal winners, ordered by sport: This was the final time demonstration sports were included in the Winter Olympics programme.
Curling – Competed for the first time since 1924. It became a regular discipline in 1998. Freestyle skiing – Although moguls skiing was an official discipline and ski ballet were still considered demonstration events. Speed skiing – A death occurred during a training session; the sport has not been included in the Winter Olympics program. A total of 64 nations sent athletes to compete in these Games. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, six states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia and Lithuania had their own teams. Croatia and Slovenia, who were making their first appearance at the Winter Olympics, competed as independent nations after leaving Yugoslavia; the UN sanctions against Yugoslavia that saw them miss the 1992 Summer Olympics had yet to come into effect. The German team won most medals in the games, with a total of 10 gold medals, 10 silver and 6 bronze, it was the first time since the 1936 Winter Olympics that Germany competed with a unified team after the reunification.
Making their debuts were Algeria, Brazil, Honduras and Swaziland. It would be the only appearance for both Honduras and Swaziland in Winter Olympics to date; the 1992 Games are the last ones. Albertville Halle Olympique – Figure Skating and Short track spee
Soviet Union national ice hockey team
The Soviet national ice hockey team was the national ice hockey team of the Soviet Union. The team won nearly every world championship and Olympic tournament between 1954 and 1991 and never failed to medal in any International Ice Hockey Federation tournament they competed in. After 1991, the Soviet team competed as the Unified Team at the 1992 Winter Olympics and as the Commonwealth of Independent States at the 1992 World Championship. In 1993, it was replaced by national teams for Belarus, Kazakhstan, Lithuania and Ukraine; the IIHF recognized the Ice Hockey Federation of Russia as the successor to the Soviet Union hockey federation and passed its ranking on to Russia. The other national hockey teams were considered new and sent to compete in Pool C; the IIHF Centennial All-Star Team included four Soviet-Russian players out of a team of six: goalie Vladislav Tretiak, defenseman Vyacheslav Fetisov and forwards Valeri Kharlamov and Sergei Makarov who played for the Soviet teams in the 1970s and the 1980s were selected for the team in 2008.
Ice hockey was not properly introduced into the Soviet Union until the 1940s, though bandy, a similar game played on a larger ice field, had long been popular in the country. It was during a tour of FC Dynamo Moscow of the United Kingdom in 1945 that Soviet officials first got the idea of establishing an ice hockey program, they watched several exhibition matches in London, National Hockey League President Clarence Campbell would say that "This was the time when the Russians got the idea for their hockey team. The Russian soccer players were more interested in watching Canadian players play hockey than in soccer." The Soviet Championship League was established in 1946, the national team was formed shortly after, playing their first matches in a series of exhibitions against LTC Praha in 1948. The Soviets planned to send a team to the 1953 World Championships, but due to an injury to Vsevolod Bobrov, one of their star players, officials decided against going, they would make their debut at the 1954 World Championships instead.
Unknown to the larger hockey world, the team surprised many by winning the gold medal. Throughout the rest of the 1950s the World Championships were contested between Canada and the Soviet Union; that changed in the early 1960s. Canada won the gold in 1961, after missing the 1962 tournament due to political issues, the Soviets would win the gold medal every year until 1972, they faced their greatest upset at the 1976 World Championships. In 1972 the Soviets played Canada in an exhibition series that saw the Soviet national team play a team composed of National Hockey League players for the first time. Both the Olympics and World Championships did not allow professionals, so the best Canadian players were never able to compete against the Soviets, in protest at this Canada had left international hockey in 1970; this series, known as the Summit Series, was a chance to see. In eight games, the teams were close, it took until the final 34 seconds of the eighth game for Canada to win the series, four games to three, with one tie.
At the 1980 Winter Olympics, the Soviets had one of their most notable losses. Playing the United States in the medal round, the Soviets lost 4–3; this match dubbed the Miracle on Ice, was notable because it had the Soviets, recognized as the top international team in the world, against an American team composed of university-level players. The Americans would go on to win the gold medal in the tournament, while the Soviets finished with the silver, only the second time they failed to win gold at the Olympics since their debut in 1956; the reforms of the 1980s in the Soviet Union had a detrimental effect on the national team. No longer afraid to speak out against their treatment, players like Viacheslav Fetisov and Igor Larionov critiqued the management style of their coach, Viktor Tikhonov, which included being secluded in a military-style barracks for eleven months of the year, they sought the chance to move to North America and play in the NHL, though the authorities were reluctant to allow this.
Negotiations with the NHL began in the late 1980s over this, in 1989 several players, including both Fetisov and Larionov, were permitted to leave the Soviet Union and join NHL teams. Until 1977, professional players were not able to participate in the World Championship, it was not until 1988 that they could play in the Winter Olympics. However, the Soviet team was populated with amateur players who were full-time athletes hired as regular workers of a company or organization that sponsored what would be presented as an after-hours social sports society hockey team for their workers in order to keep their amateur status. By the 1970s, several national hockey federations, such as Canada, protested their use of the amateur status for players of Eastern Bloc teams and withdrew from the 1972 and 1976 Winter Games. Leading scorers Sergei Makarov – 248 points Aleksandr Maltsev – 213+ points Valeri Kharlamov – 199 points Boris Mikhailov – 180 points Vladimir Petrov – 176 points 1972 – Lost to Canada 1974 – Won series against Canada 1979 – Won series 1987 – Tied series Yevgeny Babich Helmuts Balderis Vsevolod Bobrov Vyacheslav Bykov Vitaly Davydov Vyacheslav Fetisov Anatoli Firsov Valeri Kamensky Sergei Kapustin Alexei Kasatonov Valeri Kharlamov Vladimir Krutov Alfred Kuchevsky Igor Larionov Sergei Makarov Alexander Maltsev Boris Mikhailov Vladimir Petrov Al
The Florida Panthers are a professional ice hockey team based in the Miami metropolitan area. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League; the team's local broadcasting rights has been held by Fox Sports Florida since 1996. The team played their home games at Miami Arena, before moving to the BB&T Center in 1998. Located in Sunrise, the Panthers are the southernmost team in the NHL; the Panthers began playing in the 1993–94 NHL season. The team has made one appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals, in 1996, the only season in which the Panthers have won a playoff series losing the Finals to the Colorado Avalanche; the team advanced to the Stanley Cup playoffs for the second time in 12 years in 2012, but were eliminated in seven games in the Eastern Conference quarterfinals by the New Jersey Devils, who won the Eastern Conference championship that season. The club is affiliated with one minor league team, the Springfield Thunderbirds of the American Hockey League.
Blockbuster Video magnate Wayne Huizenga was awarded an NHL franchise for Miami on December 10, 1992, the same day The Walt Disney Company earned the rights to start a team in Anaheim that would become the Mighty Ducks. At the time, Huizenga owned both the newly founded Florida Marlins of Major League Baseball and a share of the National Football League's Miami Dolphins; the entry fee was $50 million, but despite fellow Florida team Tampa Bay Lightning starting play the year before, the NHL did not consider it to be a case of territory infringement. Huizenga announced the team would play at the Miami Arena, sharing the building with the National Basketball Association's Miami Heat, until a new arena was built. Offices for the team were only established in June 1993, while vice president of business operations Dean Jordan conceded that "none of the business people, myself included, knew anything about hockey." On April 20, 1993, a press conference in Ft. Lauderdale announced that the team would be named Florida Panthers, with former New York Islanders general manager Bill Torrey as president and Bobby Clarke as general manager.
The team is named for the Florida panther, an endangered species of large cat endemic to the nearby Everglades region. Once the logos and uniforms were unveiled on June 15, the team announced its financial commitment to the panther preservation cause. Huizenga held the Panthers trademark since 1991, when he purchased it from a group of Tampa investors who sought to create an MLB team in the Tampa Bay area; the new franchise would join the NHL for participation in the 1993–94 season, along with the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim. The Panthers' and Ducks' roster was filled up in both the expansion draft and the 1993 NHL Entry Draft in June 1993, hosted by Quebec City; the Panthers' first major stars were New York Rangers goaltender castoff John Vanbiesbrouck, rookie Rob Niedermayer and forward Scott Mellanby, who scored 30 goals in Florida's inaugural season. Their first game was a 4–4 tie on the road against the Chicago Blackhawks, while their first win was a 2–0 shutout of the Tampa Bay Lightning in the Thunderdome before a then-NHL record crowd of 27,227.
The Panthers had one of the most successful first seasons of any expansion team, finishing just two points below.500 and narrowly missing out on the final 1994 playoff spot in the East. Their first-year success was attributed to the "trap defense" that first-year coach Roger Neilson implemented; this conservative style was criticized by NHL teams. While the team executives expected the audience to consist of "snowbird" Canadians living in Florida, the Floridians soon embraced the Panthers. Helped by Miami's other teams having middling performances, the club averaged 94% capacity at the 14,500-seat Miami Arena, managed to sell 8,500 season tickets in 100 days. In August 1994, general manager Clarke left to work for the Philadelphia Flyers, while Bryan Murray was brought in from the Detroit Red Wings as his replacement. After another close brush with the playoffs, finishing the lockout-shortened 1994–95 season again in ninth, Neilson was fired following an argument with Murray regarding Ed Jovanovski, whom the Panthers chose as the number one overall pick at the 1994 NHL Entry Draft.
Doug MacLean, the team's player development director, was promoted to coach. The team acquired Ray Sheppard from the San Jose Sharks at the NHL trade deadline and looked toward the playoffs for the first time. A unusual goal celebration developed in Miami during the 1995–96 season. On the night of the Panthers' 1995–96 home opener, a rat scurried across the team's locker room. Scott Mellanby reacted by "one-timing" the rat against the wall; that night, he scored two goals, which Vanbiesbrouck quipped was "a rat trick." Two nights as the story found its way into the world, a few fans threw rubber rats on the ice in celebration of a goal. The rubber rat count went from 16 for the third home game to over 2,000 during the playoffs. In the 1996 playoffs, as the fourth seed in the East, the Panthers faced the Boston Bruins in the first round and won in five games. Bill Lindsay's famous series-clinching goal is still a trademark image for the incredible run the third-year franchise went on; the Panthers went on to upset the top-seeded Philadelphia Flyers in six games followed by the second-seeded Pittsburgh Penguins in seven to reach the Stanley Cup Finals against the Colorado Avalanche, another team making its first Finals appearan
2001–02 NHL season
The 2001–02 NHL season was the 85th regular season of the National Hockey League. Thirty teams each played 82 games; the Stanley Cup winners were the Detroit Red Wings, who won the best of seven series 4–1 against the Carolina Hurricanes. The cash-strapped Pittsburgh Penguins, desperate to dump payroll, could no longer afford perennial superstar Jaromir Jagr, he would be traded, along with Frantisek Kucera, to the Washington Capitals in exchange for Kris Beech, Ross Lupaschuk, Michal Sivek and $4.9 million. Despite Mario Lemieux's return last season, the absence of Jagr proved devastating to the Penguins, they missed the playoffs for the first time since 1990, they would continue to miss the playoffs. The Dallas Stars moved their home games from Reunion Arena to American Airlines Center; the NHL honored the victims of 9/11 by having all players wear a patch on their jerseys, a ribbon sticker on the back of their helmet, as well as a red and blue ribbon painted on the ice behind each net. On September 20, 2001, in the middle of a pre-season game between the Philadelphia Flyers and New York Rangers with both teams tied up 2–2, nine days after the attacks, the game was stopped.
A message from United States President George W. Bush about the 9/11 attacks was broadcast on the arena video screen. After the message, the game was declared a 2 -- 2 tie. For the second time in three seasons, no player reached the 100-point plateau. In addition, for the first time since 1980, the Art Ross Trophy was not won by either Wayne Gretzky, Mario Lemieux, or Jaromir Jagr. Instead, the award went to Jarome Iginla; the Detroit Red Wings placed first in the league standings, received home-ice advantage throughout the playoffs. This is the first season. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, OTL = Overtime Losses, GF= Goals For, GA = Goals Against, Pts = Points Teams in bold qualified for the playoffs. Divisions: AT – Atlantic, NE – Northeast, SE – Southeast Z- Clinched Conference. Divisions: CEN – Central, PAC – Pacific, NW – Northwest bold – Qualified for playoffs, it was Detroit's twenty-second appearance in the Final, their last appearance being a win in 1998. It was Carolina's first appearance in the Final in franchise history.
Detroit defeated Carolina in five games to win their tenth Stanley Cup championship in franchise history. During the first three rounds home ice is determined by seeding number, not position on the bracket. In the Finals the team with the better regular season record has home ice; the NHL Awards presentation took place in Toronto. Note: GP = Games Played, G = Goals, A = Assists, Pts = Points Note: GP = Games played. March 19, 2002: Anaheim traded C Dave Roche to NY Islanders for RW Ben Guite and the rights to RW Bjorn Melin. March 19, 2002: Atlanta traded D Jiri Slegr to Detroit for C Yuri Butsayev and Detroit's third-round pick in the 2002 Entry Draft. March 19, 2002: Atlanta traded LW Darcy Hordichuk and Atlanta'
Jaroslav Bednář is a Czech professional ice hockey winger, who plays with HC Vrchlabí in the Czech.2 Liga Born in Prague, Bednář began his career with Slavia Prague in 1994 and stayed there for three years before moving to rivals Sparta Prague. He played just 14 games before moving to Plzeň and returned to play for Sparta for the next season, he spent the next two seasons playing in Finland's SM-liiga with spells at Jyp and HIFK where he led the teams in goals and points. Bednář was drafted 51st overall by the Los Angeles Kings in the 2001 NHL Entry Draft, but never managed to recapture the form he had in Finland, he played scoring 4 goals and 11 assists for 15 points. On November 26, 2002, Bednář, along with Andreas Lilja was traded to the Florida Panthers for Dmitri Yushkevich, he played 65 games for Florida, scoring 6 goals and 14 assists for 20 points. Overall, Bednář played scoring 10 goals and 25 assists for 35 points. Bednář moved to Russia during the cancelled 2004–05 NHL Season and played for Avangard Omsk where he played alongside Jaromír Jágr, Alexander Perezhogin and Oleg Tverdovsky.
In 2005, Bednář returned to Slavia Prague where he has become one of their core players and left the team after four years on 29 April 2009 to sign with Atlant Moscow of the Kontinental Hockey League. In 2010, Bednář signed a one-year contract with HC Davos from the Swiss NLA where he played alongside 3 other Czech players: Petr Sykora, Petr Taticek and Josef Marha. During the 2010–11 regular season, Bednář scored 35 goals and 15 assists for a total of 50 points in 43 games. On May 21, 2013, Bednar returned again to HC Slavia Praha for a fourth stint, he would play three seasons with HK Hradec Králové through to 2018. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Eurohockey.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database
Russia men's national ice hockey team
The Russian men's national ice hockey team is the national men's ice hockey team of Russia, overseen by the Ice Hockey Federation of Russia. As of 2018, they are rated third in the IIHF World Ranking; the team has been competing internationally since 1992, is recognized by the IIHF as the successor to the Soviet Union team and CIS team. The Russian team is a member of the so-called "Big Six", the unofficial group of the six strongest men's ice hockey nations, along with Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland and the United States; the European nations of the Big Six participate in the Euro Hockey Tour, which Russia won seven times since 2005. Russia has 84,270 ice hockey players registered with its ice hockey federation. Since April 2018, the head coach is Ilya Vorobiev, taking over for the second half of the 2017–18 Euro Hockey Tour. Since the establishment of the team, Russia has participated in every IIHF World Championships tournament and every Olympic ice hockey tournament, winning five world championships and one Olympic gold.
The Allrussian Hockey League was founded by some clubs in the Russian Empire and entered the International Ice Hockey Federation in 1911. However due to misunderstandings the Russian team left the organization. There were no matches involving a team from Imperial Russia. Interest in this exotic sport grew in the Soviet Union in the 2nd half of the 1940s; the first reactions were skeptical. Therefore, Canadian hockey should not be cultivated into our country..." However, Canadian hockey became more popular in the Soviet Union. The first Soviet Championships League was introduced in 1946. Two years the Muscovian team defeated LTC Praha in their first international game. In 1952, the Hockey Federation of the USSR joined the International Ice Hockey League, so received the permission to play in the World Championships and the Olympics; that year is seen as the birth of the Soviet national ice hockey team, the predecessor team of the Russia men's national ice hockey team. The Soviets won the 1954 Ice Hockey World Championships, two years they won gold at the 1956 Winter Olympics.
From until the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, the "Red Machine" was one of the most dominant teams in international play, winning nearly every World Championship and Olympic tournament, as well as defeating most teams with professional players it faced such as in the 1974 Summit Series and the Super Series. Until 1977, professional players were not able to participate in the World Championship, it was not until 1988 that they could play in the Winter Olympics; the Soviet team was populated with amateur players who were hired as regular workers of a company or organization that sponsored what would be presented as an after-hours social sports society hockey team for their workers but were set-up for the athletes to train full-time. This type of amateur player was common throughout the Eastern Bloc nations and was contested by the Western nations due to their best players participating in other professional leagues leading to the allowance of professionals by the IIHF and IOC; the Soviet Union dissolved shortly before the 1992 Winter Olympics, so a Unified Team consisting of the former Soviet republics competed instead.
The CIS national ice hockey team, consisting of 21 Russian players, 1 Lithuanian and 1 Ukrainian, competed as part of this Olympic delegation. The team finished second in its preliminary group, beating co-favorites Canada, 5–4, but losing to Czechoslovakia, 3–4; the CIS team defeated the Finns and Americans, 6–1 and 5–2, respectively. In the final, they claimed the gold medal; the team was coached by former Soviet coach Viktor Tikhonov. In years, the IIHF recognized this gold medal as being won by the Russian national team, rather than by the CIS. However, the International Olympic Committee has not recognized Russia as the Olympic champions for this Winter Games. Russia joined the IIHF as an independent state on 6 May 1992, along with 10 other states, including seven other former Soviet republics. Unlike the others, which applied as new member states and had to begin playing at the bottom tiers of the World Championship, Russia was allowed to replace the Soviet Union in its position, was thus entered into the elite division for the 1992 World Championship.
Russia's first actual games after the Soviet dissolution were a series of five friendly games between Sweden and Switzerland, all taking place in April 1992, the debut game occurring on 12 April 1992 against Sweden and ending in a 2–2 draw. At the 1992 World Championship Russia finished first in its preliminary group but lost to Sweden in the quarterfinals, 2–0. They, won the next edition of the tournament, beating Germany and Sweden in the playoffs and clinching their first title as Russia and 23rd, including the USSR's totals; as the USSR fell apart, so did Russia's elite hockey program. At the 1994 Winter Olympics they finished fourth overall. Russia competed at the 1996 World Cup, the successor tournament to the Canada Cup, where the team lost in the semi-finals to the eventual winner, the United States. At the 1998 Winter Olympics, Russia won five consecutive games and reached the gold medal match, where they lost to the Czech Republic, 0
Daniil Yevgenyevich Markov is a Russian former professional ice hockey defenceman who enjoyed a nine-year career in the National Hockey League. He played 11 seasons in the top tier Russian leagues; as a youth, Markov played in the 1990 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with a minor ice hockey team from Moscow. Markov began his career in 1993; the Toronto Maple Leafs of the NHL drafted him in the 9th round of the 1995 NHL Entry Draft. However, partway through the 1996–97 season, he left Moscow and began playing for the Maple Leafs' farm team, the St. John's Maple Leafs, he made the jump to the NHL at the end of the 1997–98 season. After four seasons in Toronto, he was traded to the Phoenix Coyotes for Travis Green, Robert Reichel, Craig Mills, he played two seasons for the Coyotes before joining the Carolina Hurricanes for the 2003–04 season. On March 5, 2004, he scored the 10,000th goal in Flyers history against Patrick Lalime and the Ottawa Senators during a 5–3 win at the Wachovia Center.
In the time leading up to the 2005–06, the Flyers found themselves in potential trouble with the new salary cap and needed to unload some salary. Thus, they traded Markov to the Nashville Predators for a third round pick in the 2006 NHL Entry Draft. On 26 July 2006, the Detroit Red Wings signed Markov as a free agent. Markov signed a two-year contract with Dynamo Moscow in Russia. Markov is noted for his toughness. One game which Markov played for the Leafs involved him receiving an injury below his eye which required stitches, he took the stitches without anesthetic. Markov is well known for returning to Jaromír Jágr his infamous "goal-salute" after the Maple Leafs knocked the Penguins out of the 1999 NHL playoffs during an Eastern Conference Semi-Finals overtime win. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eurohockey.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database