Eudoxia of Moscow
Eudoxia of Moscow —monastic name Euphrosyne— was a Grand Duchess of Muscovy and wife of Dmitry Donskoy. Eudoxia was a daughter of Dmitry Konstantinovich, Grand Prince of Nizhny Novgorod and her maternal grandparents were Konstantin Vasilievich, Prince of Rostov and Maria of Moscow. Maria was a daughter of Ivan I of Moscow and his first wife Yelena, on 18 January 1367, Eudoxia married Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy. In 1382, she stayed in Moscow in the absence of her husband, after the birth of her son Andrey Dmitriyevich, she attempted to leave Moscow, but was detained by the Muscovites, who agreed to let her go only after long negotiations. After her husbands death, Eudoxia became known for her piety, in 1393, she founded the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos, the oldest surviving building in Moscow. The church was dedicated to the Virgins Nativity, because on this feast her husband defeated the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo, four years later, Eudoxia established the Ascension Monastery next to the Frolovskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin.
Later in her life, Eudoxia Dmitriyevna took the veil at the Ascension Monastery under the name of Yefrosiniya, rzhev monasticism in just a few weeks, July 7,1407 the nun Euphrosyne died, and her relics were buried in the cathedral under construction, Ascension Convent. She was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church and Dmitri Donskoi had at least 12 children, Daniil Dmitrievich. Married Fyodor Olegovich, Prince of Ryazan, yury Dmitrievich, Duke of Zvenigorod and Galich. Claimed the throne of Moscow against his nephew Vasily II of Moscow, married Ivan Vsevolodich, Prince of Kholm. Her husband was a son of Patrikei, Prince of Starodub, the marriage solidified his role as a Boyar attached to Moscow. On 15 August 2007, the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church instituted the Order of St. Euphrosyne, named after Eudoxia, the award was established to commemorate the 600th anniversary of Euphrosynes death. The Order of St. Euphrosyne will be the second womens decoration of the Russian Orthodox Church after the Order of Saint Catherine, Charles, Her listing, along with her husband.
Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
Khan is originally a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, widely used by Turkic and medieval nomadic Mongolian tribes living to the north of China. Khan occurs as a title in the Xianbei confederation for their chief between 283 and 289, the Rourans were the first people who used the titles khagan and khan for their emperors. Subsequently the Ashina adopted the title and brought it to the rest of Asia, in the middle of the sixth century the Iranians knew of a Kagan – King of the Turks. Khan now has many equivalent meanings such as commander, leader, as of 2015 khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum and these titles or names are sometimes written as Han, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun and as xan, xanım. Khagan is rendered as Khan of Khans and it was the title of Chinese Emperor Emperor Taizong of Tang, and the title of Genghis Khan and of the persons selected to rule the Mongol Empire. For instance Möngke Khan and Ogedei Khan would be Khagans but not Chagatai Khan, some managed to establish principalities of some importance for a while, as their military might repeatedly proved a serious threat to such empires as China and kingdoms in Central Asia.
One of the earliest notable examples of such principalities in Europe was Danube Bulgaria, Khan was the official title of the ruler until 864 AD, when Kniaz Boris adopted the Eastern Orthodox faith. The title Khan became unprecedently prominent when the Mongol Temüjin created the Mongol empire, the greatest land empire the world has ever seen and his title was khagan, or Khan of Khans, but has often been abbreviated to Khan or described as Great Khan. The great leader was regarded as a khan in the middle east, ming Dynasty Chinese Emperors used the term Xan to denote brave warriors and rulers. The title Khan was used to designate the greatest rulers of the Jurchens, while most Afghan principalities were styled emirate, there was a khanate of ethnic Uzbeks in Badakhshan since 1697. For example, in present Armenia and nearby territories to the left and right, diverse khanates existed in Dagestan, including Baku, Jawad, Salyan and Shirvan=Shamakha, Talysh and Karabakh. The most important of these states were, Khanate of Kazan, sibir Khanate Astrakhan Khanate Crimean Khanate.
The ruling descendants of the branch of Genghis Khans dynasty are referred to as the Great Khans. The title Khan of Khans was among numerous titles used by the Sultans of the Ottoman empire as well as the rulers of the Golden Horde and its descendant states. The title Khan was used in the Seljuk Turk dynasties of the near-east to designate a head of multiple tribes, clans or nations and Manchu rulers used the title Khan, for example, Nurhaci was called Genggiyen Han. Rulers of the Göktürks and Khazars used the higher title Kaghan, see the main article for more details. Khan-i-Khanan was a given to the commander-in-chief of the army of the Mughals
He is believed to have hailed from the Bryansk area and took the monastic habit at the Rostov Monastery of Saints Boris and Gleb. Later he moved to the Monastery of Pereslavl-Zalessky under the service of Dmitri Donskoi and he moved to the Trinity Abbey where he became a follower of Sergius of Radonezh. Alexander and his friend Rodion Oslyabya joined Russian troops approaching to fight against Mamai invasion, the battle of Kulikovo was opened by single combat between the two champions. The Russian champion was Alexander Peresvet, the champions killed each other in the first run, though according to a Russian legend, Peresvet did not fall from the saddle, while Temir-murza did. Peresvets body, together with that of his brother-in-arms Oslyabya, were brought to Moscow, pereswetoff-Morath, a bayor family, claimed to be Peresvets descendants. 33rd Special purpose unit of Internal Troops In Russian Language Титов А, М.1885 Описание Свято-Димитриевского монастыря в г. История церкви Рождества Пресвятые Богородицы на Старом Симонове в Москве
Alexius, Metropolitan of Kiev
Saint Alexius was Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia, and presided over the Moscow government during Dmitrii Donskois minority. Alexius, whose name at birth was Elephtherios, was a son of Fyodor Biakont and he took monastic vows at the Epiphany Monastery of Moscow around 1313, at which time he was given the religious name of Alexius. In 1333 or so, he joined the household of Metropolitan Theognostus, in 1340, Alexius was appointed the Metropolitans deputy in Vladimir and twelve years was consecrated as Bishop of Vladimir. By the will of Symeon the Proud, Alexius was appointed adviser to his brothers – Ivan, after visiting Constantinople, he was chosen to become the Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia in 1354. When Dmitrii Donskoi and Vladimir the Bold were young, Alexius was their spiritual tutor, in 1357, Alexius was summoned by Jani Beg, the Khan of the Golden Horde, to cure his mother Taidula Khatun from blindness. The metropolitans success is held to have prevented a Tatar raid on Moscow, in 1360s, Alexius founded the Andronikov and Alekseyevsky monasteries.
He promoted Metropolitan Peters canonization by the Russian Orthodox Church, shortly before his death, Alexius fruitlessly tried to convince Sergius of Radonezh to become his successor. Alexius was an author of a number of sermons and epistles and he was glorified by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1448 and has been revered as one of the patron saints of Moscow. February 12, May 20, and October 5 and his relics are venerated in Ephiphany Cathedral in Elokhovo. 2012 film The Horde is a highly fictionalised narrative of how Alexius healed Taidula from blindness, st Alexis the Metropolitan of Moscow and Wonderworker of All Russia
It is the best known of the kremlins and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. Also within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace, the complex serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. It had previously used to refer to the government of the Soviet Union. Kremlinology refers to the study of Soviet and Russian politics, the site has been continuously inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples since the 2nd century BC. Vyatichi built a structure on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the grad of Moscow, the word Kremlin was first recorded in 1331. The grad was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237, dmitri Donskoi replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366–1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls, this fortification withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh. Dmitris son Vasily I resumed construction of churches and cloisters in the Kremlin, the newly built Annunciation Cathedral was painted by Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, and Prokhor in 1406.
The Chudov Monastery was founded by Dmitris tutor, Metropolitan Alexis, while his widow, Eudoxia and it was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08, the Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. Spasskie gates of the wall bear a dedication in Latin praising Petrus Antonius Solarius for the design. After construction of the new walls and churches was complete. The Kremlin was separated from the merchant town by a 30-meter-wide moat. The same tsar renovated some of his grandfathers palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, and endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin. The metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery and boasted the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, during the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612.
The Kremlins liberation by the army of prince Dmitry Pozharsky. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace, following the death of Alexis, the Kremlin witnessed the Moscow Uprising of 1682, from which czar Peter barely escaped. As a result, both of them disliked the Kremlin, three decades later, Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg
The Tatars are a Turkic people living in Asia and Europe who were one of the five major tribal confederations in the Mongolian plateau in the 12th century CE. The name Tatar first appears in form on the Kul Tigin monument as
Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Volga Federal District in Russia. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky, after the writer Maxim Gorky, the city is an important economic, scientific and cultural center in Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and is the main center of river tourism in Russia. In the historical part of the city there are a number of universities, museums. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km east of Moscow, where the Oka empties into the Volga, the city was founded in 1221 by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir. In 1612 Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky organized an army for the liberation of Moscow from the Poles, in 1817 Nizhny Novgorod became a great trade center of the Russian Empire. In 1896 at a fair, an All-Russia Exhibition was organized, during the Soviet period, the city turned into an important industrial center. In particular, the Gorky Automobile Plant was constructed in this period, the city was given the nickname Russian Detroit.
During the World War II Gorky became the biggest provider of equipment to the front. Due to this, the Luftwaffe constantly bombed the city from the air, the majority of the German bombs fell in the area of the Gorky Automobile Plant. Although almost all the sites of plant were completely destroyed. After the war, Gorky became a city and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990. At that time the city was renamed Nizhny Novgorod once again, in 1985 the metro was opened. In 2016 Vladimir Putin opened the new 70th Anniversary of Victory Plant which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air, the Kremlin – the main center of the city – contains the main government agencies of the city and the Volga Federal District. Originally the name was just Novgorod, but to distinguish it from the other and well-known Novgorod to the west and this land was named lower because it is situated downstream, especially from the point of view of other Russian cities such as Moscow and Murom. Later it was transformed into the name of the city that literally means Lower Newtown.
Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a moat formed by the two rivers. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in 1264, after 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow, he built a stone citadel, the earliest extant manuscript of the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Laurentian Codex, was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377
Sergius of Radonezh
Venerable Sergius of Radonezh, transliterated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh, was a spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia. Together with Venerable Seraphim of Sarov, he is one of the Russian Orthodox Churchs most highly venerated saints, the date of his birth is unclear, it could be 1314,1319, or 1322. His medieval biography states that he was born to Kiril and Maria, a family, near Rostov the Great. It is considered that it is the village Varnitsa near Rostov, the future saint received the baptismal name of Bartholomew in honor of the Apostle Bartholomew. Although an intelligent boy, Bartholomew had great difficulty learning to read and his biography states that a starets met him one day and gave him a piece of prosphora to eat, and from that day forward he was able to read. Orthodox Christians interpret the incident as being an angelic visitation, upon his parents death, Bartholomew went to Khotkovo near Moscow, where his older brother Stefan was a monk. He persuaded Stefan to find a secluded place to live the ascetic life.
In the deep forest at Makovets Hill they decided to build a small cell, thus started the history of the great Trinity-St. In time, Stefan moved to a monastery in Moscow, varfolomei took monastic vows, taking the name Sergius, and spent more than a year in the forest alone as a hermit. Soon, other monks started coming to him and building their own cells, after some time, they persuaded him to become their hegumen, or father superior, and he was ordained to the priesthood. Following his example, all the monks had to live by their own labor, over time and more monks and donations came to this place. Nearby, there appeared a posad, which grew into the town of Sergiev Posad, when the news of Sergiuss accomplishments reached Patriarch Philotheus of Constantinople, he sent to him a monastic charter. During the reign of St. Dmitri Donskoi, his disciples started to spread his teaching across central and they settled intentionally in the most impracticable places and founded numerous monasteries, of which Borisoglebsky, Kirillo-Belozersky and Vysotsky monasteries could be mentioned.
St. Sergius was connected with the foundation of two communities in Moscow and Simonov monasteries. All in all, the disciples of Sergius founded about 40 monasteries, thus extending the geographical extent of his influence. However, when Metropolitan Alexius asked him to become his successor, Sergius declined, as an ascetic, Sergius did not take part in the political life of the country. Some historians interpreted his political stance as aspiring to make peace, Sergius died on September 25,1392, and was glorified in 1452. His incorrupt relics were found in 1422 and placed in the new Trinity Cathedral of the lavra which he founded, the church commemorates him on September 25, the day of his death, and on July 5, the day his relics were uncovered
Ivan II of Moscow
Ivan II Ivanovich the Fair was the Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1353. Until that date, he had ruled the towns of Ruza and he was the second son of Ivan Kalita, and succeeded his brother Simeon the Proud, who died of the Black Death. This policy was abandoned and Ivan asserted his allegiance to the Golden Horde. Contemporaries described Ivan as a pacific, apathetic ruler, who didnt flinch even when Algirdas of Lithuania captured his father-in-laws capital and he allowed Oleg of Riazan to burn villages on his territory. However, Orthodox churchmen aided in consolidating the power of the Grand Prince and he received much aid from the capable Metropolitan Alexius. Like his brother, Ivan II was not as successful as his father or grandfather with regard to territorial expansion, nevertheless, he was able to annex areas southwest of Moscow, including the areas of Borovsk, and Vereya. He is buried in the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael in Moscow, in 1341, Ivan married his first wife Fedosia Dmitrievna of Bryansk.
She was a daughter of Dmitry Romanovich, Prince of Bryansk and she died childless in Autumn,1342. Ivan remained a widower for three years, in 1345, Ivan married his second wife, Alexandra Vassilievna Velyaminova. She was a daughter of Vasily Velyaminov, a mayor of Moscow and they had at least four children, Dmitri Donskoi. His successor in the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a daughter married Prince Bobrok of Volhynia. His listing, along with his children, in Medieval lands by Charles Cawley
Vladimir is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, located on the Klyazma River,200 kilometers to the east of Moscow. It is served by a railway and the M7 motorway, Vladimir was one of the medieval capitals of Russia, with significant buildings surviving from the 12th century. Two of its Russian Orthodox cathedrals, a monastery, and associated buildings have been designated as among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, in the past, the city was known as Vladimir-on-Klyazma and Vladimir-Zalessky, to distinguish it from another Vladimir in Volhynia. Traditionally, the date of Vladimir has been acknowledged as 1108. This view attributes the founding of the city, and its name, to Vladimir Monomakh and it is named there as Volodymyr. On the 17th centuries maps, it was identified as Wolodimer, being established long after the city of Volodymyr in Volhynia, initially it was named Vladimir-on-Klyazma. In 1958, the 850th anniversary of the city foundation was celebrated, in the 1990s, a new opinion developed that the city is older than this.
The neighboring town of Suzdal, for instance, was mentioned in 1024 and its 12th-century inhabitants alluded to Vladimir as a young town and treated its rulers with arrogance. In the words of a chronicle, they said that the people of Vladimir were their kholops. In the seniority conflicts of the 12th and early 13th centuries, Vladimir was repeatedly described as a young town compared to Suzdal, the Charter of Vladimir, the basic law of the city passed in 2005, explicitly mentions 990 as the date of the citys foundation. The citys most historically significant events occurred after the turn of the 12th century, under Dolgorukys son, Andrey Bogolyubsky, the city became the center of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. It had a Golden Age, which lasted until the Mongol invasion of Rus in 1237, during this time, Vladimir enjoyed immense growth and prosperity. Andrey oversaw the building of the citys Golden Gates and the Dormition Cathedral, in 1164, Andrey attempted to establish a new metropolitanate in Vladimir, separate from that of Kiev.
He was rebuffed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, scores of Russian and Georgian masons worked on Vladimirs white stone cathedrals, monastery and palaces. Unlike any other buildings, their exterior was elaborately carved with high relief stone sculptures. Only three of these edifices stand today, the Dormition Cathedral, the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius, and they are included among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During Andreys reign, a palace in Bogolyubovo was built, as well as the world-famous Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. Andrey was assassinated at his palace at Bogolyubovo in 1175, Vladimir was besieged by the Mongol-Tatars of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan
Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin was a leading Russian Impressionist painter. Konstantin was born in Moscow to a merchant family officially registered as peasants of Vladimir Gubernia and his father, Aleksey Mikhailovich Korovin, earned a university degree and was more interested in arts and music than in the family business established by Konstantins grandfather. Konstantins older brother Sergei Korovin was a notable realist painter, Konstantins relative Illarion Pryanishnikov was a prominent painter of the time and a teacher at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture. In 1875 Korovin entered the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture and his brother Sergei was already a student at the school. During their student years, the Korovins became friends with fellow students Valentin Serov and Isaac Levitan, in 1881–1882, Korovin spent a year at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, but returned disappointed to the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture. He studied at the school under his new teacher Vasily Polenov until 1886, in 1885 Korovin traveled to Paris and Spain.
Paris was a shock for me … Impressionists… in them I found everything I was scolded for back home in Moscow, Polenov introduced Korovin to Savva Mamontovs Abramtsevo Circle, Viktor Vasnetsov, Apollinary Vasnetsov, Ilya Repin, Mark Antokolsky and others. The groups love for stylized Russian themes is reflected in Korovins picture A Northern Idyll, in 1885 Korovin worked for Mamontovs opera house, designing the stage decor for Giuseppe Verdis Aida, Léo Delibes Lakmé and Georges Bizets Carmen. In 1888 Korovin traveled with Mamontov to Italy and Spain, where he produced the painting On the Balcony, Konstantin traveled within Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia and exhibited with the Peredvizhniki. He painted in the Impressionist, and in the Art Nouveau, in the 1890s Korovin became a member of the Mir iskusstva art group. Korovins subsequent works were influenced by his travels to the north. In 1888 he was captivated by the northern landscapes seen in The Coast of Norway. His second trip to the north, with Valentin Serov in 1894, Korovin painted a large number of landscapes, Norwegian Port, St.
Triphons Brook in Pechenga, Aurora Borealis, The Coast at Murmansk and others. The paintings are built on a web of shades of grey. The etude style of works was typical for Korovins art of the 1890s. Using material from his trip, Korovin designed the Far North pavilion at the 1896 All Russia Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod and he painted ten big canvasses for the pavilion as well, depicting various aspects of life in the northern and Arctic regions. After the closure of the Exhibition, the canvasses were eventually placed in the Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal in Moscow, in the 1960s, they were restored and transferred to the Tretyakov Gallery. In 1900 Korovin designed the Central Asia section of the Russian Empire pavilion at the Paris World Fair and was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French government, in the beginning of the 20th century, Korovin focused his attention on the theater