The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in central, eastern and western Asia as well as parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family and they share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds. The first known mention of the term Turk applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürks in the 6th century, a letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as the Great Turk Khan. The Orhun inscriptions use the terms Turk and Turuk and this includes Chinese records Spring and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as Beidi. During the first century CE, Pomponius Mela refers to the Turcae in the north of the Sea of Azov. There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names could be the form of Türk/Türük such as Togarma, Turukha/Turuška, Turukku. But the information gap is so substantial that we cannot firmly connect these ancient people to the modern Turks, turkologist András Róna-Tas posits that the term Turk could be rooted in the East Iranian Saka language or in Turkic.
This etymological concept is related to Old Turkic word stems tür, türi-, törü. The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Dingling, the Chinese Book of Zhou presents an etymology of the name Turk as derived from helmet, explaining that taken this name refers to the shape of the Altai Mountains. During the Middle Ages, various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe were subsumed under the identity of the Scythians, between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples. However, the usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be used for Türk or vice versa and it is generally agreed that the first Turkic people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to Siberia, with the majority of them living in China historically. Historically they were established after the 6th century BCE, the earliest separate Turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu confederation about 200 BCE.
Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu and Tiele people, according to the Book of Wei, the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi, the red Di people competing with the Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. Turkic tribes such as the Khazars and Pechenegs probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing the Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Empire in the 6th century and these were herdsmen and nobles who were searching for new pastures and wealth. The first mention of Turks was in a Chinese text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the Sogdians along the Silk Road, the first recorded use of Turk as a political name appears as a 6th-century reference to the word pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue. The Ashina clan migrated from Li-jien to the Juan Juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy, the tribe were famed metalsmiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥. A century their power had increased such that they conquered the Juan Juan, Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey runiforms, and the Uyghur alphabet
The Sverdlov-class cruisers, Soviet designation Project 68bis, were the last conventional gun cruisers built for the Soviet Navy, in the 1950s. A secondary commerce raiding and political presence mission in the world was envisioned for this class of ship. The Soviets originally planned to build 40 ships in the class and this represented a significant risk to the Royal Navy, especially in the North Atlantic. In 1954 Sverdlov class construction was cancelled by Nikita Khrushchev after 14 hulls had been completed, two additional hulls were scrapped on the slip and four partially complete Sverdlovs launched in 1954 were scrapped in 1959. The remaining ships in the Soviet Fleet remained in service through the 1970s when the underwent a modernization program before finally leaving service in the late 1980s. Only Mikhail Kutuzov is preserved, in Novorossiysk and these ships were improved and slightly enlarged versions of the Chapayev class. The project was approved on 27 May 1947 and the first three sh8ips of the class were named after cancelled ships of the Chapayev class.
Thirty ships were ordered, upon Joseph Stalins death in 1953. Once the first fifteen hulls were laid down, orders for a group of 6 ships was modified to include provisions for protection against nuclear fallout. Had more Sverdlovs been available at the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 they would certainly have been deployed, the Soviet Navy intended to base several, older Chapayev class cruisers at Cuban ports had the operation succeeded. The Sverdlov class displaced 13,600 tons standard and 16,640 tons at full load and they were 210 metres long overall and 205 metres long at the waterline. They had a beam of 22 metres and draught of 6.9 metres, the hull was a completely welded new design and the ships had a double bottom for over 75% of their length. The ship had twenty-three watertight bulkheads, the Sverdlovs were had 6 boilers providing steam to two shaft geared steam turbines generating 118,100 shaft horsepower. This gave the ships a speed of 32.5 knots. The cruisers had a range of 9,000 nautical miles at 18 knots, Sverdlov-class cruisers main armament included twelve 152 mm /57 cal B-38 guns mounted in four triple Mk5-bis turrets.
They had twelve 100 mm /56 cal Model 1934 guns in six twin SM-5-1 mounts, for anti-aircraft weaponry, the cruisers had thirty-two 37 mm anti-aircraft guns in sixteen twin mounts and were equipped with ten 533 mm torpedo tubes in two mountings of five each. The Sverdlovs had 100 mm belt armor and had a 50 mm armored deck, the turrets were shield by 175 mm armor and the conning tower,150 mm armor. The cruisers ultimate radar suite included one Big Net or Top Trough air search radar, one High Sieve or Low Sieve air search radar, one Knife Rest air search radar, for navigational radar they had one Don-2 or Neptune model
This presence in the popular consciousness is evidenced by its historical frequency in folk songs, folk tales and other folklore, and its modern trope status in literature and films. Although some folk heroes are historical figures, many are not. The lives of heroes are generally fictional, their characteristics. One major category of folk hero is the defender of the people against the oppression or corruption of the established power structure. Members of this category of folk hero often, but not necessarily, robbed dozens of banks, escaped from jail multiple times. Before being boiled in oil, he saved his infant son at the cost of his own life, jack Mary Ann – a folk hero from the Wrexham area of north Wales whose fictionalised exploits continue to circulate in local folklore. James Morrow Walsh - Canada, a mountie who turned Sitting Bull, burned as a heretic she became a martyr, folk hero, and eventually a saint. She is now one of the saints of France. Miyamoto Musashi – Japan, a swordsman, soldier and author Miloš Obilić – Serbia.
Redmond OHanlon – Irish, rapparee of the 17th century Pemulwuy - Australia, sarutobi Sasuke – Japan, incredibly acrobatic spy said to have been raised by monkeys and trained in the Ninja heartland of Iga and Koga provinces during the golden age of the Ninja. Preventing bloodshed between the First Nation peoples and the peoples of Canada. Cúchulainn - Ireland, folk legend and the pre-eminent hero of Ulaid in the Ulster Cycle Fionn mac Cumhaill - Ireland, primary figure in the Oisin cycle. Homer - Credited author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, el Santo - Real life Mexican wrestler, with heavy fictionalised adventures in movies and comic books Culture hero Seal, Graham
A prince is a male ruler, monarch, or member of a monarchs or former monarchs family. Prince is a title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess, the English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus + capio, meaning the chief, most distinguished, prince. The Latin word prīnceps, became the title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire. Emperor Augustus established the position of monarch on the basis of principate. The term may be used of persons in various cultures. These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, in medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, prince is used of any and all rulers and this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Niccolò Machiavellis famous work, Il Principe. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial and this is attested in some surviving styles for e. g.
British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high, in parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the familys hereditary titles. Gradual substitution of the title of Prinz for the title of Fürst occurred. Both Prinz and Fürst are translated into English as prince, but they not only different. This distinction had evolved before the 18th century for dynasties headed by a Fürst in Germany, note that the princely title was used as a prefix to his Christian name, which became customary. Cadets of Frances other princes étrangers affected similar usage under the Bourbon kings, the post-medieval rank of gefürsteter Graf embraced but elevated the German equivalent of the intermediate French and Spanish nobles. By the 19th century, cadets of a Fürst would become known as Prinzen, the husband of a queen regnant is usually titled prince consort or simply prince, whereas the wives of male monarchs take the female equivalent of their husbands title.
In Brazil and Spain, the husband of a monarch was accorded the masculine equivalent of her title. To complicate matters, the style His/Her Highness, a prefix often accompanying the title of a dynastic prince, although the arrangement set out above is the one that is most commonly understood, there are different systems. Depending on country and translation, other usages of prince are possible, foreign-language titles such as Italian principe, French prince, German Fürst and Prinz, Russian knyaz, etc. are usually translated as prince in English
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars, Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov is considered to have one of the best Russian generals. He was born in Saint Petersburg in 1745 to a family of Novgorod nobility and his father was a Russian general and senator. Kutuzov began military schooling at age 12 and joined the Imperial Russian Army in 1759, Three years Kutuzov became a company commander in the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment under Alexander Suvorov. He took part in crushing the Polish Bar Confederation rebellion, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 he served in the staff of Pyotr Rumyantsev at Moldova for the battles of Larga and Kagul. In July 1774 at Crimea, Kutuzov was severely wounded by a bullet went through his temple and out near his right eye.
He returned to Crimea in 1776 to assist Suvorov and conducted negotiations with the last Crimean khan Girey, convincing him to abdicate, after Kutuzov became Governor-General of Crimea in 1787, the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 began. He was again wounded in 1788 during the Siege of Ochakov when a bullet was shot through both of his temples. Kutuzov came back a year later, taking part in the Battle of Rymnik, near the end of the war, he led a decisive charge at the Battle of Măcin. Kutuzov was on terms with Tsar Paul, but had disputes with his successor Tsar Alexander. In 1805, he led Russian forces alongside Austria during the Napoleonic Wars, the allied Russo-Austrian army was defeated by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. Alexander blamed Kutuzov and demoted him to Moldova for the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812, Kutuzov vanquished a four-times larger Turkish army at Rousse and brought an end to the war with a decisive victory at the Battle of the Danube. For his achievements, he was awarded the titles of count, Kutuzov returned at the request of Alexander for the French invasion of Russia.
He was appointed Commander-in-Chief, succeeding Barclay de Tolly and continuing his scorched earth policy up to Moscow, under Kutuzovs command, the Russian army faced the Grande Armée at the Battle of Borodino. He allowed Napoleon to take an abandoned Moscow, which was set on fire. Kutuzov counter-attacked once Napoleon retreated from Moscow, pushing the French out of the Russian homeland, in recognition of this, Kutuzov was awarded the victory title of Prince Smolensky
The rank has lived on as a surname in Russia and Romania, and in Finland, where it is spelled Pajari. Also known as bolyar, the various names in other languages include Bulgarian, боляр or болярин, Ukrainian, буй or боярин, Russian, боя́рин. Multiple different derivation theories of the word have been suggested by scholars and linguists, such as it having possible roots from old Turkic, bai and är. Another possible etymology of the term it may come from the Romanian word boi, the title entered Old Russian as быля. It was probably transformed through boilar or bilyar to bolyar and bolyarin, a member of the nobility during the First Bulgarian Empire was called a boila, while in the Second Bulgarian Empire, the corresponding title became bolyar or bolyarin. Bolyar, as well as its predecessor, was a hereditary title, the Bulgarian bolyars were divided into veliki and malki. Presently in Bulgaria, the word bolyari is used as a nickname for the inhabitants of Veliko Tarnovo—once the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
In medieval Serbia, the rank of the Boyars was equivalent to the rank of the Baron, meaning free warrior, with the rule of the Ottoman Empire after 1450, the Ottoman as well as the Austro-Hungarian terms exchanged the Serbian one. Today, it is a term representing the aristocracy. Boyars 9th - 13th centuries, wielded power through their military support of the Kievan princes. Power and prestige of many of them, soon came to depend almost completely on service to the state, family history of service and, to a lesser extent, land ownership. Boyars of Kievan Rus were visually similar to knights, but after the Mongol invasion. The boyars occupied the highest state offices and, through a council and they received extensive grants of land and, as members of the Boyars Duma, were the major legislators of Kievan Rus. After the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the boyars from central and southern parts of Kievan Rus were incorporated into Lithuanian, during the 14th and 15th centuries, the boyars of Moscow had considerable influence that continued from the Muscovy period.
However, starting with the reign of Ivan III, the boyars were starting to lose that influence to the tsars in Russia. Because of Ivan III’s expansionist policies, administrative changes were needed in order to ease the burden of governing Muscovy, the face of provincial rule disappeared. What is interesting about the boyars is their implied duties, because boyars were not constitutionally instituted, much of their powers and duties came from agreements signed between princes. Agreements, such as one between Ivan III and Mikhail Borisovich in 1484 showed how allegiances needed to be earned and secured, instead of the grand prince personally overseeing his lands, he had to rely on his lieutenants and close advisors to oversee day-to-day operations
Mikhail Ivanovich Scotti or Michele Pietro Scotti was a Russian history and religious painter of Italian ancestry. He received his education at Saint Catherines catholic school. After his fathers death, he was adopted and raised by the artist, Alexei Yegorov and he audited classes at the Imperial Academy of Arts, and was awarded a silver medal for drawing from life. He graduated with a medal in 1835. For a time, he worked on the Shepelev estate, near Ardatov, giving drawing lessons and painting icons. Shortly after, he went to Italy, by way of Germany with Count Pavel Kutaisov, chairman of the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts and that year, he painted icons for the Russian Orthodox chapel at the embassy in Istanbul. In 1845, he created series of icons for Saviour Cathedral in Nizhny Novgorod. After 1849, he went to Moscow to replace Fyodor Zavyalov as a teacher and inspector at the Moscow School of Painting and his students there included Konstantin Makovsky, Nikolai Nevrev, Vasily Perov and Sergei Gribkov.
He continued to paint numerous religious works, notably at the Annunciation Church in Saint Petersburg, under the direction of its designer, in 1857, he began to travel, visiting Italy and France. He died in Paris after a brief, sudden illness and was buried at the Père Lachaise Cemetery, the painter Mikhail Scotti, by Lyudmila Markina @ Наше Наследие Flowers for the Madonna. On the bicentenary of Mikhail Scottis birth from the Tretyakov Gallery magazine
Vasili IV of Russia
Vasili IV of Russia was Tsar of Russia between 1606 and 1610 after the murder of False Dmitriy I. His reign fell during the Time of Troubles and he was the only member of House of Shuysky to become Tsar and the last member of the Rurikid dynasty to rule. He was a son of Ivan Andreyevich Shuisky, born Prince Vasili Ivanovich Shuisky, he was descended from sovereign princes of Nizhny Novgorod and a 20th generation male line descendant of the Varangian prince Rurik. He was one of the boyars of Tsardom of Russia during the reigns of Feodor I. In all the intrigues of the Time of Troubles and his younger brother Dmitry Shuisky usually acted together. Shuisky reported that it was a case of suicide, though rumors abounded that the Tsarevich had been assassinated on the orders of the regent Boris Godunov. Some suspected that Dmitry escaped the assassination and that boy was killed in his place. Shuisky recognized the pretender as the real Dmitry despite having earlier determined the boy had committed suicide, Shuisky conspired against the false Dmitriy and brought about his death.
After stating publicly that the real Dmitriy had indeed been slain and he reigned until 19 July 1610, but was never generally recognized. Even in Moscow itself he had little or no authority, in 1610, he was deposed by his former adherents Princes Vorotynsky and Mstislavsky. He was made a monk and eventually transported together with his two brothers to Warsaw by the Polish hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski and he died a prisoner in the castle of Gostynin, near Warsaw, in 1612, followed soon by his brother Dmitry. There they were forced to perform the Shuysky Tribute before the Polish King, the Romanovs, elected in 1613, did recognize Vasili posthumously as a legal tsar, and during their negotiations with the Polish authorities constantly demanded the right to rebury his body in Russia. Following the Treaty of Polyanovka in 1635, Vasilis remains were returned to Moscow. His first wife, Elena Mikhailovna Repnina, died prior his election to tsardom, after his coronation, Vasili remarried Princess Ekaterina Buynosova-Rostovskaya, whose name was changed to Maria, deemed more suitable for a tsarina consort.
They had two daughters together, Princesses Anna and Anastasia of all the Russias, but both died in infancy during their fathers reign, and were buried in the Old Maidens Convent in Kremlin. As both brothers of Vasili, Princes Dmitri Shuisky and Ivan Shuisky the Button, died childless, the future Tsar Vasili IV serves as a character in Alexander Pushkins blank verse drama Boris Godunov and Modest Mussorgskys opera of the same name. In both depictions, the character is an adviser to Boris Godunov and a master of palace intrigue, Pushkin described his intention to write further plays about the Time of Troubles. About Vasili Shuisky, Pushkin wrote, I intend to return to Shuisky also, in the historical account he shows a singular mixture of audacity and strength of character
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c.1585 to 1598 and as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. The end of his reign saw Russia descend into the Time of Troubles, Boris Godunov was the most noted member of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar origin, which came from the Horde to Kostroma in the early 14th century. This legend is written in the annals dating from early 17th century and he was descended from the Tatar Prince Chet, who went from the Golden Horde to Russia and founded the Ipatiev Monastery in Kostroma. Boris was the son of Feodor Ivanovich Godunov Krivoy and his wife Stepanida Ivanovna and his older brother Vasily died young and without issue. Godunovs career began at the court of Ivan the Terrible and he is mentioned in 1570 for taking part in the Serpeisk campaign being an archer of the guard. The following year, he became an oprichnik – a member of Ivans personal guard, in 1570/1571, Godunov strengthened his position at court by his marriage to Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya, the daughter of oprichniks head Malyuta Skuratov-Belskiy.
In 1580, the Tsar chose Boris Godunovs sister Irina Godunova to be the wife of his son and eventual heir. On this occasion, Godunov was promoted to the rank of Boyar, on 15 November 1581, he was present at the scene of the Tsars murder of his own eldest son, the crown prince Ivan. Godunov tried to intervene, but received blows from the Tsars sceptre, the elder Ivan immediately repented and Godunov rushed to get help for the Tsarevich, who died four days later. Upon his death, Ivan left the three-year-old Dmitry Ivanovich, from his seventh, since the Orthodox Church recognized legitimate only his first three marriages, and any offspring thereof, Dmitri had no claim to the throne. Still, taking no chances, shortly after Ivans death the Council had both Dmitri and his mother Maria Nagaya moved to Uglich, some 120 miles north of Moscow and it was there in 1591 that Dmitri died at the age of ten. An official commission headed by Vasili Shuiski was sent to determine the cause of death, the official verdict was that the boy had cut his throat during an epileptic seizure.
Ivans widow claimed that her son had been murdered by Godunovs agents, Godunovs guilt was never established and shortly thereafter Dmitris mother was forced to take the veil. Dmitry Ivanovich was laid to rest and promptly, though temporarily, when Nikita died in 1586, Boris had no serious rival for the regency. A conspiracy of other boyars and of Dionysius II, Metropolitan of Moscow, the attempt proved unsuccessful, and the conspirators were banished or sent to monasteries. After that, Godunov remained supreme in Russia and he corresponded with foreign princes as their equal and his policy was generally pacific and always prudent. In 1595, he recovered from Sweden some towns lost during the former reign, five years previously he had defeated a Tatar raid upon Moscow, for which he received the title of Konyushy, an obsolete dignity even higher than that of Boyar. He supported a faction in the Crimea and gave the emperor subsidies in his war against the sultan
A conflagration is a large and destructive fire that threatens human life, animal life, and/or property. It may be described as a blaze or simply a fire, a conflagration can begin accidentally, be naturally caused, or intentionally created. Arson can be for fraud, sabotage or diversion, a firestorm can form as a consequence of a very large fire, in which the central column of rising heated air induces strong inward winds, which supply oxygen to the fire. Conflagrations can cause casualties including deaths or injuries from burns, trauma due to collapse of structures and attempts to escape, firefighting is the practice of attempting to extinguish a conflagration, protect life and property, and minimize damage and injury. One of the goals of fire prevention is to avoid conflagrations, when a conflagration is extinguished, there is often a fire investigation to determine the cause of the fire. A destructive fire, usually an extensive one a very intense and uncontrolled fire a large disastrous fire During a conflagration a significant movement of air, hot gaseous products of combustion move upward, causing the influx of more dense cold air to the combustion zone.
Sometimes, the influx is so intense that the fire grows into a firestorm, inside a building, the intensity of gas exchange depends on the size and location of openings in walls and floors, the ceiling height, and the amount and characteristics of the combustible materials. Industrial conflagrations include fires at oil refineries, such as the 2009 Cataño oil refinery fire. One or several fire in forests or other areas, i. e. wildfire, may grow up into or unite to a conflagration. An urban conflagration moves beyond a block. In some ships, a large uncontained fire may lead to a ship conflagration. The conflagration of a building is known as a structure fire, an asteroid more than 4.3 miles in diameter colliding with the Earth, spewing out enough ejecta to cause a global conflagration
The zemsky sobor was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. The term roughly means assembly of the land and it could be summoned either by tsar, or patriarch, or the Boyar Duma. The Holy Sobor of high Orthodox clergy, the first zemsky sobor was held by tsar Ivan the Terrible in 1549. During his reign he held a number of gatherings and they became a common tool used to enact major pieces of legislation or to decide controversial issues. Although the Sobors were primarily a tool used to rubberstamp decisions that Ivan had already made, sometimes initiative was taken by the lower nobility, for instance, the tsar was scandalized when the assembly of 1566 asked him to abolish the Oprichnina. When the Rurik Dynasty died out in 1598 it was a sobor that appointed Boris Godunov as the next tsar, another grand council, featuring even peasants, elected Mikhail Romanov to take the throne in 1613 after the Time of Troubles. During Mikhails reign, when the Romanov dynasty was still weak, once the Romanovs were firmly in power, the sobor gradually lost its power.
A major council assembled to ratify the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654 was the last for thirty years, the last sobors were held by the great Galitzine in 1682, to abolish the mestnichestvo, and in 1684, to ratify the Eternal Peace with Poland. Four years after the death of the last Russian tsar, on July 23,1922, dieterichs of the Far Eastern White Army convened the Zemsky Sobor of Amur region in Vladivostok. This sobor, calling to all Russian people to repent for the overthrow of the tsar, patriarch Tikhon was named as the honorary chairman of the sobor. Two months the Amur region fell to the Bolsheviks, Земские соборы The encyclopedia Brockhaus and Efron, Moscow,1993