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Dobro

Dobro is an American brand of resonator guitars owned by Gibson and manufactured by its subsidiary Epiphone. The term "dobro" is used as a generic trademark for any wood-bodied, single-cone resonator guitar; the Dobro was a guitar manufacturing company founded by the Dopyera brothers with the name "Dobro Manufacturing Company". Their guitars designs, with a single outward-facing resonator cone, was introduced to compete with the patented inward-facing tricone and biscuit designs produced by the National String Instrument Corporation; the Dobro name appeared on other instruments, notably electric lap steel guitars and solid body electric guitars and on other resonator instruments such as Safari resonator mandolins. The roots of Dobro story can be traced to the 1920s when Slovak immigrant and instrument repairman/inventor John Dopyera and musician George Beauchamp were searching for more volume for his guitars. Dopyera built an ampliphonic for Beauchamp, patented in December 1929. In mid-1929, Dopyera left the National company to start the "Dobro Manufacturing Company" along with his brothers Rudy and Ed, Vic Smith.

National continued operating under Barth et al.. Dobro is a word meaning ` good' in their native Slovak. An early company motto was "Dobro means good in any language." In 1930, the Dobro company name was changed to the "Dobro Corporation, Ltd.", with additional capital provided by Louis and Robert Dopyera. Dobro was, during this period, a competitor of National; the Dobro was the third resonator guitar design by John Dopyera, the inventor of the resonator guitar, but the second to enter production. Unlike his earlier tricone design, which had three ganged inward-facing resonator cones, the Dobro had a single outward-facing cone, with its concave surface facing up; the Dobro company described this as a bowl shaped resonator. The Dobro was cheaper to produce. In Dopyera's opinion, the cost of manufacture had priced the resonator guitar beyond the reach of many players, his failure to convince his fellow directors at the National String Instrument Corporation to produce a single-cone version was a motivating factor for leaving.

Since National had applied for a patent on an inward-facing single cone, Dopyera developed a design that reversed its direction: Rather than having the guitar’s bridge rest on the apex of the cone as the National design did, it rested on an eight legged cast aluminum spider sitting on the perimeter of the cone. In the following years both Dobro and National built a wide variety of metal- and wood-bodied single-cone guitars, while National continued with the Tricone for a time. Both companies sourced many components from National director Adolph Rickenbacher, John Dopyera remained a major shareholder in National. By 1932 the Dopyera brothers had gained control of both National and Dobro, which they merged to form the "National-Dobro Company". By the 1940s, National-Dobro had been purchased by Valco. Valco ceased production of Dobro-branded guitars after World War II. In 1964, the Dopyera brothers revived the Dobro brand name, they sold the name to Semie Moseley in 1966. In 1970, the Dopyeras' Original Musical Instrument Company yet again reacquired the Dobro name.

The Gibson Guitar Corporation acquired OMI in 1993, along with the Dobro name. The company became Gibson's Original Acoustic Instruments division, production was moved to Nashville in 2000. Dobros are manufactured by Gibson subsidiary Epiphone; the Dobro was first introduced to country music by Roy Acuff. The first and second prototypes of the Dobro created by the brothers reside at the invention’s birthplace of Taft, California, in a museum about the town’s oil production history; the term "dobro" is used as a form of generic trademark to describe resonator guitars. Gibson, owns the registered trademark Dobro, uses it for its own product line. Current and past models resonator guitars manufactured by the Gibson Company are: Hound Dog Round neck Deluxe round neck Deluxe square neck M-14 metal body Gibson's Phil Leadbetter resonator series History of the Pre-War Dobro by Randy Getz Dobro Birthplace

Delta IV Heavy

The Delta IV Heavy is an expendable heavy-lift launch vehicle, the largest type of the Delta IV family and the world's second highest-capacity rocket in operation. It is manufactured by United Launch Alliance and was first launched in 2004; the Delta IV Heavy consists of a central Common Booster Core, with two additional CBCs as liquid rocket boosters instead of the GEM-60 solid rocket motors used by the Delta IV Medium+ versions. At lift off, all three cores operate at full thrust, 44 seconds the center core throttles down to 55% to conserve fuel until booster separation; the boosters burn out at 242 seconds after launch and are separated as the core booster throttles back up to full thrust. The core burns out 86 seconds and the second stage completes the ascent to orbit; the Delta IV line of rockets was developed by McDonnell Douglas United Launch Alliance. The Delta IV Heavy is the most powerful member of the line, which includes the smaller Delta IV Medium; the Delta IV Heavy can lift 28,370 kg to low Earth orbit and 13,810 kg to geostationary transfer orbit.

It is an all liquid-fueled rocket, consisting of an upper stage, one main booster and two strap-on boosters. The first launch of the Delta IV Heavy in 2004 carried a boilerplate payload and failed to reach intended orbit. Cavitation in the liquid-oxygen propellant lines caused shutdown of both boosters eight seconds early, the core engine nine seconds early; the payload was left in a lower than intended orbit. Its first operational payload was the DSP-23 satellite launched in 2007. In December 2014, the Delta IV Heavy was used to launch an uncrewed test flight of the Orion spacecraft, designated EFT-1. After several delays on December 4, the mission was launched at 12:05 UTC on December 5. Capacity of the Delta IV Heavy: Low Earth orbit, 200 km × 28.7°: 28,790 kg Low Earth orbit, 407 km × 51.6°: 25,980 kg Geosynchronous transfer orbit: 14,220 kg Geosynchronous orbit: 6,750 kg Lunar transfer orbit: 10,000 kg Mars transfer orbit: 8,000 kg The Delta IV Heavy's total mass at launch is 733,000 kg.

The following missions have been announced by the National Reconnaissance Office. As of August 2019 these are the final five missions. Current: Ariane 5 Falcon Heavy Long March 5 Proton-MDevelopment: Angara A5 New GlennRetired or cancelled: Atlas V Heavy Saturn IB Titan III Titan IV Heavy-lift launch vehicle Comparison of orbital launch systems Comparison of orbital rocket engines Comparison of space station cargo vehicles National Launch System, study Delta IV Booster Integration Another Step Toward First Orion Flight

Robinson's Landing

Robinson's Landing was a location in Baja California, Mexico. It lay on the west bank of the Colorado River northwest of the north tip of Montague Island in the Colorado River Delta, 10 miles above the mouth of the river on the Gulf of California. Named for David C. Robinson, it was the place where cargo was unloaded in the river from seagoing craft on to flatbottomed steamboats and carried up to Fort Yuma and points further north on the river from 1852 onward. Joseph C. Ives, described it as it was in 1858, in his 1861 Report upon the Colorado river of the West The river here was subject to a severe tidal bore that formed in the estuary about Montague Island and propagated upstream and could on occasion swamp barges and ships. By 1865, a better location was found, ships offloaded their cargos on the east bank of the river at Port Isabel, northeast of Montague Island. 17 miles from Robinson's landing and 57 miles below Port Famine. Steamboats of the Colorado River Explorations and Surveys. War Department.

Map No. 1. Rio Colorado of the West, explored by 1st Lieut. Joseph C. Ives, Topl. Engrs. under the direction of the Office of Explorations and Surveys. A. A. Humphreys, Capt. Topl. Engrs. in Charge, by order of the Hon. John B. Floyd, Secretary of War. 1858. Drawn by Frhr. F. W.v. Egloffstein. Topographer to the Expedition. Topography by Frhr. F. W.v. Egloffstein. Ruling by Samuel Sartain. Lettering by F. Courtenay. From www.davidrumsey.com, David Rumsey Historical Map Collection website, accessed December 1, 2011. 1st Lieut. Joseph C. Ives Map of the Colorado River showing location of Robinsons Landing and other settlements along the Colorado River in 1858. Robinson's Mouth of Colorado River. Colorado Exploring Expedition. General Report - Plate I. J. J. Young from a photograph by Lieut. Ives. Lith. of Sarony, Major & Knapp, 449 Broadway N. Y. from davidrumsey.com October 27, 2014

Weird machine

The concept of weird machine is a theoretical framework to understand the existence of exploits for security vulnerabilities. Exploits exist empirically, but were not studied from a theoretical perspective prior to the emergence of the framework of weird machines. In computer security, the weird machine is a computational artifact where additional code execution can happen outside the original specification of the program, it is related to the concept of weird instructions, which are the building blocks of an exploit based on crafted input data. While expected, valid input activates the normal, intended functionality in a computer program, input, unexpected by the program developer may activate unintended functionality; the weird machine consists of this unintended functionality that can be programmed with selected inputs in an exploit. In a classical attack taking advantage of a stack buffer overflow, the input given to a vulnerable program is crafted and delivered so that it itself becomes executed as program code.

However, if the data areas of the program memory have been protected so that they cannot be executed directly like this, the input may instead take the form of pointers into pieces of existing program code that become executed in an unexpected order to generate the functionality of the exploit. These snippets of code that are used by the exploit are referred to as gadgets in the context of return-oriented programming. From a theoretical perspective, the emergence of weird machines becomes clear when one considers software as a way to *restrict* the number of reachable states and state transitions of a computer: The general-purpose CPU is, through software, specialized to simulate a finite-state machine. Many states the CPU could be in are excluded, certain state transitions are ruled out - for example those that violate the security desiderata of the software; when the system is somehow moved into a state that "makes no sense" when viewed from the perspective of the intended finite-state machine, the software will keep transforming the broken state into new broken states, triggered by further user input.

A new computational device arises: The weird machine which can reach different states of the CPU than the programmer anticipated, which does so in reaction to inputs. Through interpretation of data as code, weird machine functionality, by definition outside the original program specification can be reached by proof-carrying code, formally proven to function in a certain specific way; this disparity is caused by a disconnect between formal abstract modelling of a computer program and its real-world instance, which can be influenced by events that are not captured in the original abstraction, such as memory errors or power outages. Two central categories of mitigation to the problems caused by weird machine functionality include input validation within the software and protecting against problems arising from the platform on which the program runs, such as memory errors. Input validation aims to limit the scope and forms of unexpected inputs e.g. through whitelists of allowed inputs, so that the software program itself would not end up in an unexpected state by interpreting the data internally.

Secure programming practices such as protecting against buffer overflows make it less that input data becomes interpreted in unintended ways by lower layers, such as the hardware on which the program is executed. Exploit Stack buffer overflow Return-oriented programming Software Security, Lecture 1: How software breaks

The Manchu Eagle Murder Caper Mystery

The Manchu Eagle Murder Caper Mystery is a 1975 comedy-mystery film starring former "Bowery Boys" members Gabriel Dell and Huntz Hall, Jackie Coogan, Joyce Van Patten. The film is a parody of the 1941 film noir The Maltese Falcon starring Humphrey Bogart; the cast includes Barbara Harris, Anjanette Comer, Will Geer, Sorrell Booke, Vincent Gardenia, Nita Talbot and Nicholas Colasanto. The film was directed by Hargrove, it was released by United Artists. An incompetent mail-order private eye, aided by a chicken hatchery owner, is called upon to solve the murder of the mail-order private eye’s nutty milkman, who it is discovered had a secret life where he practiced various animal fetishes. Gabriel Dell as Malcolm Huntz Hall as Deputy Roy Will Geer as Dr. Simpson Anjanette Comer as Arlevia Jessup Joyce Van Patten as Ida Mae Vincent Gardenia as Big Daddy Jessup Barbara Harris as Miss Helen Fredericks Sorrell Booke as Dr. Melon Dick Gautier as Oscar Cornell Jackie Coogan as Detective Chief Anderson Nita Talbot as Jasmine Cornell Nicholas Colasanto as Bert List of American films of 1975 The Manchu Eagle Murder Caper Mystery on IMDb

Choerophryne exclamitans

Choerophryne exclamitans is a species of frogs in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to Papua New Guinea and only known from two locations on the slopes of Mount Shungol in the Morobe Province, it might be more distributed. Adult males measure 15–21 mm and females 18–22 mm in snout–vent length; the snout is bluntly rounded. The eyes are moderately large. In males, the tympanum is hidden; the dorsum and the sides are tan, mottled with dark brown or black. Females are lighter than most males; the venter is peppered with light gray. The iris is bronze; the male advertisement call is a rapid series of 3–48 peeping notes, emitted at an average rate of 4.7 notes per second. The dominant frequency is about 3.4 kHz. Choerophryne exclamitans live in lowland hill forests at elevations of 750–1,100 m above sea level, they have been observed on the upper leaf surfaces of shrubs or vines some 1 to 3 meters above the ground. Males call at night. No significant threats to this species are known, it is moderately common but not known from any protected area