The Coasters are an American rhythm and blues/rock and roll vocal group who had a string of hits in the late 1950s. Beginning with "Searchin'" and "Young Blood", their most memorable songs were written by the songwriting and producing team of Leiber and Stoller. Although the Coasters originated outside of mainstream doo-wop, their records were so imitated that they became an important part of the doo-wop legacy through the 1960s; the Coasters were formed on October 12, 1955 when only two of The Robins were willing to go to Atlantic Records, those two were dubbed The Coasters because they went from West to East coast. The Robins were a Los Angeles–based rhythm-and-blues group that included Carl Gardner and Bobby Nunn; the original Coasters were Gardner, Billy Guy, Leon Hughes, the guitarist Adolph Jacobs. Jacobs left the group in 1959; the songwriting team of Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller started Spark Records and in 1955 produced "Smokey Joe's Cafe" for the Robins. The record was popular enough for Atlantic Records to offer Leiber and Stoller an independent production contract to produce the Robins for Atlantic.
Only two of the Robins—Gardner and Nunn—were willing to make the move to Atlantic, recording their first songs in the same studio as the Robins had done. In late 1957, the group moved to New York and replaced Nunn and Hughes with Cornell Gunter and Will "Dub" Jones; the new quartet was from on stationed in New York, although all had Los Angeles roots. The Coasters' association with Leiber and Stoller was an immediate success. Together they created a string of good-humored "storytelling" hits that are some of the most entertaining from the original era of rock and roll. According to Leiber and Stoller, getting the humor to come through on the records required more recording "takes" than for a typical musical number, their first single, "Down in Mexico", was an R&B hit in 1956 and appears on the soundtrack of Quentin Tarantino's Death Proof. The following year, the Coasters crossed over to the pop chart in a big way with the double-sided "Young Blood"/"Searchin'". "Searchin'" was the group's first U.
S. Top 10 hit and topped the R&B chart for 13 weeks, becoming the biggest R&B single of 1957. "Yakety Yak", featuring King Curtis on tenor saxophone, included the famous lineup of Gardner, Guy and Gunter, became the act's only national number 1 single, topping the R&B chart. The next single, "Charlie Brown", reached number 2 on both charts, it was followed by "Along Came Jones", "Poison Ivy", "Little Egypt". Changing popular tastes and changes in the group's lineup contributed to a lack of hits in the 1960s. During this time, Billy Guy was working on solo projects. Members included Earl "Speedo" Carroll, Ronnie Bright, Jimmy Norman, guitarist Thomas "Curley" Palmer; the Coasters signed with Columbia Records' Date label in 1966, reuniting with Leiber and Stoller, but never regained their former fame. In 1971, the Coasters had a minor chart entry with "Love Potion Number Nine", a song that Leiber and Stoller had written for the Coasters but instead gave to the Clovers in 1959. In Britain, a 1994 Volkswagen TV advertisement used the group's "Sorry But I'm Gonna Have To Pass", which led to a minor chart placement in that country.
In 1987, the Coasters became the first group inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, crediting the members of the 1958 configuration. The Coasters joined the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. Several groups used the name in the 1970s, touring throughout the country, though original member Carl Gardner held the legal rights to it. Gardner continued to tour with the Coasters and made many attempts to stop bogus groups with no connection to the original group using the name. In late 2005, Carl's son Carl Gardner Jr. took over as lead with the group when his father retired. The Coasters' lineup consisted of Carl Gardner Jr. J. W. Lance, Primo Candelara, Eddie Whitfield. Carl Jr. left this group and has started his own group with Curley Palmer. Carl's widow Veta owns the rights to the Coasters name. Leon Hughes is the last surviving member of the original Coasters and performs with his own group; some of the former members suffered tragic ends. The saxophonist King Curtis was stabbed to death by two junkies outside his apartment building in 1971.
Cornelius Gunter was shot to death while sitting in a Las Vegas parking garage in 1990. Nate Wilson, a member of one of Gunter's offshoot Coasters groups, was shot and his body dismembered in 1980. Former manager Patrick Cavanaugh was convicted of the murder, which took place after Wilson threatened to notify authorities of Cavanaugh's intent to buy furniture with stolen checks. Cavanaugh was convicted of the murder and given the death sentence in 1984, but his sentence was commuted to life in prison, he died at 60 in 2006, in Ely State Prison, in Nevada. The Coasters continue to appear on "oldies" shows and PBS specials as old favorites and are available for bookings; the hits list below is from Joel Whitburn's Top R&B Singles and from the Pop positions published in Bill Millar's book The Coasters. Carl Gardner published his autobiography, Carl Gardner: Yakety Yak I Fought Back: My Life With The Coasters, in 2007; the Coasters' recordings produced by Leiber and St
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Little Sister (Elvis Presley song)
"Little Sister" is a rock and roll song written by Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman. It was released as a single in 1961 by American singer Elvis Presley, who enjoyed a No. 5 hit with it on the Billboard Hot 100. The single reached No. 1 in the UK Singles Chart. Lead guitar was played by Hank Garland, with backing vocals by the Jordanaires featuring the distinctive bass voice of Ray Walker. Presley performs the song as part of a medley with "Get Back" in the 1970 rockumentary film Elvis: That's the Way It Is; the song would be covered by such artists as Dwight Yoakam, Robert Plant, The Nighthawks, The Staggers, Pearl Jam, Ry Cooder. Cooder's version was a number-one hit in New Zealand; the song lyric makes mention of "Jim Dandy", the title of a 1956 song "Jim Dandy" by LaVern Baker. An answer song to "Little Sister", with the same melody but different lyrics, was recorded and released under the title "Hey, Memphis" by Baker on Atlantic Records in September 1961. Recorded in RCA Studio B, Tennessee, June 25, 1961.
Acoustic guitar, Scotty Moore Electric guitar, Hank Garland Bass, Bob Moore Drums, D. J. Fontana and Buddy Harman Organ, Floyd Cramer Vocals, The Jordanaires The music video for Dwight Yoakam's 1987 version of "Little Sister" was directed by Sherman Halsey. Christian parody band ApologetiX recorded a parody of the song, called "Little Esther", for their 1993 debut album Isn't Wasn't Ain't. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The Brill Building is an office building located at 1619 Broadway on 49th Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, just north of Times Square and further uptown from the historic musical Tin Pan Alley neighborhood. It is famous for housing music industry offices and studios where some of the most popular American songs were written, it is considered to have been the center of the American music industry that dominated the pop charts in the early 1960s. The building is 11 stories and has 175,000 square feet of rentable area. Named after the son of its builder, Abraham E. Lefcourt, the "Brill" name comes from a haberdasher who operated a store at street level and subsequently bought the building; the Brill Building was purchased by 1619 Broadway Realty LLC in June 2013 and has been undergoing renovation during the 2010s. Before World War II it became a center of activity for the popular music industry music publishing and songwriting. Scores of music publishers had offices in the Brill Building.
Once songs had been published, the publishers sent song pluggers to the popular bands and radio stations. These song pluggers would sing and/or play the song for the band leaders to encourage bands to play their music. During the ASCAP strike of 1941, many of the composers and publishers turned to pseudonyms in order to have their songs played on the air. Brill Building songs were at the top of Billboard's Hit Parade and played by the leading bands of the day: The Benny Goodman Orchestra The Glenn Miller Orchestra The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra The Tommy Dorsey OrchestraPublishers included: Leo Feist Inc. Lewis Music Publishing Mills Music Publishing The Brill Building's name has been adopted as a shorthand term for a broad and influential stream of American mainstream popular song which enjoyed great commercial success in the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s. Many significant American and international publishing companies, music agencies, recording labels were based in New York, although these ventures were spread across many locations, the Brill Building was regarded as the most prestigious address in New York for music business professionals.
The term "The Brill Building Sound" is somewhat inaccurate, since much of the music so categorized emanated from other locations — music historian Ken Emerson nominates buildings at 1650 Broadway and 1697 Broadway as other significant bases of activity in this field. By 1962 the Brill Building contained 165 music businesses: A musician could find a publisher and printer, cut a demo, promote the record and cut a deal with radio promoters, all within this one building; the creative culture of the independent music companies in the Brill Building and the nearby 1650 Broadway came to define the influential "Brill Building Sound" and the style of popular songwriting and recording created by its writers and producers. Carole King described the atmosphere at the "Brill Building" publishing houses of the period: Every day we squeezed into our respective cubby holes with just enough room for a piano, a bench, maybe a chair for the lyricist if you were lucky. You'd sit there and write and you could hear someone in the next cubby hole composing a song like yours.
The pressure in the Brill Building was terrific—because Donny would play one songwriter against another. He'd say: "We need a new smash hit"—and we'd all go back and write a song and the next day we'd each audition for Bobby Vee's producer; the Brill Building approach—which can be extended to other publishers not based in the actual Brill Building—was one way that professionals in the music business took control of things in the time after rock and roll's first wave. In the Brill Building practice, there were no more rebellious singers; these songs were written to order by pros who could custom fit the music and lyrics to the targeted teen audience. In a number of important ways, the Brill Building approach was a return to the way business had been done in the years before rock and roll, since it returned power to the publishers and record labels and made the performing artists themselves much less central to the music's production. Many of the best works in this diverse category were written by a loosely affiliated group of songwriter-producer teams—mostly duos—that enjoyed immense success and who collectively wrote some of the biggest hits of the period.
Many in this group were close friends and/or married couples, as well as creative and business associates—and both individually and as duos, they worked together and with other writers in a wide variety of combinations. Some had hits with their own music. Other musicians who were headquartered in The Brill Building: Among the hundreds of hits written by this group are "Yakety Yak", "Save the Last Dance for Me", "The Look of Love", "Breaking Up Is Hard to Do", "Devil in Disguise", "The Loco-Motion", "Supernatural Thing", "We Gotta Get Out of This Place", "River Deep, Mountain High"; the following is a partial list of studio musicians who contributed to the Brill Building sound: Arrangers/Conductors: Teacho Wiltshire, Garry Sherman, Alan Lorber, Jimmy Wisner, Artie Butler, Claus Ogerman, Stan Applebaum. Bass: Georg
Blues is a music genre and musical form, originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1870s by African Americans from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs and the folk music of white Americans of European heritage. Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and rhymed simple narrative ballads; the blues form, ubiquitous in jazz and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove. Blues as a genre is characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars.
Early blues took the form of a loose narrative relating the racial discrimination and other challenges experienced by African-Americans. Many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa; the origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. The first appearance of the blues is dated to after the ending of slavery and the development of juke joints, it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century; the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a wide variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience white listeners.
In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock developed, which blended blues styles with rock music. The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning sadness; the phrase blue devils may have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the "intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal". As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, "it came to mean a state of agitation or depression." By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. In lyrics the phrase is used to describe a depressed mood, it is in this sense of a sad state of mind that one of the earliest recorded references to "the blues" was written by Charlotte Forten aged 25, in her diary on December 14, 1862.
She was a free-born black from Pennsylvania, working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, wrote that she "came home with the blues" because she felt lonesome and pitied herself. She overcame her depression and noted a number of songs, such as Poor Rosy, that were popular among the slaves. Although she admitted being unable to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs "can't be sung without a full heart and a troubled spirit", conditions that have inspired countless blues songs; the lyrics of early traditional blues verses often consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called "AAB" pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars. Two of the first published blues songs, "Dallas Blues" and "Saint Louis Blues", were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure.
W. C. Handy wrote; the lines are sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody. Early blues took the form of a loose narrative. African-American singers voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, hard times"; this melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook on life when they were enslaved. The lyrics relate troubles experienced within African American society. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: "Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine."Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could be humorous and raunchy: "Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, Rebecca, get your big legs off of m
Songwriters Hall of Fame
The Songwriters Hall of Fame was founded in 1969 by songwriter Johnny Mercer and music publisher/songwriter Abe Olman and publisher/executive Howie Richmond to honor those whose work represents and maintains the heritage and legacy of a spectrum of the most beloved songs from the world's popular music songbook. It not only celebrates these established songwriters, but is involved on the development of new songwriting talent through workshops and scholarships. There are many programs designed to discover new songwriters. Nile Rodgers serves as the organization's chairman; the Hall of Fame only existed as an online virtual collection until 2010, when it was first put on display as a physical gallery inside The Grammy Museum in Los Angeles. With an under-construction basement installation at the Brill Building in New York, the Hall does not have a permanent place and the awards are not televised. Through 2019, 461 individuals had been inducted into the SHOF. There are numerous examples of collaborating songwriters being inducted in unison, with each person being considered a separate entrant.
The inaugural year featured 120 inductees, many of whom had a professional partnership, such as Rodgers and Hammerstein. Burt Bacharach and Hal David followed in 1972. Betty Comden and Adolph Green were selected in 1980, Lieber and Stoller were inducted in 1985. John Lennon and Paul McCartney were inducted in 1989 along with Gerry Goffin and Carole King as well as Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil. Motown's Holland-Dozier-Holland team were honored the following year. Elton John and Bernie Taupin were among those chosen in 1992, the pop music group the Bee Gees had all three brothers inducted in 1994. 1995 saw Gamble and Huff. The Eagles' Glenn Frey and Don Henley were co-inductees in 2000. Queen was the first rock band to have all their band members inducted in 2003. Five members of Earth Wind & Fire were in the class of 2010, four members of Kool and the Gang were honored in 2018; the Abe Olman Publisher Award is given to publishers who have had a substantial number of songs that have become world-renowned and who have helped to further the careers and success of many songwriters.
1983 – Howard S. Richmond 1986 – Leonard Feist 1987 – Lou Levy 1988 – Buddy Killen 1990 – Charles Koppelman & Martin Bandier 1991 – Frank Military & Jay Morgenstern 1992 – Bonnie Bourne 1993 – Berry Gordy 1994 – Buddy Morris 1995 – Al Gallico 1996 – Freddy Bienstock 1997 – Gene Goodman 1998 – Irwin Z. Robinson 1999 – Bill Lowery 2000 – Julian Aberbach 2001 – Ralph Peer 2002 – Edward P. Murphy 2003 – Nicholas Firth 2004 – Les Bider 2005 – Beebe Bourne 2006 – Allen Klein 2007 – Don Kirshner 2008 – Milt Okun 2009 – Maxyne Lang 2010 – Keith Mardak 2012 – lance Freed The Board of Directors Award is presented to an individual selected by the SHOF Board in recognition of his or her service to the songwriting community and the advancement of popular music. 1986 – Jule Styne 1988 – Stanley Adams 1992 – Edward P. Murphy 1996 – Anna Sosenko & Oscar Brand 1997 – Thomas A. Dorsey The Contemporary Icon Award was established in 2015 to recognize songwriter-artists who attained an iconic status in pop culture.
The American singer Lady Gaga was the first artist to win the award. 2015 – Lady Gaga The Hal David Starlight Award, created in 2004, was renamed in honor of the SHOF Chairman for his longtime support of young songwriters. Award recipients are gifted songwriters who are at an apex in their careers and are making a significant impact in the music industry via their original songs. 2004 – Rob Thomas 2005 – Alicia Keys 2006 – John Mayer 2007 – John Legend 2008 – John Rzeznik 2009 – Jason Mraz 2010 – Taylor Swift 2011 – Drake 2012 – Ne-Yo 2013 – Benny Blanco 2014 – Dan Reynolds 2015 – Nate Ruess 2016 – Nick Jonas 2017 - Ed Sheeran 2018 - Sara Bareilles 2019 - Halsey The Howie Richmond Hitmaker Award is tailored for artists or "star makers" in the music industry who have been responsible for a substantial number of hit songs for an extended period of time, who recognize the importance of songs and their writers. 1981 – Chuck Berry 1983 – Rosemary Clooney & Margaret Whiting 1990 – Whitney Houston 1991 – Barry Manilow 1995 – Michael Bolton 1996 – Gloria Estefan 1998 – Diana Ross 1999 – Natalie Cole 2000 – Johnny Mathis 2001 – Dionne Warwick 2002 – Garth Brooks 2003 – Clive Davis 2008 – Anne Murray 2009 – Tom Jones 2010 – Phil Ramone 2011 – Chaka Khan 2014 – Doug Morris 2016 – Seymour Stein 2018 - Lucian Grainge The Johnny Mercer Award is the highest honor bestowed by the event.
It goes to writers inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame for having established a history of outstanding creative works. 1980 – Frank Sinatra 1981 – Yip Harburg 1982 – Harold Arlen 1983 – Sammy Cahn 1985 – Alan Jay Lerner 1986 – Mitchell Parish 1987 – Jerry Herman 1990 – Jerry Bock & Sheldon Harnick 1991 – Betty Comden & Adolph Green 1992 – Burton Lane 1993 – Jule Styne 1994 – Irving Caesar 1995 – Cy Coleman 1996 – Burt Bacharach & Hal David 1997 – Alan Bergman & Marilyn Bergman 1998 – Paul Simon 1999 – Stephen Sondheim 2000 – Jerry Leiber & Mike Stoller 2001 – Billy Joel 2002 – Michael Jackson 2003 – Jimmy Webb 2004 – Stevie Wonder 2005 – Smokey Robinson 2006 – Kris Kristofferson 2007 – Dolly Parton 2008 – Paul Anka 2009 – Holland–Dozier–Holland 2010 – Phil Collins 2011 – Barry Mann & Cynthia Weil 2013 – Elton John & Bernie Taupin 2014 – Kenneth Gamble & Leon Huff 2015 – Van Morrison 2016 – Lionel Richie 2018 – Neil Diamond 2019 – Carole Bayer Sager The Patron of the Arts is presented to influential industry executives who are not in the music business but are great supporters of the performing arts.
1988 – Martin Segal 1989 – Roger Enrico 1990 – Edgar Bronfman Jr. 1991 – Edwin M. Cooperman 1992 – Jon
A stage name is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers, such as actors, comedians and musicians. Such titles are adopted for a wide variety of reasons and may be similar or nearly identical to an individual's birth name. In some situations, a performer will adopt his or her title as a legal name, although this is not the case. Personal names or nicknames that make up the professional name should not be considered as a "fake name" like Lady Gaga: for example: Miley Cyrus: born Destiny Hope Cyrus, uses her personal nickname "Miley" and her maiden name "Cyrus" as her professional name, in 2018 she changed to Miley Ray Hemsworth. A performer will take a stage name because his/her real name is considered unattractive, dull, or unintentionally amusing, is difficult to pronounce or spell, has been used by another notable individual, or projects an undesired image. Sometimes a performer adopts a name, unusual or outlandish to attract attention. Other performers use a stage name; the equivalent concept among writers is called a nom de pen name.
In radio, the term "radio name" or "air name" is used. Some individuals who are related to a celebrity take a different last name so they are not perceived to have received undue advantage from their family connection. Examples of these include Joan Fontaine, Luka Bloom, Mike McGear. Sisters Loretta and Brenda Webb adopted the names Loretta Lynn, Peggy Sue, Crystal Gayle, respectively. Actor Nicolas Cage, born Nicolas Coppola, chose a new last name to avoid comparisons with his uncle, director Francis Ford Coppola, who gave him his big break in the movie Peggy Sue Got Married. Conversely, individuals who wish to receive benefit from their family connections may take that person's first or last name. For example, Lon Chaney Sr.’s son Creighton spent a number of years appearing in minor roles before renaming himself Lon Chaney, Jr. Actress Rebecca Isabelle Laemmle rechristened herself Carla Laemmle in reference to her uncle, Universal Studios head Carl Laemmle. Emilio Estevez and his sister Renee chose not to take their father Martin Sheen’s professional name and use their birth names.
Women who achieve fame after marriage use their married name as part of their professional name, ie. Kris Jenner while women who achieved fame before marriage continue to use their maiden name or a Hyphenated surname like Mariah Carey and Courteney Cox-Arquette. In some cases, the individual may adopt a stage name to avoid confusion with other family members who have similar names. Actor Mark Harmon uses his middle name professionally to avoid confusion with his father Heisman Trophy winner and former broadcaster Tom Harmon. Guilds and associations that represent actors, such as the Screen Actors Guild in the United States and British Actors' Equity Association in the United Kingdom, stipulate that no two members may have identical working names. An actor whose name has been taken must choose a new name. Notable examples include: David Tennant, born David McDonald, who said in an interview that he adopted the surname "Tennant" after seeing Neil Tennant in a copy of Smash Hits. Diane Keaton, whose birth name is Diane Hall, took her mother's maiden name as a stage name after learning that there was a registered actress named Diane Hall in the Actors' Equity Association.
Ugly Betty actress Vanessa Williams uses "Vanessa L. Williams" due to SAG guidelines, although the other actress with same first and last name is arguably less notable. David Walliams changed one letter in his surname due to there being another "David Williams". Terry O'Quinn of Lost fame changed his surname from Quinn to O'Quinn as another registered actor had the name Terrance Quinn. Long-time Simpsons writer and Futurama executive producer David X. Cohen changed his middle initial from S to X because there was a David S. Cohen registered with the Writer's Guild of America. In other cases, a middle name may be adopted in preference to changing a name. Examples include comedian Hugh Dennis born Peter Hugh Dennis, actor-comedian Hugh Laurie born James Hugh Calum Laurie, actor Timothy Carlton born Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch. In some cases, attaching a generational suffix is sufficient for guild rules. A person hoping to become successful as an entertainer who has a name identical to a name familiar to the public may change his/her name in order to avoid having his/her name evoke the other person with the same name.
For example, the actor/writer/director Albert Brooks was born Albert Einstein and changed his surname to avoid associations with the renowned physicist with the same name. Singer Katy Perry, born Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson, released her self-titled album under the name Katy Hudson, but used her mother's maiden name to avoid confusion with