The Docklands Light Railway is an automated light metro system opened in 1987 to serve the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. It reaches north to Stratford, south to Lewisham across the River Thames, west to Tower Gateway and Bank in the City of London financial district, east to Beckton, London City Airport, to Woolwich Arsenal south of the river; the system uses minimal staffing at major interchange stations. Similar proposals have been made for the Tube; the DLR is operated under a franchise awarded by Transport for London to KeolisAmey Docklands, a joint venture between transport operator Keolis and infrastructure specialists Amey plc. It was run for over 17 years by Serco Docklands, part of the Serco Group; the system is owned by Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of the London Rail division of Transport for London. In 2017/18 the DLR carried 121.8 million passenger journeys. It has been extended several times and further extensions are under consideration; the docks east of Central London began to decline in the early 1960s as cargo became containerised.
They had been connected to the national railway network via the London and Blackwall Railway, closed in 1966 for lack of traffic. The opening of the Tilbury container docks, further east in Essex rendered them redundant, in 1980 the government gained control of the now-derelict area; as early as 1972, consideration was given to. Travis Morgan & Partners were commissioned by the London Docklands Study Team to consider the issue, they proposed, among other recommendations, that a "minitram" people-mover system capable of carrying up to 20 people in each unit should be constructed to connect the Docklands with the planned Fleet line tube railway terminus at Fenchurch Street railway station. The Greater London Council formed a Docklands Joint Committee with the Boroughs of Greenwich, Newham and Tower Hamlets in 1974 to undertake the redevelopment of the area. A light railway system was envisaged, terminating either at Tower Hill Underground station or at Fenchurch Street, but both options were seen as too expensive.
Nonetheless, in 1976 another report proposed a conventional tube railway for the area and London Transport obtained Parliamentary powers to build a line from Charing Cross railway station to Fenchurch Street, Surrey Docks, the Isle of Dogs, North Greenwich and Custom House to Woolwich Arsenal. This was intended to be the second stage of the Fleet line –, renamed the Jubilee line, the first stage of which opened in 1979 from Stanmore to Charing Cross. However, when the Conservative Party came to power in May 1979 under Margaret Thatcher, the plans to extend the Jubilee line were halted and the new government insisted that a lower-cost option should be pursued; the government created the London Docklands Development Corporation in July 1981 to coordinate the redevelopment of the Docklands. The need to provide a cheap public transport solution led to it commissioning London Transport to evaluate a number of light rail options; the core of the route ran alongside the Great Eastern line out of London and south along the former London & Blackwall Railway line through the Isle of Dogs.
Three terminus options were proposed at the west end, at Tower Hill and Aldgate East. The Tower Hill option would have required a low-level interchange to be constructed alongside the existing Underground station, but this would have been a costly venture; the Minories option, a high-level station on the site of the old Minories railway station, was selected and became the current Tower Gateway DLR terminus. Aldgate East would have been the most ambitious of all of the options, as it envisaged a low-level connection with the District line that would have allowed DLR trains to run on Underground tracks to a variety of central London destinations. However, it became apparent that there was no capacity on the existing network for integrating the DLR into the Underground. Two southern terminus options were put forward, at Cubitt Town and Tiller Road, on the west side of Millwall Dock, with two possible routes to reach them. A "western" route would have run from the Westferry station alongside West Ferry Road via Cuba Street either terminating at Tiller Road or continuing over Millwall Docks Cut to a terminus at Cubitt Town.
The "central" option required the West India Docks to be infilled or bridged and would run down the middle of the peninsula, through what was at the time an area of derelict warehouses. This latter option was chosen, though the 1981 London Transport report warned that without extensive development around Canary Wharf the area would be "very isolated with poor traffic prospects" – as indeed it was, for a number of years; the contract for the initial system was awarded to GEC Mowlem in 1984 and the system was constructed from 1985 to 1987 at a cost of £77 million. The line was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 30 July 1987, passenger services began on 31 August; the initial system comprised two routes, from Tower Stratford to Island Gardens. It was elevated on disused railway viaducts or new concrete viaducts, adopted disused surface railway formations between Poplar and Stratford; the trains were automated, controlled by computer, had no driver. PSAs could take control of
Guillaume Matignon is a professional trading card game player from Bordeaux, France. He has earned numerous accolades during his career including the World of Warcraft TCG 2007 World Championship and the Magic: The Gathering 2010 World Championship. Guillaume Matignon started playing Magic: The Gathering in 1994. Guillaume claims to have received the 34th DCI number issued in France and to have played in France's first sanctioned event. In 2002, Matignon would meet fellow French player Guillaume Wafo-Tapa at the European Championship; that year Matignon moved to Wafo-Tapa's hometown of Nantes to study for three years. From there the two built a strong friendship preparing for events together. Matignon credits this friendship as a major source of his personal success and considers Wafo-Tapa to be his favorite player. Matignon's name first came to the attention of the Magic: The Gathering community as one of the men credited with designing Pierre Canali's Affinity deck, which he used to win Pro Tour Columbus 2005.
In particular, Matignon was credited with the addition of Meddling Mage to the deck, a card Canali said'made all the difference'. At this point Matignon had not met Canali, with Wafo-Tapa being the one to pass the decklist on to Canali. Matignon's personal breakout performance came at the 2006 France National Championship where he made the Top 8, losing to Selim Creiche in the quarterfinals. Matignon claims that this result made him more serious about Magic and he started to attend every Pro Tour. Matignon would continue to have great success at the France National Championships going on to win the 2007 event, take 3rd place in the 2009 event, take 2nd in the 2010 event; the French National teams that Guillaume has featured on in the Team World Championship have placed 43rd, 8th and 6th. Matignon's greatest success came in 2010, in which he reached the finals of Pro Tour San Juan, won the 2010 World Championship defeating long-time friend Guillaume Wafo-Tapa in the finals; these results combined with his 2nd place French Nationals finish and other strong finishes throughout the year resulted in Matignon coming in joint first place alongside Brad Nelson in the 2010 Player of the Year race.
This led to an unprecedented Pro Player of the Year tie-breaker contest. The 2010 Player of the Year race was decided in a special Player of the Year Match held at Pro Tour Paris 2011. Brad Nelson won the match 4-2 and became the official 2010 Pro Player of the Year, leaving Matignon to take second place. On 28 April 2011, the Magic: The Gathering website reported that Guillaume Matignon and fellow professional Magic: The Gathering player Guillaume Wafo-Tapa, had admitted responsibility for the leak of all the cards that would be contained in the upcoming New Phyrexia set. Matignon was apologetic about the leak, revealing that it was caused when he shared the'God Book' of all the cards in the set, which he had received in order to write an article on the set for French magazine Lotus Noir, with Wafo-Tapa; as a result, Guillaume Matignon was suspended from the DCI for three years, but reduced to one year. Guillaume Wafo-Tapa, Martial Moreau, David Gauthier were suspended until October 2012. Last updated: 5 September 2011Source: Event Coverage at Wizards.com Guillaume Matignon took part in the first World of Warcraft TCG World Championships in 2007.
The event took place from 30 November to 2 December in San Diego and featured over 400 participants. Matignon would go on to win the event becoming the inaugural World Champion and earning himself $100,000, the largest single prize in TCG history; as a result of this achievement, Guillaume Matignon is the current holder of the World Record for the'Greatest Cash Prize for a Trading Card Game'. Before winning the World Championships of WOW TCG, Guillaume won the National Championship in 2007
The tammar wallaby known as the dama wallaby or darma wallaby, is a small macropod native to South and Western Australia. Though its geographical range has been reduced since European colonisation, the tammar remains common within its reduced range and is listed as "Least Concern" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, it has been introduced to New Zealand and reintroduced to some areas of Australia where it had been eradicated. Skull differences distinguish tammars from Western Australia, Kangaroo Island and mainland South Australia, making them distinct population groups or different subspecies; the tammar is among the smallest of the wallabies in the genus Macropus. Its coat colour is grey; the tammar has several notable adaptations, including the ability to retain energy while hopping, colour vision and the ability to drink seawater. A nocturnal species, it spends daytime in shrubland, it is very gregarious and has a seasonal, promiscuous mating pattern. A female tammar can nurse a joey in her pouch while keeping an embryo in her uterus.
The tammar is a model species for research on marsupials, on mammals in general. It is one of many organisms to have had its genome sequenced; the tammar wallaby was seen in the Houtman Abrolhos off Western Australia by survivors of the 1628 Batavia shipwreck, recorded by François Pelsaert in his 1629 Ongeluckige Voyagie. It was first described in 1817 by the French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest, who gave it the name eugenii based on where it was found; the island's French name was given in honour of commander of the ship Naturaliste. The common name of the animal is derived from the thickets of the shrub locally known as tamma that sheltered it in Western Australia; the tammar is classified together with the kangaroos and several species of wallaby in the genus Macropus, in the subgenus Notamacropus with the other wallabies, all of which have a facial stripe. Fossil evidence of the tammar wallaby exists from the late Pleistocene era—remains were found in the Naracoorte Caves; the mainland and island dwelling tammars split from each other 7,000–15,000 years ago, while the South Australian and Western Australian animals diverged around 50,000 years ago.
The tammar wallabies on Flinders Island had greyer coats and thinner heads than the Kangaroo Island tammars, which are larger than the East and West Wallabi Islands animals. The island tammars were once thought to be a separate species from the mainland population. A 1991 examination of tammar skulls from different parts of the species' range found that populations can be divided into three distinct groups: one group made of populations from mainland Western Australia and West Wallabi Islands, Garden Island and Middle Island; the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation listed these populations as subspecies. One of the smallest wallaby species in the genus Macropus, the tammar wallaby features a small head and large ears with a long tail, thick at the base, it has dark grey-brown upperparts with paler grey highlights, rufous on the sides of the body and limbs in males, pale grey-buff underparts. The tammar wallaby exhibits significant sexual dimorphism, with the maximum recorded weight in males being 9.1 kg and maximum recorded weight in females is 6.9 kg.
The body length is 52 to 63 cm in females. Both males and females are about 45 cm in height; the tails of males range from those of females from 33 to 44 cm. As with most macropods, the tammar wallaby moves around by hopping; this species has a hopping frequency of 3.5 strides per second, with a stride length of 0.8 to 2.4 m. When hopping, proximal muscles at the knee and hip joints generate most of the power for each leap, which are delivered by multi-joint muscles at the ankle; as it lands, the energy of the jump is converted into strain energy made when its leg tendons are stretched. As it leaps back off the ground, the tammar can recover much of this energy for reuse though elastic recoil; the amount of energy stored in the tendons increases with the animal's speed and the weight of the load it is carrying. This is helpful for mothers carrying young, explains why tammars can increase their hopping speed without using more energy; the tammar shares this characteristic with other plains-dwelling macropods like the red kangaroo.
By comparison, rock wallabies, such as the yellow-footed rock-wallaby, have traded efficient energy saving for greater tendon thickness. The tammar has 50 ° binocular vision, it can distinguish black/white gratings of different widths and in different light conditions better than most other small mammals, such as rabbits. It is not as good as a cat or a human. Tammars appear to have some colour vision: its eyes have only blue sensitive and green sensitive photoreceptor cones, allowing it to see colour in the blue-green band of the colour spectrum, but not the longer wavelengths of the red-yellow band. In the band where it can see colour, it can differentiate between two mono