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Doctor Doom

Doctor Victor Von Doom is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, the character made his debut in The Fantastic Four #5; the monarch of the fictional nation Latveria, Doom is depicted both as a principal archenemy and ally of Mister Fantastic and the Fantastic Four, though he has come into conflict with other superheroes as well, including Spider-Man, Captain America, Iron Man, Doctor Strange, Black Panther, the X-Men, the Avengers. Doctor Doom was ranked #4 by Wizard on its list of the 101 Greatest Villains of All Time and #3 on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time. In a article, IGN would declare Doom as Marvel's greatest villain; the character has been adapted from the comics into several forms of media, including television series, video games, merchandise such as action figures and trading cards. Most notably, Doctor Doom has been portrayed in licensed Fantastic Four live-action feature films by Joseph Culp in Roger Corman's unreleased 1994 film.

Like many of Marvel's Silver Age characters, Doom was conceived by Jack Kirby. With the Fantastic Four title performing well and Kirby were trying to dream up a "soul-stirring…super sensational new villain." Looking for a name, Lee latched onto "Doctor Doom" as "eloquent in its simplicity — magnificent in its implied menace." Due to the rush to publish, the character was not given a full origin story until Fantastic Four Annual #2, two years after his debut. Jack Kirby modelled Doom with the armor standing in for that character's skeleton. Death is connected with the inhuman-like steel. Death is something without mercy, human flesh contains that mercy." Kirby further described Doom as being "paranoid", wrecked by his twisted face and wanting the whole world to be like him. Kirby went on to say that although "Doom is an evil person, he was …but through a flaw in his own character, he was a perfectionist." At one point in the 1970s, Kirby drew his interpretation of what Doom would look like under the mask, giving Doom only "a tiny scar on his cheek."

Due to this slight imperfection, Doom hides his face not from himself. To Kirby, this is the motivation for Doom's vengeance against the world. Typical of Lee's writing characterization of Doom is his arrogance. While the Fantastic Four had fought various villains such as the Mole Man, the Miracle Man, Namor the Sub-Mariner, Doom managed to overshadow them all and became the Fantastic Four's archnemesis. During the 1970s, Doom branched out to more Marvel titles such as Astonishing Tales, The Incredible Hulk, Super-Villain Team-Up, starting in 1975, as well as appearances in Marvel Team-Up, beginning with issue #42. Doom's origin was a feature in Astonishing Tales when his ties to the villain Mephisto were revealed. In 1976, Marvel and DC Comics collaborated on Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man, seeking to replicate that success the two companies again teamed the characters in Superman and Spider-Man in 1981. Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter co-wrote the story with Marv Wolfman, recalled choosing Victor Von Doom based on his iconic status: "I figured I needed the heaviest-duty bad guy we had to offer — Doctor Doom.

Their greatest hero against our greatest villain."The same year, John Byrne began his six-year run writing and illustrating Fantastic Four, sparking a "second golden age" for the title but attempting to "turn the clock back get back and see fresh what it was that made the book great at its inception." Doctor Doom made his first appearance under Byrne's tenure with issue #236. Whereas Kirby had intimated that Doom's disfigurement was more a figment of Victor's vain personality, Byrne decided that Doom's face was ravaged: only Doom's own robot slaves are allowed to see the monarch without his helmet. Byrne emphasized other aspects of Doom's personality. Returning to Latveria after being temporarily deposed, Doctor Doom abandons a scheme to wrest mystical secrets from Doctor Strange in order to oversee his land's reconstruction. Despite a tempestuous temper, Doom shows warmth and empathy to others. Byrne gave further detail regarding Doom's scarring: Byrne introduced the idea that the accident at Empire State University only left Victor with a small scar, exaggerated into a more disfiguring accident by Doom's own arrogance—by donning his newly forged face mask before it had cooled, he caused massive irreparable damage.

After Byrne's departure Doom continued to be a major villain in Fantastic Four, as the 1980s continued Doom appeared in other comics such as Punisher, The Spectacular Spider-Man, Excalibur. Under Fantastic Four writer Steven Englehart, Doom became exiled from Latveria by his heir Kristoff, brainwashed into thinking he was Victor Von Doom. Doom would spend most of his time in exile planning his return, but Englehart left the title before he could resolve the storyline; this storyline ended with the controversial Fantastic Four #350, where writer Walt Simonson had the Victor Von Doom, seen in the book during the Englehart run being revealed to be a robotic imposter and

Girl, Missing

Girl, Missing is an English-language YA thriller novel by Sophie McKenzie, published in 2006. It won the 2007 Bolton Children's Book Award, the 2008 Manchester Book Award and the 2007 Red House Children's Book Award for Older Readers, as well as being longlisted for the Carnegie Medal, it was one of the books picked for the Richard & Judy Children's Book Club. The main character is 14-year-old Lauren Matthews, who lives in London with Lydia and Dave, their son, Rory. Lauren is doing an essay for homework, called'Who Am I?'. It strikes Lauren that she doesn't know her true background. Eager to find out about her past, Lauren goes on a website called Missing-Children.com, finds an American girl named Martha Lauren Purditt, who went missing less than two months before Lauren was adopted. Lauren's friend, James'Jam' Caldwell comes around and Lauren tells him about the information she'd discovered on the website. After comparing the photograph of Martha with a photograph of herself as a toddler, one of herself now with an age-progressed photo, Lauren notices that she and the missing girl look alike, which led her into believing that she might be Martha Lauren Purditt.

That night she hears her adoptive parents talking about her downstairs saying they will let her see "the diary" when she is 16 years old that will tell her information about her adoption. A few days she goes into the attic discreetly, looks through the diary, where she finds that she was adopted from Marchfield Adoption Agency in Vermont, run by Taylor Tarsen. After persuading her family to go on a holiday to a theme park in America, they travel to America, leaving her dad behind for work issues and taking Jam in his place. While Lauren's mother and Rory are waiting to change planes and Jam sneak off without anyone knowing and get a plane to Burlington, Vermont. Once the plane lands and Jam get a bus to Marchfield, meet with Taylor Tarsen, the owner of the agency, he refuses to show Lauren her adoption file, but when Lauren mentions Sonia Holtwood, Taylor tells Lauren she was looked after by Sonia before she was adopted, gives her $150 so she and Jam can stay in a motel. Jam informs Lauren that he found out where Lauren's adoption file is, the two stay in a motel for the night.

That night and Jam break into Marchfield Adoption Agency and find Lauren's adoption file, but all, in it is an address on a scrap of paper. Lauren and Jam get a taxi to the address; when they arrive at what they believe to be Sonia Holtwood's flat, they discover that Sonia moved out years ago but that an young,good looking woman called Sona that still lives there. She remembers when Sonia was there, invites them Lauren and Jam into her flat as she has recognised Lauren's face as used to babysit Lauren when she lived in the flat with Sonia. Sona tells Lauren that as a toddler Lauren smiled, but looked pretty when she did. On one of these occasions, Sona attempted to photograph Lauren but Sonia came bursting in, furious and left with Lauren the day after. Lauren and Jam set out to find Sonia, they run into a female police officer named Suzanna Sanders, who offers to take them on a ride in her car. Lauren accepts. However, after a brief discussion with Lauren, he decides to come with her. Once in the car, Suzanna gives them orange juice, drugged and both Lauren and Jam begin to feel sleepy, so they drift off.

Hours they wake up and find that their phones and belongings have been taken away. Beginning to feel suspicious, they ask Suzanna where they demand to be let out of the car, it is from here. Lauren finds out that Sonia is a hostile woman who took Lauren away from her real family at the age of 3. Sonia dumps them in the middle of nowhere and takes off with their phones and belongings. Luckily for the pair, a man called Glane takes them to his log cabin. Glane takes them to Boston, where he works. Lauren goes on the internet to find out more about Martha Lauren Purditt, she discovers that Martha's parents were Sam Purditt who live in Evanport. Seeing her determination to go there, Glane offers to take her to Evanport. Arriving at her destination, Lauren meets the Purditts: Annie and their two daughters Shelby and Madison; when Lauren tells them that she thinks she might be Martha, Annie is the only one who believes her, while the others are sceptical. They consider taking a DNA test, to see if Lauren is part of their family.

Meanwhile, Lauren's adoptive family visit her and confess that they didn't mean to steal her from her real family. The DNA results confirm that Lauren is indeed the daughter of Sam Purditt. Although they are her biological parents, she doesn't fit in with them, except for Madison, she learns from her parents' lawyer that her adoptive family have been accused of abduction and are in prison. Still missing her adoptive family Lauren has a row with Annie, accusing her that Annie doesn't love her. Annie replies that she stopped living after Lauren went missing. After Lauren moves in with Shelby and Madison, her two sisters, she sees that Annie is a bit extreme in her emotions. Lauren likes Sam much better than Annie, but the person she likes best is her grandmother, who understands her much better than either of her parents. Lauren realises that her sisters' personalities seem to be the opposite of each other: while Shelby is rude and has a lot of attitude as doesn't seem to get on with anyone in

Nasher (Kharoti clan)

The Nasher are a noble Afghan family and Khans of the Pashtun Kharoti tribe. The family is from Qarabagh, Ghazni but founded modern day Kunduz in the early 20th century and lived there until the end of the Barakzai dynasty in the late 20th century. Members of the family now live in the United States, in the United Kingdom, in Germany; the Nasher are linked to the ancient Ghaznavid dynasty. The Ghaznavids were a Turko-Persian dynasty of Mamluk origin who carved out an empire, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Persia, much of Transoxania, the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186 A. D; when the Ghaznavid dynasty was defeated in 1148 by the Ghurids, the Ghaznavid Sultans continued to live in Ghazni. It has been suggested that they became known as the Nasher though no evidence of continuous lineage has been found; the earliest certain mention of the Nasher was in 1120 A. H, when Ghilji Pashtun tribesmen under Khan Nasher overthrew Safavid rule to establish the Ghilji Hotaki dynasty, which controlled Afghanistan from 1719-1729 A.

D. and much of Persia from 1722-1729 until Nadir Shah of Persia seized power in the Battle of Damghan. The Nasher lived as Khans of the Kharoti, a Pashtun tribe of Ghilji origin with an estimated population of about 5.5 million, making it one of the largest, if not the largest tribe in Afghanistan, with significant territory throughout eastern and south-eastern Afghanistan: Ghazni, Paktia, Logar, Wardak and Nangarhar. After the great Ghilji rebellion in 1885-1886, led by Alam Khan Nasher, the Nasher family was exiled by the ruling Barakzai King Amir Abdur Rahman Khan in order to weaken his nemesis. Sher Khan Nasher, Khan of the Kharoti soon became governor of the Kunduz district launched an industrialisation campaign, founding the Spinzar Company, with major urban development and construction programmes. Economic development transformed Kunduz into a thriving city with new residential housing and hospitals for the factory workers. Sher Khan Nasher implemented Qizel Qala harbour, named Sher Khan Bandar in his honour.

As his power grew and he controlled the whole north of Afghanistan, the throne was within his reach, why there are theories that he was poisoned by the Barakzai king. Several schools were named after him, with many high-profile graduates, such as Hekmatyar, Farhad Darya Nasher, Dr. Saddrudin Sahar and Suleman Kakar Muhammad Nasher Khan was the governor of Badakshan in the 1930s. Sher Khan's nephew and stepson Ghulam Sarwar Nasher developed Spinzar further, employing over 20,000 people and maintaining construction companies, a porcelain factory and hotels in Kunduz and throughout Afghanistan. Long before he became a radical, Nashir sent fellow Kharoti Hekmatyar to Kabul's Mahtab Qala military academy in 1968, as he considered him to be a promising young man. After he was expelled from the Mahtab Qala, Nasher imprisoned him for toying with Communist ideology. On a hunting trip, Nashir discovered ancient artefacts of Ai Khanom and invited Princeton-archaeologist Daniel Schlumberger with his team to examine Ai-Khanoum.

It was soon found to be the historical Alexandria on the Oxus possibly named اروکرتیه or Eucratidia), one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. Some of those artefects were displayed in Europe and USA museums in 2004. Nashir was awarded "The Order of the Sacred Treasure" by the Emperor of Japan, in 1971, among other awards; the current governor of the Kunduz district is Nizamuddin Nasher Khan, considered to be the "last scion of a legendary Afghan dynasty" still living in Kunduz, as members of the family are now living in England and the United States. The most populer Afghan singer, Farhad Darya Nasher, is a grandson of Sher Khan. Sher Khan Nasher Loe Khan founder of Spinzar Cotton Company and founding father of Kunduz Gholam Serwar Nasher Khan, president of Spinzar Cotton Company Gholam Nabi Nasher Khan, parliamentarian Gholam Rabani Nasher Khan, member of the Loya Jirga Farhad Darya Nasher Khan and composer Jack Nasher Khan, business psychologist Sher Khan Bandar, largest port of Afghanistan Qal`eh-ye Nasher Sher Khan High School, Kunduz Sher Khan Dry Port School, Northern Kunduz province Nasher Museum, Kunduz Dupree, Louis: Afghanistan Emadi, Hafizullah: Dynamics of Political Development in Afghanistan.

The British and American Invasions Meher, Jagmohan: Afghanistan: Dynamics of Survival Runion, Meredith L.: The History of Afghanistan Tanwir, Halim M.: AFGHANISTAN: History and Journalism An Introduction to the Commercial Law of Afghanistan, Second Edition, Afghanistan Legal Education Project at Stanford Law School http://www.royalark.net/Afghanistan/telai.htm