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Doctor of Letters

Doctor of Literature is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be equal to the Ph. D. and equal to the Doctor of Science. It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits. In some countries it is regarded as the highest degree of education; when awarded without an application by the conferee, it is awarded as an honorary degree. In the United Kingdom, Australia and the Republic of Ireland, the degree is a higher doctorate, above the Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Education, for example, is issued on the basis of high achievement in the respective field or a long record of research and publication; the Litt. D. degree is awarded to candidates whose record of published work and research shows conspicuous ability and originality and constitutes a distinguished and sustained achievement. University committee and board approval is required, candidates must provide documented mastery of a particular area or field.

The degree may be awarded honoris causa to such individuals as the university or the learned body in question deems worthy of this highest academic award. At the University of Oxford, the degree was established in 1900 as part of the development of graduate-level research degrees that began with the introduction of the B. Litt. and B. Sc. degrees in 1895. Up until that point, Oxford had focused on undergraduate teaching, with the doctorates, such as those in divinity and medicine traditionally reserved for established scholars; the German paradigm, adopted by the Americans, that created a demand for the philosophiae doctor degree as a basic qualification for an academic career was not adopted at Oxford, but it did create pressure for Oxford to offer a degree for this purpose. Rather than use the D. Litt. Degree, Oxford created its doctor of philosophy degree in 1915, deliberately using a distinctive English, rather than a Latin and abbreviation for it; the D. Phil. became an accelerated, lower-status degree to the D.

Litt. When it was established in 1900, the Oxford doctor of Literature, degree could be awarded to individuals who had a standing of thirty-four terms from the award of a B. Litt. Degree, or of thirty-nine terms from the award of an Oxford master of arts M. A. degree, providing they could provide "fitness for the degree in published books or papers, containing an original contribution to the advancement of learning." The length of the required number of terms changed over the years, depending on the prior Oxford degree that a candidate held, the requirements became more specific. By 2015, The Oxford University Examination Regulations called for a faculty board at Oxford to "appoint judges to consider the evidence submitted by any candidate, to report thereon to the board. In making their report the judges shall state whether the evidence submitted constitutes an original contribution to the advancement of knowledge of such substance and distinction as to give the candidate an authoritative status in some branch or branches of learning."

Between 1923 and 2016, Oxford awarded 219 D. Litt. Degrees, of which 196 were awarded to men and 23 to women. Among the six higher doctoral degrees at Oxford, the D. Litt. Comprised 27.5% of the higher doctorates awarded during this 93-year period. In June 2016, the Oxford D. Litt. was suspended, pending a reform of the higher doctorates. The reforms were completed in June 2018 and applications reopened in September 2018; the new regulations reduced the higher doctorates to five by dropping the Doctor of Medicine as a higher doctorate. The standards for the remaining doctorates, including the D. Litt. Require the judges "to consider whether the evidence submitted demonstrates excellence in academic scholarship and is: a) of the absolute highest quality. There is, however, an earned D. Litt. Program at Drew University. In France the doctorat is awarded with a speciality. Candidates for a doctorat in literature are awarded a Doctorat ès lettres, abbreviated Dr ès l. There is a higher degree, the Habilitation à diriger des recherches, obtained following different rules in each field.

In literature, the candidates must present a new and unpublished work. The habilitation allows holders to apply for a position of professor in French universities. Before the 1950s, the now-abolished Doctorat d'État degree was called Doctorat ès lettres; the highest educational attainment at Sanskrit Colleges in India is the Vidya Vachaspati recognized as the equivalent to the Western D. Litt. Enrollment in a Vidya Vachaspati program requires both having publis

Scott Billington

Scott Billington is an American record producer, record company executive and blues musician. Billington's career began in Boston in the early 1970s, when he managed the New England Music City record store and edited the music magazine Pop Top, he was a member of the Boston Blues Society, which staged concerts by Son House, Mance Lipscomb, Johnny Shines and other first-generation bluesmen. In the mid 1970s he joined the staff of Rounder Records, where he first worked in the record label's sales and art departments. In 1978, he and author Peter Guralnick edited live Boston Blues Society tapes to produce the Johnny Shines' album, Hey-Ba-Ba-Re Bop, he began producing for musicians in genres of music such as blues, Cajun and zydeco. His 1981 production of bluesman Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown won the first Grammy Award for Rounder Records. In the mid-1980s, he created the Modern New Orleans Masters Series for Rounder. Over the years, he has produced Charlie Rich, Solomon Burke, Johnny Adams, The Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Soul Rebels Brass Band, Irma Thomas, James Booker, Tangle Eye, Girl Authority among other artists on Rounder and other labels.

His records have won a total of 11 Grammy ® nominations. As a harmonica player, Billington has recorded with Irma Thomas, Boozoo Chavis, Sleepy LaBeef, Johnette Downing, Theryl deClouet and others, he has toured with Nathan Williams & the Zydeco Cha Chas, a Louisiana-based zydeco band, appearing at the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival, the Efes Pilsen Blues Festival and the Montreal Jazz Festival. He played harmonica on the soundtrack to the Henry Fonda/Myrna Loy ABC-TV film, Summer Solstice, on the PBS-TV series Zoom and Nova. Billington's writing has appeared in Yankee, the Oxford American and The Boston Globe, he has written liner notes for many of his recordings. He has lectured at Harvard University, the New England Conservatory of Music, Loyola University, as well as at several Grammy in the Schools events; as a graphic designer and art director, Billington created hundreds of album covers for Rounder and other labels. Billington is employed as vice president of A&R for Rounder/Concord Records.

He lives in New Orleans with his wife, the children's musician and author Johnette Downing, with whom he performs as the duo Johnette and Scott. 2017 Grammy Award 2011 Offbeat Lifetime Achievement Award 2010 Grammy nomination 2007 Sweet Soul Music Award, awarded by the Porretta Soul Festival, Porretta Terme, Italy Grammy Award 2002 Keeping the Blues Alive Award for Producer, awarded by The Blues Foundation 1996 Offbeat Magazine Best Producer Award 1990 Nominated as Producer of the Year, Boston Music Awards 1989 Nominated as Producer of the Year, Boston Music Awards 1987 Communication Arts Magazine Award of Excellence 1985 Appointment as Colonel on the staff of Louisiana Governor Edwin W. Edwards 1984 Communication Arts Magazine Award of Excellence 1982 Grammy Award For complete credits please see 2013 Skydog: The Duane Allman Retrospective, Duane Allman Swamp People American Radical Patriot, Woody Guthrie 2012 Meet Me at Mardi Gras St. Peter & 57th St. Preservation Hall Jazz Band Twenty Dozen, The Dirty Dozen Brass Band Unlock Your Mind, The Soul Rebels 2010 Live in Boston, 1982, George Thorogood & the Destroyers 2009 My Dusty Road, Woody Guthrie GRAMMY® NOMINEE The Soul Queen of New Orleans: 50th Anniversary, Irma Thomas 2008 Pretty Runs Out, Amanda Shaw Simply Grand, Irma Thomas GRAMMY® NOMINEE 2007 City of Dreams: A Collection of New Orleans Music Road Trip, Girl Authority 2006 After the Rain, Irma Thomas GRAMMY® WINNER Girl Authority, Girl Authority Hang It High, Hang It Low, Nathan Williams & the Zydeco Cha Chas The Great Johnny Adams R&B Album, Johnny Adams 2005 A Celebration of New Orleans Music to Benefit the Musicares Hurricane Relief Daily Bread, Corey Harris The Complete Library of Congress Recordings, Jelly Roll Morton The Great Johnny Adams Blues Album, Johnny Adams 2004 Alan Lomax's Southern Journey Remixed, Tangle Eye Sense of Light, Clarence Bucaro Soul of the Night The Essential Collection, Bill Morrissey 2003 Box of the Blues 2002 Cajun Music: The Essential Collection Live!

The Loom's Desire, Laura Nyro Righteous! The Essential Collection, The Holmes Brothers Zydeco: The Essential Collection 2001 Any Woman's Blues Down Home on Dog Hill, Boozoo Chavis If You Want It

Palawa, Jharkhand

Palawa is a census town in Katkamsandi of Hazaribag district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. According to Google maps, Pelawal is located at 24.0244°N 85.3365°E / 24.0244. Palawa is not shown in Google maps; as per the map of Katkamsandi CD Block on page 116 of District Census Handbook Hazaribagh 2011, the location of Pelawa is same as that of Pelawal in Google maps. Pelawal police out-post serves the Katkamsandi CD Block; as per the 2011 Census of India Palawa had a total population of 14,848, of which 7,701 were males and 7,147 were females. Population below 6 years was 2,450; the total number of literates in Palawa was 9,503. As of 2001 India census, Palawa had a population of 9,757. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Palawa has an average literacy rate of 60%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 66%, female literacy is 53%. In Palawa, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Pelawal is on the Hazaribagh-Katkamsandi Road, located between Hazaribagh and Chharwa Dam