Doctrine and Covenants

The Doctrine and Covenants is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. Published in 1835 as Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of the Latter Day Saints: Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God, editions of the book continue to be printed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ; the book contained two parts: a sequence of lectures setting forth basic church doctrine, followed by a compilation of important revelations, or "covenants" of the church: thus the name "Doctrine and Covenants". The "doctrine" portion of the book, has been removed by both the LDS Church and Community of Christ; the remaining portion of the book contains revelations on numerous topics, most of which were dictated by the movement's founder Joseph Smith, supplemented by materials periodically added by each denomination. Controversy has existed between the two largest denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement over some sections added to the 1876 LDS edition, attributed to founder Smith.

Whereas the LDS Church believes these sections to have been revelations to Smith, the RLDS Church traditionally disputed their authenticity. The Doctrine and Covenants was first published in 1835 as a version of the Book of Commandments, printed in 1833; this earlier book contained 65 early revelations to church leaders, including Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery. Before many copies of the book could be printed, the printing press and most of the printed copies were destroyed by a mob in Missouri. On September 24, 1834, a committee was appointed by the general assembly of the church to organize a new volume containing the most significant revelations; this committee of Presiding Elders, consisting of Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. Williams, began to review and revise numerous revelations for inclusion in the new work; the committee organized the book into two parts: a "Doctrine" part and a "Covenants" part. The "Doctrine" part of the book consisted of a theological course now called the "Lectures on Faith".

The lectures were a series of doctrinal courses used in the School of the Prophets, completed in Kirtland, Ohio. According to the committee, these lectures were included in the compilation "in consequence of their embracing the important doctrine of salvation." The "Covenants" part of the book, labeled "Covenants and Commandments of the Lord, to his servants of the church of the Latter Day Saints", contained a total of 103 revelations. These 103 revelations were said to "contain items or principles for the regulation of the church, as taken from the revelations which have been given since its organization, as well as from former ones." Each of the 103 revelations was assigned a "section number". Thus, the sections of the original work were numbered only to 102. On February 17, 1835, after the committee had selected the book's contents, the committee wrote that the resulting work represents "our belief, when we say this, humbly trust, the faith and principles of this society as a body."The book was first introduced to the church body in a general conference on August 17, 1835.

Smith and Williams, two of the Presiding Elders on the committee, were absent, but Cowdery and Rigdon were present. The church membership at the time had not yet seen the Doctrine and Covenants manuscript as it had been compiled and revised by the committee. At the end of the conference, the church "by a unanimous vote" agreed to accept the compilation as "the doctrine and covenants of their faith" and to make arrangements for its printing. In 1835, the book was printed and published under the title Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of the Latter Day Saints: Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God. In the LDS Church, The Doctrine and Covenants of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints stands alongside the Bible, the Book of Mormon, The Pearl of Great Price as scripture. Together the LDS Church's scriptures are referred to as the "standard works"; the LDS Church's version of the Doctrine and Covenants is described by the church as "containing revelations given to Joseph Smith, the Prophet, with some additions by his successors in the Presidency of the Church."

The 138 sections and two official declarations in LDS Church's Doctrine and Covenants break down as follows: Sections 1–134, 137: From the presidency of Joseph Smith Sections 135–136: During the administration of the Quorum of the Twelve Official Declaration 1: From the presidency of Wilford Woodruff Section 138: From the presidency of Joseph F. Smith Official Declaration 2: From the presidency of Spencer W. Kimball The following sections are not revelations, but letters, reports and other similar documents: 102, 123, 127–131, 134, 135, Official Declarations 1 and 2. In 1844, the church added eight sections not included in the 1835 edition. In the current edition, these added sections are numbered 103, 105, 112, 119, 124, 127, 128, 135. In 1876, a new LDS Church edition renumbered most of the sections in a chronological order instead of the earlier topical order, included 26 sections not included in previous editions, now numbered as sections 2, 13, 77, 85, 87, 108–111, 113–118, 120–123, 125, 126, 129–132, 136.

Previous editions had been divided into verses with the early versifications following the paragraph structure of the original text. It was with the 1876 ed


Piktochart is a web-based infographic application which allows users without intensive experience as graphic designers to create infographics and visuals using themed templates. In March 2012, the first iteration of Piktochart was launched by co-founders, Goh Ai Ching and Andrea Zaggia in Penang, Malaysia. By the end of the same year, Piktochart grew its user base to more than 170,000 users and received a $140,000 grant from the Malaysian government’s Cradle Fund, as well as announcing that it had raised seed funding from a number of investors, its userbase grew with the addition of new formats such as reports and presentations which resulted in more than 3 million users in mid-2015. Piktochart is described by Forbes as an infographic tool for "the graphically challenged," or for those who are in a time-crunch; as of 2018, Piktochart has been used by more than 11 million people worldwide and has grown to become a semi-distributed team of 53 team members with the office based in Penang. Whereas companies like LucidChart, Trendalyzer and others had focused on data-representation tools that would be useful for intra-corporate collaboration as aids to speeches and presentations, for the creation of internal communications documents, Piktochart described itself as focused on empowering users to create infographics that would be web-publisher ready and able to stand alone as a piece of multimedia content.

Piktochart provides over 600 templates which users can edit, or by using more advanced functions, customize as desired. The current version of Piktochart, released in 2017, includes a HTML publisher which allows users to create visuals that can be viewed online or embedded to a website, as well as allowing the user to include multiple interactive elements such as charts, map visualization, animated icons. Infographics Data Visualization Official website

Sonic Pinball Party

Sonic Pinball Party is a video game released for Game Boy Advance in 2003. It is a celebration of sorts for Sonic Team featuring many references to its previous games Sonic. There was a release on a Twin Pack cartridge bundled with Sonic Battle and Sonic Advance in 2005; the story is set in Casinopolis, where Doctor Eggman turns the people gambling into robots, brainwashes Miles "Tails" Prower and Amy Rose. Sonic must rescue his friends by winning a pinball tournament called the "Egg Cup Tournament." Sonic Pinball Party is a pinball video game with the objective being to earn as many points as possible. During both the Story and Arcade Modes of the game, the player starts each match with three pinballs, each one shot onto the playfield from the plunger; when the pinball rolls into the hole on the bottom of the table, the player loses a ball and must try again with another. Losing all three pinballs ends the pinball match. Much like in Sonic the Hedgehog Spinball, the player can control each pinball on the table using the two flippers set on the lower part of the table or the lone flipper placed in the upper right side of the table.

The player can shake the pinball table in three directions. With these methods, the player can make the pinball sling and hit one of the pinball tables' targets in order to rack up points. Story Mode features five different matches, while the basic goal of Arcade Mode is to rack up points until the player has run out of balls. Depending on how well the player performs in the Arcade mode, his/her best scores can be listed in the Rankings. Rings/Blue Chips collected in either Story or Arcade Mode can be used to purchase Chao Eggs and similar objects in the Tiny Chao Garden or as currency to stake in the Casinopolis minigames. Sonic Pinball Party was published by Sonic Team; the game was first announced in January 2003 by Sega of Japan. The game was released in the United States on May 27, 2003, it was sold at Target stores. The game was re-released in 2005 in compilation collections for the Game Boy Advance with Sonic Adventure, Sonic Battle, Columns Crown. Sonic Pinball Party received positive reviews from critics and journalists alike, on Metacritic, it has a score of 77 out of 100 based on 15 reviews and on GameRankings it has a score of 79.38% based on 16 reviews.

GamePro praised the graphics and the gameplay, stating it to have "enough extras to keep any Sega fan enthralled." Frank Provo of GameSpot praised the game's overall gameplay and the artistic quality of pinball tables, while saying that the multiplayer mini-games were "welcome additions to the overall conglomeration that composes Sonic Pinball Party if they don't fit the premise of standard pinball."Craig Harris of IGN praised the game for the "virtual" aspect of the pinball gameplay and offering a huge amount of content, but criticized its lightweight physics which made it difficult to pull off skilled, bulls-eye shots, the Casino mini-games for not being balanced well. His overall statement was that Sonic Pinball Party was "a great game, but not quite a must-have." Christian Nutt of GameSpy was not satisfied with the game, stating that it was "serviceable enough pinball romp that's too focused on presenting a pseudo-realistic game without the technical clout to back it up."