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Documentary hypothesis

The documentary hypothesis is one of the models used by biblical scholars to explain the origins and composition of the Torah. More recent models include the fragmentary hypothesis. All agree that the Torah is not a unified work from a single author, but is made up of sources combined over many centuries by many hands; these models differ on the nature of these sources. The documentary hypothesis posited that the Pentateuch is a compilation of four independent documents: the Jahwist, Elohist and Priestly sources; the first of these, J, was dated to the Solomonic period. E was dated somewhat in the 9th century BCE, D was dated just before the reign of King Josiah, in the 7th or 8th century. P was dated to the time of Ezra in the 5th century BCE; the sources would have been joined together at various points in time by a series of editors or "redactors."A version of the documentary hypothesis identified with the German scholar Julius Wellhausen, was universally accepted for most of the 20th century, but the consensus has now collapsed.

This was triggered in large part by the influential publications of John Van Seters, Hans Heinrich Schmid, Rolf Rendtorff in the mid-1970s. These "revisionist" authors argued that J was to be dated no earlier than the time of the Babylonian captivity, rejected the existence of a substantial E source, they called into question the nature and extent of the three other sources. Van Seters and Rendtorff shared many of the same criticisms of the documentary hypothesis, but were not in complete agreement about what paradigm ought to replace it; as a result, there has been a revival of interest in fragmentary and supplementary approaches in combination with each other and with a documentary model, making it difficult to classify contemporary theories as one or another. Modern scholars see the completed Torah as a product of the time of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, although some would place its production in the Hellenistic period, after the conquests of Alexander the Great; the Torah is collectively the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Leviticus and Deuteronomy.

According to tradition they were dictated by God to Moses, but when modern critical scholarship began to be applied to the Bible it was discovered that the Pentateuch was not the unified text one would expect from a single author. As a result, the Mosaic authorship of the Torah had been rejected by leading scholars by the 17th century, the modern consensus is that it is the product of a long evolutionary process. In the mid-18th century, some scholars started a critical study of doublets and changes in style and vocabulary in the Torah. In 1780 Johann Eichhorn, building on the work of the French doctor and exegete Jean Astruc's "Conjectures" and others, formulated the "older documentary hypothesis": the idea that Genesis was composed by combining two identifiable sources, the Jehovist and the Elohist; these sources were subsequently found to run through the first four books of the Torah, the number was expanded to three when Wilhelm de Wette identified the Deuteronomist as an additional source found only in Deuteronomy.

Still the Elohist was split into Elohist and Priestly sources, increasing the number to four. These documentary approaches were in competition with two other models, the fragmentary and the supplementary; the fragmentary hypothesis argued that fragments of varying lengths, rather than continuous documents, lay behind the Torah. The supplementary hypothesis was better able to explain this unity: it maintained that the Torah was made up of a central core document, the Elohist, supplemented by fragments taken from many sources; the supplementary approach was dominant by the early 1860s, but it was challenged by an important book published by Hermann Hupfeld in 1853, who argued that the Pentateuch was made up of four documentary sources, the Priestly and Elohist intertwined in Genesis-Exodus-Leviticus-Numbers, the stand-alone source of Deuteronomy. At around the same period Karl Heinrich Graf argued that the Yahwist and Elohist were the earliest sources and the Priestly source the latest, while Wilhelm Vatke linked the four to an evolutionary framework, the Yahwist and Elohist to a time of primitive nature and fertility cults, the Deuteronomist to the ethical religion of the Hebrew prophets, the Priestly source to a form of religion dominated by ritual and law.

In 1878 Julius Wellhausen published Geschichte Israels, Bd 1. Crucially, this historical portrait was based upon two earlier works of his technical analysis: "Die Composition des Hexateuchs" of 1876/77 and sections on the "historical books" in his 1878 edition of Friedrich Bleek's Einleitung in das Alte Testament. Wellhausen's documentary hypothesis owed little to Wellh

Now or Never (Tank album)

Now or Never is the fourth studio album by American R&B singer Tank. It was released on December 14, 2010 via Atlantic Records following his departure from longtime label Blackground Records; the album debuted at number thirty five on the US Billboard 200 chart, with first-week sales of 44,000 copies. Since the album has sold a total of 215,000 copies in the United States; the album was to be released in Fall 2009, but wasn't due to Tank leaving Blackground Records in September 2009. Since late 2008, many songs have leaked that many believed were to be on the new album, but most, if not all, of the songs are unlikely to make the final track list. In June 2010, Tank signed a new deal with Atlantic Records and aggressively began to work on the album. June 29, 2010 saw the release of the album's first single, Sex Music; the original title for the album was Sex Love & Pain II: The All Night Experience was changed to All Night before settling on Now or Never The original release date of the album was to be September 21, 2010 was pushed to November 2, 2010 and now the final release date is December 14, 2010.

The album is set to feature guest artists such as Chris Brown. Production is to come from the likes of Jim Jonsin, The Stereotypes, Brandon Alexander, Rico Love, Harvey Mason, Jr. plus Tank and his production team, Song Dynasty. "It's a happier album, I'm appreciating more, I'm celebrating more," he admits in an interview with "The sexual experiences on the album are deep but they're not dark. It's a great moment on the album where I think everyone can ride and have a smile on their face." The album's first single, Sex Music, was released on June 8, 2010. It debuted at number 74 on Billboard's Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart; the video for "Sex Music" premiered on on August 5, 2010. The second single, "Emergency", was released on October 5, 2010


Sactoceras is an extinct nautiloid cephalopod that lived during the Ordovician and Silurian in what would become North America and Asia. The genus Sactoceras was named by Hyatt; the type species is Orthoceras richteri Barrande, 1874, which comes from the Upper Silurian Ludlow Series of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic. Hyatt named Sactoceras for actinocerid species in which siphuncle segments were much reduced in diameter relative to the diameter of the shell, noting that the "siphon becomes reduced... with age", which he interpreted as a "degradational senile shrinking". Barrande considered this to indicate a reversion to the simple siphuncle of the Orthoceratidae, which might be taken to indicate a relationship to the Proteoceratidae. Evans considered Sactoceras to be an orthocerid, placing it in the Pseudorthoceratoidea of Flower and Caster, 1935, in the family Sactoceratidae of Troedsson, 1926; the Pseudorthocerataceae is now regarded as a separate order, the Pseuorthocerida, within the superorder Orthoceratoidea of Wade, 1988.

Sactoceras is orthoconic straight-shelled. The cross section of the shell and that of the siphuncle are circular; the shell is moderate in size, reaching diameters of 35mm or so, expanding at a rate of around 6 to 9 degrees. Chambers are moderately long with septal spacing on the order of one-third the shell diameter. Sutures are transvese. Septal concavity varies from species to species; the siphuncle is central to subcentral in the early part of the phragmocone, but may diverge away from the center in growth stages. Segments are expanded, increasing from diameters of around 3 to 4 mm at the septal foremina to a maximum width of around 12 to 14 mm. Septal necks are cyrtochoanitic, outwardly curved and recumbent. Siphuncle segments, in some, are faintly tear-shaped in outline with the narrow end pointing back toward the apex. Deposits of organic calcite form at the septal formina which project forward into the subsequent chamber and line the inside of the siphuncle; these are more continuous on the ventral side of the siphuncle.

Cameral deposits are more extensive in the ventral half of the phragmocone. Fossil distribution is found from North America to Europe and Asia

Everett Silvertips

The Everett Silvertips are an American major junior ice hockey team members of the U. S. Division in the Western Conference of the Western Hockey League; the team is based in Everett and joined the WHL as an expansion team for the 2003–04 season. The team name comes from the silvertip bear; the team plays at Angel of the Winds Arena, a $71.5 million multipurpose complex built in 2003 that seats 8,300 for hockey. The team's mascot is Lincoln, a silvertip bear, named after the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln stationed at the time at Naval Station Everett. Notable NHL alumni from the team include Ryan Murray, Radko Gudas, Nikita Scherbak, Noah Juulsen, Byron Froese, Jujhar Khaira, Mirco Mueller, Zach Hamill and Carter Hart. Throughout their history, the team has developed heated rivalries with the Seattle Thunderbirds and Portland Winterhawks; the city of Everett, was awarded conditional approval for an expansion franchise from the Western Hockey League on September 18, 2001. The team, to begin play in the 2003–04 season at a new arena in Downtown Everett, would be named the "Silvertips" after the grizzly bears of the Pacific Northwest.

During the Silvertips' inaugural season in the U. S. Division of the WHL, the team solidified its place as one of the most successful expansion hockey teams in history after breaking a minimum of ten junior hockey records for an expansion team in its first year. Under the direction of General Manager Doug Soetaert and Head Coach Kevin Constantine, the team won the U. S. Division title with a record of 35–27–8–2, while setting a record for a first-year team in any of the major junior hockey leagues in the Canadian Hockey League by earning 80 points in the regular season standings, eclipsing the old record set by the 1982–83 Longueuil Chevaliers of the QMJHL. Constantine received the Dunc McCallum Memorial Trophy from the WHL as the 2003–04 Coach of the Year. In the 2004 playoffs, the Silvertips swept the Spokane Chiefs 4–0 in the first round before defeating the Vancouver Giants 4–2 in the Western Conference Semifinals; the team played the Kelowna Rockets, the regular season champions and reigning WHL champions, for the Western Conference title.

After falling behind in the series three games to one, the Silvertips improbably won three-straight games in overtime to win its first Western Conference title, earning the chance to play the Medicine Hat Tigers for the WHL championship. The Tigers, would go on to sweep the series in four-straight games, marking an end to the Silvertips' stellar first season. Fresh off the success of its successful inaugural season, the 2004–05 Silvertips team was the youngest in the League. At one time, the team had a minimum of eight 16-year-old rookies on the active game-day roster. With such youth and inexperience, the team was projected to falter, but nonetheless still managed to make the playoffs for a second consecutive season. After defeating the Portland Winter Hawks in seven games during a tough first-round playoff series, the Silvertips finished their second season in the WHL on a tough note by being swept by Kootenay 4–0 in the Western Conference Semifinals; the 2005–06 season marked the second time the team had won the U.

S. Division title, in only its third season of existence. After defeating the Tri-City Americans 4–1 in the first round of the WHL playoffs, the Kelowna Rockets 4–2 in the Western Conference Semifinals, the Silvertips' playoff run came to an end when the Silvertips were swept by Vancouver 4–0 in the Western Conference Finals. However, the Silvertips once again exceeded expectations by reaching the final four of the WHL playoffs for the second time in only three seasons of existence. Silvertips forward Peter Mueller won the Jim Piggott Memorial Trophy for top rookie in the League, becoming to the first Silvertips player to win the award; the 2006–07 regular season was the team's most successful to date. Everett entered the season as the pre-season number one team in the CHL "Top Ten" rankings; the team remained on the CHL "Top Ten" rankings list the entire regular season, being selected first overall for 13 of the 25 weeks the rankings were selected, never falling lower than fifth. Led by captain Jason Fransoo, the'Tips clinched a playoff berth a mere 48 games into the season and captured its third U.

S. Division title in only four years of existence; the team was awarded the Scotty Munro Memorial Trophy for having the best record in the WHL during the regular season, posting a record of 54–15–1–2. Silvertips forward Zach Hamill became the first Everett Silvertip to lead the WHL in points with 32 goals and 61 assists for 93 points, winning the Bob Clarke Trophy. Silvertips forward Kyle Beach won the Jim Piggott Memorial Trophy for top rookie in the League. Peter Mueller continued to provide plenty of offensive production, along with forwards Moises Gutierrez, Ondrej Fiala and Dan Gendur; the Silvertips received strong play from the grinding "Joe" Line of Brennan Sonne, Damir Alic and Jesse Smyke. It was a controversial season for Everett, beginning after a preseason loss in Tri-City. Coach Constantine was unhappy with the team's performance and made the players ride the bus back from Kennewick to Everett in their full hockey gear without a post-game meal. Constantine was fined and suspended by the WHL for his actions, although he claimed to have attended at least one home game by purchasing a ticket and watching from the stands.

The team had several line brawls throughout the season, including a memorable fight with the Vancouver Giants. Late in the season, the Silvertips were fined by the League after an altercation involving fans and the Portland Winter Hawks' bench. After defeating the Spokane Chiefs 4–2 in the first round of the WHL playoffs

Christopher Vogler

Christopher Vogler is a Hollywood development executive, screenwriter and educator, best known for working with Disney and his screenwriting guide, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers, from 2007. Born in Missouri, Vogler studied filmmaking at the USC School of Cinema-Television, the alma mater of George Lucas. Vogler has worked for Disney studios, Fox 2000 pictures, Warner Bros. in the development department. He contributed story material to the Disney animated feature The Lion King, he has taught in the USC School of Cinema-Television, Division of Animation and Digital Arts as well as at UCLA extension. He is President of the company Storytech Literary Consulting, it was founded in 1999 and its Vice President, Brad Schreiber, consults on scripts and books, utilizing Vogler's approach. Vogler, like Lucas, was inspired by the writings of mythologist Joseph Campbell The Hero with a Thousand Faces, which detailed the Hero's Journey archetype in classical mythology. Vogler used Campbell's work to create a 7-page company memo for Hollywood screenwriters, A Practical Guide to The Hero with a Thousand Faces, which Vogler developed into The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Storytellers and Screenwriters in 1992, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers.

Vogler has since spun off his techniques into worldwide Masterclasses. Official website Christopher Vogler on IMDb

Manual of arms

A manual of arms was an instruction book for handling and using weapons in formation, whether in the field or on parade. Such manuals were important in the matchlock and flintlock eras, when loading and firing was a complex and lengthy process carried out in close order; when capitalized, the term has reference to one of several important manuals, such as the British Army manual of 1764, the manual of Frederick the Great or Von Steuben's Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, adopted by the Continental Army in 1777. The positions and evolutions contained in such manuals have become the standard for parade drill throughout most of the world. Typical examples of rules and procedures can be found in the 1764 manual, it was used by both sides at the start of the American Revolution. Stance: stand straight, head right, shoulders square, stomach in, chest out, heels close, toes turned out a little. Holding the weapon: on the left shoulder and thumb to the side of the stock, the other three holding the butt.

Timing: each motion to be done on a count of "one, two". Such manuals contain various evolutions, such as the twelve or so steps needed to load and fire, steps for fixing bayonets, forming line, column or square. A second example is the manual used for training of Union troops in 1861. While not always dictating the stance, specific instructions were given for drawing on command, firing, cease-firing and returning the weapons to their carrying position