1.
Regular dodecahedron
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In geometry, a dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces. The most familiar dodecahedron is the dodecahedron, which is a Platonic solid. There are also three regular star dodecahedra, which are constructed as stellations of the convex form, all of these have icosahedral symmetry, order 120. The pyritohedron is a pentagonal dodecahedron, having the same topology as the regular one. The rhombic dodecahedron, seen as a case of the pyritohedron has octahedral symmetry. The elongated dodecahedron and trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron variations, along with the rhombic dodecahedra are space-filling, there are a large number of other dodecahedra. The convex regular dodecahedron is one of the five regular Platonic solids, the dual polyhedron is the regular icosahedron, having five equilateral triangles around each vertex. Like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve pentagonal faces. However, the pentagons are not constrained to be regular, and its 30 edges are divided into two sets – containing 24 and 6 edges of the same length. The only axes of symmetry are three mutually perpendicular twofold axes and four threefold axes. Note that the regular dodecahedron can occur as a shape for quasicrystals with icosahedral symmetry. Its name comes from one of the two common crystal habits shown by pyrite, the one being the cube. The coordinates of the eight vertices of the cube are, The coordinates of the 12 vertices of the cross-edges are. When h =1, the six cross-edges degenerate to points, when h =0, the cross-edges are absorbed in the facets of the cube, and the pyritohedron reduces to a cube. When h = √5 − 1/2, the inverse of the golden ratio, a reflected pyritohedron is made by swapping the nonzero coordinates above. The two pyritohedra can be superimposed to give the compound of two dodecahedra as seen in the image here, the regular dodecahedron represents a special intermediate case where all edges and angles are equal. A tetartoid is a dodecahedron with chiral tetrahedral symmetry, like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve identical pentagonal faces, with three meeting in each of the 20 vertices. However, the pentagons are not regular and the figure has no fivefold symmetry axes, although regular dodecahedra do not exist in crystals, the tetartoid form does
2.
Small stellated dodecahedron
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In geometry, the small stellated dodecahedron is a Kepler-Poinsot polyhedron, named by Arthur Cayley, and with Schläfli symbol. It is one of four regular polyhedra. It is composed of 12 pentagrammic faces, with five meeting at each vertex. It shares the vertex arrangement as the convex regular icosahedron. It also shares the same edge arrangement with the great icosahedron and it is the second of four stellations of the dodecahedron. It is central to two lithographs by M. C and its convex hull is the regular convex icosahedron. It also shares its edges with the great icosahedron, compound of small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron Small stellated dodecahedron programing Wenninger, Magnus. Weber, Matthias, Keplers small stellated dodecahedron as a Riemann surface,220, 167–182 Eric W. Weisstein, Small stellated dodecahedron at MathWorld
3.
Great dodecahedron
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In geometry, the great dodecahedron is a Kepler–Poinsot polyhedron, with Schläfli symbol and Coxeter–Dynkin diagram of. It is one of four regular polyhedra. It is composed of 12 pentagonal faces, with five meeting at each vertex. It shares the same arrangement as the convex regular icosahedron. If the great dodecahedron is considered as a properly intersected surface geometry, the excavated dodecahedron can be seen as the same process applied to a regular dodecahedron. A truncation process applied to the great dodecahedron produces a series of uniform polyhedra. Truncating edges down to points produces the dodecadodecahedron as a great dodecahedron. The process completes as a birectification, reducing the original faces down to points and this shape was the basis for the Rubiks Cube-like Alexanders Star puzzle. The great dodecahedron provides an easy mnemonic for the binary Golay code Compound of small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron Eric W. Weisstein, uniform polyhedra and duals Metal sculpture of Great Dodecahedron
4.
Great stellated dodecahedron
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In geometry, the great stellated dodecahedron is a Kepler-Poinsot polyhedron, with Schläfli symbol. It is one of four regular polyhedra. It is composed of 12 intersecting pentagrammic faces, with three meeting at each vertex. It shares its vertex arrangement with the regular dodecahedron, as well as being a stellation of a dodecahedron and it is the only dodecahedral stellation with this property, apart from the dodecahedron itself. Its dual, the icosahedron, is related in a similar fashion to the icosahedron. Shaving the triangular pyramids off results in an icosahedron, if the pentagrammic faces are broken into triangles, it is topologically related to the triakis icosahedron, with the same face connectivity, but much taller isosceles triangle faces. A truncation process applied to the great stellated dodecahedron produces a series of uniform polyhedra, truncating edges down to points produces the great icosidodecahedron as a rectified great stellated dodecahedron. The process completes as a birectification, reducing the original faces down to points, eric W. Weisstein, Great stellated dodecahedron at MathWorld
5.
Pyritohedron
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In geometry, a dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces. The most familiar dodecahedron is the dodecahedron, which is a Platonic solid. There are also three regular star dodecahedra, which are constructed as stellations of the convex form, all of these have icosahedral symmetry, order 120. The pyritohedron is a pentagonal dodecahedron, having the same topology as the regular one. The rhombic dodecahedron, seen as a case of the pyritohedron has octahedral symmetry. The elongated dodecahedron and trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron variations, along with the rhombic dodecahedra are space-filling, there are a large number of other dodecahedra. The convex regular dodecahedron is one of the five regular Platonic solids, the dual polyhedron is the regular icosahedron, having five equilateral triangles around each vertex. Like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve pentagonal faces. However, the pentagons are not constrained to be regular, and its 30 edges are divided into two sets – containing 24 and 6 edges of the same length. The only axes of symmetry are three mutually perpendicular twofold axes and four threefold axes. Note that the regular dodecahedron can occur as a shape for quasicrystals with icosahedral symmetry. Its name comes from one of the two common crystal habits shown by pyrite, the one being the cube. The coordinates of the eight vertices of the cube are, The coordinates of the 12 vertices of the cross-edges are. When h =1, the six cross-edges degenerate to points, when h =0, the cross-edges are absorbed in the facets of the cube, and the pyritohedron reduces to a cube. When h = √5 − 1/2, the inverse of the golden ratio, a reflected pyritohedron is made by swapping the nonzero coordinates above. The two pyritohedra can be superimposed to give the compound of two dodecahedra as seen in the image here, the regular dodecahedron represents a special intermediate case where all edges and angles are equal. A tetartoid is a dodecahedron with chiral tetrahedral symmetry, like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve identical pentagonal faces, with three meeting in each of the 20 vertices. However, the pentagons are not regular and the figure has no fivefold symmetry axes, although regular dodecahedra do not exist in crystals, the tetartoid form does
6.
Tetartoid
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In geometry, a dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces. The most familiar dodecahedron is the dodecahedron, which is a Platonic solid. There are also three regular star dodecahedra, which are constructed as stellations of the convex form, all of these have icosahedral symmetry, order 120. The pyritohedron is a pentagonal dodecahedron, having the same topology as the regular one. The rhombic dodecahedron, seen as a case of the pyritohedron has octahedral symmetry. The elongated dodecahedron and trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron variations, along with the rhombic dodecahedra are space-filling, there are a large number of other dodecahedra. The convex regular dodecahedron is one of the five regular Platonic solids, the dual polyhedron is the regular icosahedron, having five equilateral triangles around each vertex. Like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve pentagonal faces. However, the pentagons are not constrained to be regular, and its 30 edges are divided into two sets – containing 24 and 6 edges of the same length. The only axes of symmetry are three mutually perpendicular twofold axes and four threefold axes. Note that the regular dodecahedron can occur as a shape for quasicrystals with icosahedral symmetry. Its name comes from one of the two common crystal habits shown by pyrite, the one being the cube. The coordinates of the eight vertices of the cube are, The coordinates of the 12 vertices of the cross-edges are. When h =1, the six cross-edges degenerate to points, when h =0, the cross-edges are absorbed in the facets of the cube, and the pyritohedron reduces to a cube. When h = √5 − 1/2, the inverse of the golden ratio, a reflected pyritohedron is made by swapping the nonzero coordinates above. The two pyritohedra can be superimposed to give the compound of two dodecahedra as seen in the image here, the regular dodecahedron represents a special intermediate case where all edges and angles are equal. A tetartoid is a dodecahedron with chiral tetrahedral symmetry, like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve identical pentagonal faces, with three meeting in each of the 20 vertices. However, the pentagons are not regular and the figure has no fivefold symmetry axes, although regular dodecahedra do not exist in crystals, the tetartoid form does
7.
Rhombic dodecahedron
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In geometry, the rhombic dodecahedron is a convex polyhedron with 12 congruent rhombic faces. It has 24 edges, and 14 vertices of two types and it is a Catalan solid, and the dual polyhedron of the cuboctahedron. The rhombic dodecahedron is a zonohedron and its polyhedral dual is the cuboctahedron. The long diagonal of each face is exactly √2 times the length of the diagonal, so that the acute angles on each face measure arccos. Being the dual of an Archimedean polyhedron, the rhombic dodecahedron is face-transitive, meaning the symmetry group of the solid acts transitively on the set of faces. In elementary terms, this means that for any two faces A and B there is a rotation or reflection of the solid that leaves it occupying the region of space while moving face A to face B. The rhombic dodecahedron is one of the nine edge-transitive convex polyhedra, the others being the five Platonic solids, the cuboctahedron, the icosidodecahedron, the rhombic dodecahedron can be used to tessellate three-dimensional space. It can be stacked to fill a space much like hexagons fill a plane and this polyhedron in a space-filling tessellation can be seen as the Voronoi tessellation of the face-centered cubic lattice. It is the Brillouin zone of body centered cubic crystals, some minerals such as garnet form a rhombic dodecahedral crystal habit. Honey bees use the geometry of rhombic dodecahedra to form honeycombs from a tessellation of cells each of which is a hexagonal prism capped with half a rhombic dodecahedron, the rhombic dodecahedron also appears in the unit cells of diamond and diamondoids. In these cases, four vertices are absent, but the chemical bonds lie on the remaining edges, the graph of the rhombic dodecahedron is nonhamiltonian. The last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes, the rhombic dodecahedron is a parallelohedron, a space-filling polyhedron. Other symmetry constructions of the dodecahedron are also space-filling. For example, with 4 square faces, and 60-degree rhombic faces and it be seen as a cuboctahedron with square pyramids augmented on the top and bottom. In 1960 Stanko Bilinski discovered a second rhombic dodecahedron with 12 congruent rhombus faces and it has the same topology but different geometry. The rhombic faces in this form have the golden ratio, another topologically equivalent variation, sometimes called a trapezoidal dodecahedron, is isohedral with tetrahedral symmetry order 24, distorting rhombic faces into kites. It has 8 vertices adjusted in or out in sets of 4. Variations can be parametrized by, where b is determined from a for planar faces and this polyhedron is a part of a sequence of rhombic polyhedra and tilings with Coxeter group symmetry
8.
Snub disphenoid
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In geometry, the snub disphenoid, Siamese dodecahedron, or dodecadeltahedron is a three-dimensional convex polyhedron with twelve equilateral triangles as its faces. It is not a regular polyhedron because some vertices have four faces and it is a dodecahedron, one of the eight deltahedra and one of the 92 Johnson solids. This shape was called a Siamese dodecahedron in the paper by Hans Freudenthal, there are other simplicial dodecahedra, such as the hexagonal bipyramid, but this is the only one that can be realized with equilateral faces. The dodecadeltahedron name was given to this shape by Bernal, referring to the fact that it is a 12-sided deltahedron and this restrictive definition disallows the triangular bipyramid, pentagonal bipyramid, and icosahedron. Bernal writes that the snub disphenoid is a very common coordination for the ion in crystallography. The snub disphenoid name comes from Norman Johnsons 1966 classification of the Johnson solids, as a Johnson solid, it is also given the notation J84. The snub disphenoid is 4-connected, meaning that it takes the removal of four vertices to disconnect the remaining vertices and it is one of only four 4-connected simplicial well-covered polyhedra, meaning that all of the maximal independent sets of its vertices have the same size. The other three polyhedra with this property are the regular octahedron, the pentagonal bipyramid, and an irregular polyhedron with 12 vertices and 20 triangular faces and that is, it has D2d antiprismatic symmetry, a symmetry group of order 8. Spheres centered at the vertices of the snub disphenoid form a cluster that, up to symmetries and parallel translation, the snub disphenoid has five types of simple closed geodesics. Intuitively, one could stretch a rubber band around the polyhedron along this path and it would stay in place, there is no way to change the path. For example, one type of geodesic crosses the two edges of the snub disphenoid at their midpoints at an angle of π/3. The lengths of the five simple closed geodesics on a snub disphenoid with unit-length edges are 23 ≈3.464,13 ≈3.606,4,27 ≈5.292, and 19 ≈4.359. Except for the tetrahedron, which has many types of simple closed geodesic. The snub disphenoid is constructed, as its name suggests, as the snub polyhedron formed from a tetragonal disphenoid, the snub operation produces a single cyclic band of triangles separating two opposite edges and their adjacent triangles. The snub disphenoid can also constructed from the square antiprism by replacing the two square faces by pairs of equilateral triangles, however, it is one of the elementary Johnson solids that do not arise from cut and paste manipulations of the Platonic and Archimedean solids. A physical model of the snub disphenoid can be formed by folding a net formed by 12 equilateral triangles, an alternative net suggested by John Montroll has fewer concave vertices on its boundary, making it more convenient for origami construction. The eight vertices of the snub disphenoid may be given Cartesian coordinates, where the r, s. Then r = q ≈0.4111, s =1 − q 2 q ≈1.5679, because this construction involves the solution to a cubic equation, the snub disphenoid cannot be constructed with a compass and straightedge, unlike the other seven deltahedra
9.
Elongated dodecahedron
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In geometry, the elongated dodecahedron, extended rhombic dodecahedron, rhombo-hexagonal dodecahedron or hexarhombic dodecahedron is a convex dodecahedron with 8 rhombic and 4 hexagonal faces. The hexagons can be equilateral, or regular depending on the shape of the rhombi. It can be seen as constructed from a rhombic dodecahedron elongated by a square prism, along with the rhombic dodecahedron, it is a space-filling polyhedron. It can tesselate all space by translations and it is the Wigner-Seitz cell for certain body-centered tetragonal lattices. This is related to the rhombic dodecahedral honeycomb with an elongation of zero, projected normal to the elongation direction, the honeycomb looks like a square tiling with the rhombi projected into squares. This construction alternates square and rhombi on the 4-valence vertices, and has half the symmetry, D2h symmetry, the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, Third edition, Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8 p.257 Weisstein, uniform space-filling using only rhombo-hexagonal dodecahedra Elongated dodecahedron VRML Model
10.
Trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron
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In geometry, the trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron or rhombo-trapezoidal dodecahedron is a convex dodecahedron with 6 rhombic and 6 trapezoidal faces. This polyhedron could be constructed by taking a tall uniform hexagonal prism, the trapezoids represent what remains of the original prism sides, and the 6 rhombi a result of the top and bottom cuts. A space-filling tessellation, the trapezo-rhombic dodecahedral honeycomb, can be made by translated copies of this cell, each layer is a hexagonal tiling, or a rhombille tiling, and alternate layers are connected by shifting their centers and rotating each polyhedron so the rhombic faces match up. It is therefore similar to the rhombic dodecahedron, which can be represented by turning the lower half of the picture at right over an angle of 60 degrees, the rhombic dodecahedron is a Voronoi cell of the other ideal way to stack spheres. As the Voronoi cell of a regular pattern, it is a plesiohedron. It is the dual of the triangular orthobicupola. The trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron can be seen as an elongation of another dodecahedron and it also has d3h symmetry and is space-filling. It has 21 edges and 11 vertices, with square faces it can be seen as a cube split across the 3-fold axis, separated with the two halves rotated 180 degrees, and filling the gaps with triangles. When used as a space-filler, connecting dodecahedra on their triangles leaves two cubical step surfaces on the top and bottom which can connect with complimentary steps, elongated dodecahedron Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb Williams, Robert. The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design
11.
Triangular-rhombic dodecahedron
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In geometry, the trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron or rhombo-trapezoidal dodecahedron is a convex dodecahedron with 6 rhombic and 6 trapezoidal faces. This polyhedron could be constructed by taking a tall uniform hexagonal prism, the trapezoids represent what remains of the original prism sides, and the 6 rhombi a result of the top and bottom cuts. A space-filling tessellation, the trapezo-rhombic dodecahedral honeycomb, can be made by translated copies of this cell, each layer is a hexagonal tiling, or a rhombille tiling, and alternate layers are connected by shifting their centers and rotating each polyhedron so the rhombic faces match up. It is therefore similar to the rhombic dodecahedron, which can be represented by turning the lower half of the picture at right over an angle of 60 degrees, the rhombic dodecahedron is a Voronoi cell of the other ideal way to stack spheres. As the Voronoi cell of a regular pattern, it is a plesiohedron. It is the dual of the triangular orthobicupola. The trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron can be seen as an elongation of another dodecahedron and it also has d3h symmetry and is space-filling. It has 21 edges and 11 vertices, with square faces it can be seen as a cube split across the 3-fold axis, separated with the two halves rotated 180 degrees, and filling the gaps with triangles. When used as a space-filler, connecting dodecahedra on their triangles leaves two cubical step surfaces on the top and bottom which can connect with complimentary steps, elongated dodecahedron Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb Williams, Robert. The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design
12.
Geometry
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Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer, Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into a form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclids Elements. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC, islamic scientists preserved Greek ideas and expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes. Since then, and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, while geometry has evolved significantly throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, lines, planes, surfaces, angles, contemporary geometry has many subfields, Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense. The mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, lines, planes, angles, triangles, congruence, similarity, solid figures, circles, Euclidean geometry also has applications in computer science, crystallography, and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of calculus and linear algebra to problems in geometry. It has applications in physics, including in general relativity, topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this often means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues, often using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis, optimization and functional analysis, algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques. It has applications in areas, including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned mainly with questions of relative position of simple objects, such as points. It shares many methods and principles with combinatorics, Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, architecture, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, the earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, later clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiters position and motion within time-velocity space
13.
Polyhedron
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In geometry, a polyhedron is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices. The word polyhedron comes from the Classical Greek πολύεδρον, as poly- + -hedron, a convex polyhedron is the convex hull of finitely many points, not all on the same plane. Cubes and pyramids are examples of convex polyhedra, a polyhedron is a 3-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. Convex polyhedra are well-defined, with several equivalent standard definitions, however, the formal mathematical definition of polyhedra that are not required to be convex has been problematic. Many definitions of polyhedron have been given within particular contexts, some more rigorous than others, some of these definitions exclude shapes that have often been counted as polyhedra or include shapes that are often not considered as valid polyhedra. As Branko Grünbaum observed, The Original Sin in the theory of polyhedra goes back to Euclid, the writers failed to define what are the polyhedra. Nevertheless, there is agreement that a polyhedron is a solid or surface that can be described by its vertices, edges, faces. Natural refinements of this definition require the solid to be bounded, to have a connected interior, and possibly also to have a connected boundary. However, the polyhedra defined in this way do not include the self-crossing star polyhedra, their faces may not form simple polygons, definitions based on the idea of a bounding surface rather than a solid are also common. If a planar part of such a surface is not itself a convex polygon, ORourke requires it to be subdivided into smaller convex polygons, cromwell gives a similar definition but without the restriction of three edges per vertex. Again, this type of definition does not encompass the self-crossing polyhedra, however, there exist topological polyhedra that cannot be realized as acoptic polyhedra. One modern approach is based on the theory of abstract polyhedra and these can be defined as partially ordered sets whose elements are the vertices, edges, and faces of a polyhedron. A vertex or edge element is less than an edge or face element when the vertex or edge is part of the edge or face, additionally, one may include a special bottom element of this partial order and a top element representing the whole polyhedron. However, these requirements are relaxed, to instead require only that the sections between elements two levels apart from line segments. Geometric polyhedra, defined in other ways, can be described abstractly in this way, a realization of an abstract polyhedron is generally taken to be a mapping from the vertices of the abstract polyhedron to geometric points, such that the points of each face are coplanar. A geometric polyhedron can then be defined as a realization of an abstract polyhedron, realizations that forgo the requirement of planarity, that impose additional requirements of symmetry, or that map the vertices to higher dimensional spaces have also been considered. Unlike the solid-based and surface-based definitions, this perfectly well for star polyhedra. However, without restrictions, this definition allows degenerate or unfaithful polyhedra
14.
Platonic solid
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In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron. It is constructed by congruent regular polygonal faces with the number of faces meeting at each vertex. Five solids meet those criteria, Geometers have studied the mathematical beauty and they are named for the ancient Greek philosopher Plato who theorized in his dialogue, the Timaeus, that the classical elements were made of these regular solids. The Platonic solids have been known since antiquity, dice go back to the dawn of civilization with shapes that predated formal charting of Platonic solids. The ancient Greeks studied the Platonic solids extensively, some sources credit Pythagoras with their discovery. In any case, Theaetetus gave a description of all five. The Platonic solids are prominent in the philosophy of Plato, their namesake, Plato wrote about them in the dialogue Timaeus c.360 B. C. in which he associated each of the four classical elements with a regular solid. Earth was associated with the cube, air with the octahedron, water with the icosahedron, there was intuitive justification for these associations, the heat of fire feels sharp and stabbing. Air is made of the octahedron, its components are so smooth that one can barely feel it. Water, the icosahedron, flows out of hand when picked up. By contrast, a highly nonspherical solid, the hexahedron represents earth and these clumsy little solids cause dirt to crumble and break when picked up in stark difference to the smooth flow of water. Moreover, the cubes being the regular solid that tessellates Euclidean space was believed to cause the solidity of the Earth. Of the fifth Platonic solid, the dodecahedron, Plato obscurely remarks. the god used for arranging the constellations on the whole heaven. Aristotle added an element, aithēr and postulated that the heavens were made of this element. Euclid completely mathematically described the Platonic solids in the Elements, the last book of which is devoted to their properties, propositions 13–17 in Book XIII describe the construction of the tetrahedron, octahedron, cube, icosahedron, and dodecahedron in that order. For each solid Euclid finds the ratio of the diameter of the sphere to the edge length. In Proposition 18 he argues there are no further convex regular polyhedra. Andreas Speiser has advocated the view that the construction of the 5 regular solids is the goal of the deductive system canonized in the Elements
15.
Stellation
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In geometry, stellation is the process of extending a polygon, polyhedron in three dimensions, or, in general, a polytope in n dimensions to form a new figure. The new figure is a stellation of the original, the word stellation comes from the Latin stellātus, starred, which in turn comes from Latin stella, star. In 1619 Kepler defined stellation for polygons and polyhedra, as the process of extending edges or faces until they meet to form a new polygon or polyhedron and he stellated the regular dodecahedron to obtain two regular star polyhedra, the small stellated dodecahedron and great stellated dodecahedron. He also stellated the regular octahedron to obtain the stella octangula, stellating a regular polygon symmetrically creates a regular star polygon or polygonal compound. These polygons are characterised by the number of times m that the polygonal boundary winds around the centre of the figure, like all regular polygons, their vertices lie on a circle. M also corresponds to the number of vertices around the circle to get one end of a given edge to the other. A regular star polygon is represented by its Schläfli symbol, where n is the number of vertices, m is the used in sequencing the edges around it. Making m =1 gives the convex, if n and m do have a common divisor, then the figure is a regular compound. For example is the compound of two triangles or hexagram, while is a compound of two pentagrams. Some authors use the Schläfli symbol for such regular compounds, others regard the symbol as indicating a single path which is wound m times around n/m vertex points, such that one edge is superimposed upon another and each vertex point is visited m times. In this case a modified symbol may be used for the compound, a regular n-gon has /2 stellations if n is even, and /2 stellations if n is odd. Like the heptagon, the octagon also has two octagrammic stellations, one, being a star polygon, and the other, being the compound of two squares. A polyhedron is stellated by extending the edges or face planes of a polyhedron until they meet again to form a new polyhedron or compound, the interior of the new polyhedron is divided by the faces into a number of cells. The face planes of a polyhedron may divide space into many such cells, for a symmetrical polyhedron, these cells will fall into groups, or sets, of congruent cells - we say that the cells in such a congruent set are of the same type. A common method of finding stellations involves selecting one or more cell types and this can lead to a huge number of possible forms, so further criteria are often imposed to reduce the set to those stellations that are significant and unique in some way. A set of cells forming a layer around its core is called a shell. For a symmetrical polyhedron, a shell may be made up of one or more cell types, based on such ideas, several restrictive categories of interest have been identified. Adding successive shells to the core leads to the set of main-line stellations
16.
Icosahedral symmetry
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A regular icosahedron has 60 rotational symmetries, and a symmetry order of 120 including transformations that combine a reflection and a rotation. A regular dodecahedron has the set of symmetries, since it is the dual of the icosahedron. The set of orientation-preserving symmetries forms a group referred to as A5, the latter group is also known as the Coxeter group H3, and is also represented by Coxeter notation, and Coxeter diagram. Icosahedral symmetry is not compatible with translational symmetry, so there are no associated crystallographic point groups or space groups. Presentations corresponding to the above are, I, ⟨ s, t ∣ s 2, t 3,5 ⟩ I h, ⟨ s, t ∣ s 3 −2, t 5 −2 ⟩ and these correspond to the icosahedral groups being the triangle groups. The first presentation was given by William Rowan Hamilton in 1856, note that other presentations are possible, for instance as an alternating group. The icosahedral rotation group I is of order 60, the group I is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of even permutations of five objects. This isomorphism can be realized by I acting on various compounds, notably the compound of five cubes, the group contains 5 versions of Th with 20 versions of D3, and 6 versions of D5. The full icosahedral group Ih has order 120 and it has I as normal subgroup of index 2. The group Ih is isomorphic to I × Z2, or A5 × Z2, with the inversion in the corresponding to element. Ih acts on the compound of five cubes and the compound of five octahedra and it acts on the compound of ten tetrahedra, I acts on the two chiral halves, and −1 interchanges the two halves. Notably, it does not act as S5, and these groups are not isomorphic, the group contains 10 versions of D3d and 6 versions of D5d. I is also isomorphic to PSL2, but Ih is not isomorphic to SL2, all of these classes of subgroups are conjugate, and admit geometric interpretations. Note that the stabilizer of a vertex/edge/face/polyhedron and its opposite are equal, stabilizers of an opposite pair of vertices can be interpreted as stabilizers of the axis they generate. Stabilizers of a pair of edges in Ih give Z2 × Z2 × Z2, there are 5 of these, stabilizers of an opposite pair of faces can be interpreted as stabilizers of the anti-prism they generate. g. Flattening selected subsets of faces to combine each subset into one face, or replacing each face by multiple faces, in aluminum, the icosahedral structure was discovered experimentally three years after this by Dan Shechtman, which earned him the Nobel Prize in 2011. Icosahedral symmetry is equivalently the projective linear group PSL, and is the symmetry group of the modular curve X. The modular curve X is geometrically a dodecahedron with a cusp at the center of each polygonal face, similar geometries occur for PSL and more general groups for other modular curves
17.
Pyrite
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The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fools gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2. This minerals metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a resemblance to gold. The color has led to the nicknames brass, brazzle. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals, the name pyrite is derived from the Greek πυρίτης, of fire or in fire, in turn from πύρ, fire. 1550, the term had become a term for all of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite is usually associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins, sedimentary rock. Despite being nicknamed fools gold, pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold, Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. In the Carlin–type gold deposits, arsenian pyrite contains up to 0.37 wt% gold, Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas, that is, iron sulfate. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather, the acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. In the 15th century, such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid, by the 19th century, it had become the dominant method. Pyrite remains in use for the production of sulfur dioxide, for use in such applications as the paper industry. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS and elemental sulfur starts at 540 °C, a newer commercial use for pyrite is as the cathode material in Energizer brand non-rechargeable lithium batteries. Pyrite is a material with a band gap of 0.95 eV. During the early years of the 20th century, pyrite was used as a detector in radio receivers. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point between galena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs, Pyrite detectors can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A germanium diode detector. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant, inexpensive material in low-cost photovoltaic solar panels, synthetic iron sulfide was used with copper sulfide to create the photovoltaic material. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry, marcasite jewelry, made from small faceted pieces of pyrite, often set in silver, was known since ancient times and was popular in the Victorian era. Marcasite jewelry does not actually contain the mineral marcasite, from the perspective of classical inorganic chemistry, which assigns formal oxidation states to each atom, pyrite is probably best described as Fe2+S22−
18.
Tetrahedral symmetry
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A regular tetrahedron has 12 rotational symmetries, and a symmetry order of 24 including transformations that combine a reflection and a rotation. The set of orientation-preserving symmetries forms a group referred to as the alternating subgroup A4 of S4, chiral and full are discrete point symmetries. They are among the point groups of the cubic crystal system. Seen in stereographic projection the edges of the tetrakis hexahedron form 6 circles in the plane, each of these 6 circles represent a mirror line in tetrahedral symmetry. The intersection of these meet at order 2 and 3 gyration points. T,332, +, or 23, of order 12 – chiral or rotational tetrahedral symmetry, there are three orthogonal 2-fold rotation axes, like chiral dihedral symmetry D2 or 222, with in addition four 3-fold axes, centered between the three orthogonal directions. This group is isomorphic to A4, the group on 4 elements, in fact it is the group of even permutations of the four 3-fold axes. The three elements of the latter are the identity, clockwise rotation, and anti-clockwise rotation, corresponding to permutations of the three orthogonal 2-fold axes, preserving orientation. Td, *332, or 43m, of order 24 – achiral or full tetrahedral symmetry and this group has the same rotation axes as T, but with six mirror planes, each through two 3-fold axes. The 2-fold axes are now S4 axes, td and O are isomorphic as abstract groups, they both correspond to S4, the symmetric group on 4 objects. Td is the union of T and the set obtained by combining each element of O \ T with inversion, see also the isometries of the regular tetrahedron. This group has the same axes as T, with mirror planes through two of the orthogonal directions. The 3-fold axes are now S6 axes, and there is an inversion symmetry. Th is isomorphic to T × Z2, every element of Th is either an element of T, apart from these two normal subgroups, there is also a normal subgroup D2h, of type Dih2 × Z2 = Z2 × Z2 × Z2. It is the product of the normal subgroup of T with Ci. The quotient group is the same as above, of type Z3, the three elements of the latter are the identity, clockwise rotation, and anti-clockwise rotation, corresponding to permutations of the three orthogonal 2-fold axes, preserving orientation. It is the symmetry of a cube with on each face a line segment dividing the face into two rectangles, such that the line segments of adjacent faces do not meet at the edge. The symmetries correspond to the permutations of the body diagonals
19.
Octahedral symmetry
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A regular octahedron has 24 rotational symmetries, and a symmetry order of 48 including transformations that combine a reflection and a rotation. A cube has the set of symmetries, since it is the dual of an octahedron. Chiral and full octahedral symmetry are the point symmetries with the largest symmetry groups compatible with translational symmetry. They are among the point groups of the cubic crystal system. But as it is also the direct product S4 × S2, one can identify the elements of S4 as a ∈ [0,4. ). So e. g. the identity is represented as 0, the pairs can be seen in the six files below. Each file is denoted by the m ∈, and the position of each permutation in the file corresponds to the n ∈. A rotoreflection is a combination of rotation and reflection,7 ′ ∘4 =19 ′,7 ′ ∘22 =17 ′, The reflection 7 ′ applied on the 90° rotation 22 gives the 90° rotoreflection 17 ′. O,432, or + of order 24, is chiral octahedral symmetry or rotational octahedral symmetry. This group is like chiral tetrahedral symmetry T, but the C2 axes are now C4 axes, Td and O are isomorphic as abstract groups, they both correspond to S4, the symmetric group on 4 objects. Td is the union of T and the set obtained by combining each element of O \ T with inversion, O is the rotation group of the cube and the regular octahedron. Oh, *432, or m3m of order 48 - achiral octahedral symmetry or full octahedral symmetry and this group has the same rotation axes as O, but with mirror planes, comprising both the mirror planes of Td and Th. This group is isomorphic to S4. C4, and is the symmetry group of the cube. It is the group for n =3. See also the isometries of the cube, with the 4-fold axes as coordinate axes, a fundamental domain of Oh is given by 0 ≤ x ≤ y ≤ z. An object with symmetry is characterized by the part of the object in the fundamental domain, for example the cube is given by z =1. Ax + by + cz =1 gives a polyhedron with 48 faces, faces are 8-by-8 combined to larger faces for a = b =0 and 6-by-6 for a = b = c. The 9 mirror lines of full octahedral symmetry can be divided into two subgroups of 3 and 6, representing in two orthogonal subsymmetries, D2h, and Td, D2h symmetry can be doubled to D4h by restoring 2 mirrors from one of three orientations
20.
Space-filling polyhedra
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In geometry, a honeycomb is a space filling or close packing of polyhedral or higher-dimensional cells, so that there are no gaps. It is an example of the general mathematical tiling or tessellation in any number of dimensions. Its dimension can be clarified as n-honeycomb for a honeycomb of n-dimensional space, honeycombs are usually constructed in ordinary Euclidean space. They may also be constructed in non-Euclidean spaces, such as hyperbolic honeycombs, any finite uniform polytope can be projected to its circumsphere to form a uniform honeycomb in spherical space. There are infinitely many honeycombs, which have only been partially classified, the more regular ones have attracted the most interest, while a rich and varied assortment of others continue to be discovered. The simplest honeycombs to build are formed from stacked layers or slabs of prisms based on some tessellations of the plane, in particular, for every parallelepiped, copies can fill space, with the cubic honeycomb being special because it is the only regular honeycomb in ordinary space. Another interesting family is the Hill tetrahedra and their generalizations, which can tile the space. A 3-dimensional uniform honeycomb is a honeycomb in 3-space composed of polyhedral cells. There are 28 convex examples in Euclidean 3-space, also called the Archimedean honeycombs, a honeycomb is called regular if the group of isometries preserving the tiling acts transitively on flags, where a flag is a vertex lying on an edge lying on a face lying on a cell. Every regular honeycomb is automatically uniform, however, there is just one regular honeycomb in Euclidean 3-space, the cubic honeycomb. An infinite number of unique honeycombs can be created by order of patterns of repeating these slab layers. A honeycomb having all cells identical within its symmetries is said to be cell-transitive or isochoric, in the 3-dimensional euclidean space, a cell of such a honeycomb is said to be a space-filling polyhedron. A necessary condition for a polyhedron to be a space-filling polyhedron is that its Dehn invariant must be zero, five space-filling polyhedra can tessellate 3-dimensional euclidean space using translations only. They are called parallelohedra, Cubic honeycomb Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb Rhombic dodecahedral honeycomb Elongated dodecahedral honeycomb, bitruncated cubic honeycomb Other known examples of space-filling polyhedra include, The Triangular prismatic honeycomb. The gyrated triangular prismatic honeycomb The triakis truncated tetrahedral honeycomb, the Voronoi cells of the carbon atoms in diamond are this shape. The trapezo-rhombic dodecahedral honeycomb Isohedral tilings, sometimes, two or more different polyhedra may be combined to fill space. Two classes can be distinguished, Non-convex cells which pack without overlapping and these include a packing of the small stellated rhombic dodecahedron, as in the Yoshimoto Cube. Overlapping of cells whose positive and negative densities cancel out to form a uniformly dense continuum, in 3-dimensional hyperbolic space, the dihedral angle of a polyhedron depends on its size
21.
Dual polyhedron
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Such dual figures remain combinatorial or abstract polyhedra, but not all are also geometric polyhedra. Starting with any given polyhedron, the dual of its dual is the original polyhedron, duality preserves the symmetries of a polyhedron. Therefore, for classes of polyhedra defined by their symmetries. Thus, the regular polyhedra – the Platonic solids and Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra – form dual pairs, the dual of an isogonal polyhedron, having equivalent vertices, is one which is isohedral, having equivalent faces. The dual of a polyhedron is also isotoxal. Duality is closely related to reciprocity or polarity, a transformation that. There are many kinds of duality, the kinds most relevant to elementary polyhedra are polar reciprocity and topological or abstract duality. The duality of polyhedra is often defined in terms of polar reciprocation about a concentric sphere. In coordinates, for reciprocation about the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2, the vertex is associated with the plane x 0 x + y 0 y + z 0 z = r 2. The vertices of the dual are the reciprocal to the face planes of the original. Also, any two adjacent vertices define an edge, and these will reciprocate to two adjacent faces which intersect to define an edge of the dual and this dual pair of edges are always orthogonal to each other. If r 0 is the radius of the sphere, and r 1 and r 2 respectively the distances from its centre to the pole and its polar, then, r 1. R2 = r 02 For the more symmetrical polyhedra having an obvious centroid, it is common to make the polyhedron and sphere concentric, the choice of center for the sphere is sufficient to define the dual up to similarity. If multiple symmetry axes are present, they will intersect at a single point. Failing that, a sphere, inscribed sphere, or midsphere is commonly used. If a polyhedron in Euclidean space has an element passing through the center of the sphere, since Euclidean space never reaches infinity, the projective equivalent, called extended Euclidean space, may be formed by adding the required plane at infinity. Some theorists prefer to stick to Euclidean space and say there is no dual. Meanwhile, Wenninger found a way to represent these infinite duals, the concept of duality here is closely related to the duality in projective geometry, where lines and edges are interchanged
22.
Icosahedron
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In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces. The name comes from Greek εἴκοσι, meaning twenty, and ἕδρα, the plural can be either icosahedra or icosahedrons. There are many kinds of icosahedra, with some being more symmetrical than others, the best known is the Platonic, convex regular icosahedron. There are two objects, one convex and one concave, that can both be called regular icosahedra, each has 30 edges and 20 equilateral triangle faces with five meeting at each of its twelve vertices. The term regular icosahedron generally refers to the variety, while the nonconvex form is called a great icosahedron. Its dual polyhedron is the dodecahedron having three regular pentagonal faces around each vertex. The great icosahedron is one of the four regular star Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra, like the convex form, it also has 20 equilateral triangle faces, but its vertex figure is a pentagram rather than a pentagon, leading to geometrically intersecting faces. The intersections of the triangles do not represent new edges and its dual polyhedron is the great stellated dodecahedron, having three regular star pentagonal faces around each vertex. Stellation is the process of extending the faces or edges of a polyhedron until they meet to form a new polyhedron and it is done symmetrically so that the resulting figure retains the overall symmetry of the parent figure. In their book The Fifty-Nine Icosahedra, Coxeter et al. enumerated 58 such stellations of the regular icosahedron, of these, many have a single face in each of the 20 face planes and so are also icosahedra. The great icosahedron is among them, other stellations have more than one face in each plane or form compounds of simpler polyhedra. These are not strictly icosahedra, although they are referred to as such. A regular icosahedron can be distorted or marked up as a lower symmetry, and is called a snub octahedron, snub tetratetrahedron, snub tetrahedron. This can be seen as a truncated octahedron. If all the triangles are equilateral, the symmetry can also be distinguished by colouring the 8 and 12 triangle sets differently, pyritohedral symmetry has the symbol, with order 24. Tetrahedral symmetry has the symbol, +, with order 12 and these lower symmetries allow geometric distortions from 20 equilateral triangular faces, instead having 8 equilateral triangles and 12 congruent isosceles triangles. These symmetries offer Coxeter diagrams, and respectively, each representing the lower symmetry to the regular icosahedron, the coordinates of the 12 vertices can be defined by the vectors defined by all the possible cyclic permutations and sign-flips of coordinates of the form. These coordinates represent the truncated octahedron with alternated vertices deleted and this construction is called a snub tetrahedron in its regular icosahedron form, generated by the same operations carried out starting with the vector, where ϕ is the golden ratio
23.
Crystallography
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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids. The word crystallography derives from the Greek words crystallon cold drop, frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein to write. In July 2012, the United Nations recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography, X-ray crystallography is used to determine the structure of large biomolecules such as proteins. Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography, the study of crystals was based on measurements of their geometry. This involved measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to other and to theoretical reference axes. This physical measurement is carried out using a goniometer, the position in 3D space of each crystal face is plotted on a stereographic net such as a Wulff net or Lambert net. The pole to face is plotted on the net. Each point is labelled with its Miller index, the final plot allows the symmetry of the crystal to be established. Crystallographic methods now depend on analysis of the patterns of a sample targeted by a beam of some type. X-rays are most commonly used, other beams used include electrons or neutrons and this is facilitated by the wave properties of the particles. Crystallographers often explicitly state the type of beam used, as in the terms X-ray crystallography and these three types of radiation interact with the specimen in different ways. X-rays interact with the distribution of electrons in the sample. Electrons are charged particles and therefore interact with the charge distribution of both the atomic nuclei and the electrons of the sample. Neutrons are scattered by the atomic nuclei through the nuclear forces, but in addition. They are therefore also scattered by magnetic fields, when neutrons are scattered from hydrogen-containing materials, they produce diffraction patterns with high noise levels. However, the material can sometimes be treated to substitute deuterium for hydrogen, because of these different forms of interaction, the three types of radiation are suitable for different crystallographic studies. An image of an object is made using a lens to focus the beam. However, the wavelength of light is three orders of magnitude longer than the length of typical atomic bonds and atoms themselves
24.
Crystallographic point groups
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For a periodic crystal, the group must also be consistent with maintenance of the three-dimensional translational symmetry that defines crystallinity. The macroscopic properties of a crystal would look exactly the same before, in the classification of crystals, each point group is also known as a crystal class. There are infinitely many three-dimensional point groups, however, the crystallographic restriction of the infinite families of general point groups results in there being only 32 crystallographic point groups. These 32 point groups are one-and-the same as the 32 types of morphological crystalline symmetries derived in 1830 by Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel from a consideration of observed crystal forms, the point groups are denoted by their component symmetries. There are a few standard notations used by crystallographers, mineralogists, for the correspondence of the two systems below, see crystal system. In Schoenflies notation, point groups are denoted by a symbol with a subscript. The symbols used in crystallography mean the following, Cn indicates that the group has a rotation axis. Cnh is Cn with the addition of a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Cnv is Cn with the addition of n mirror planes parallel to the axis of rotation, s2n denotes a group that contains only a 2n-fold rotation-reflection axis. Dn indicates that the group has a rotation axis plus n twofold axes perpendicular to that axis. Dnh has, in addition, a plane perpendicular to the n-fold axis. Dnd has, in addition to the elements of Dn, mirror planes parallel to the n-fold axis, the letter T indicates that the group has the symmetry of a tetrahedron. Td includes improper rotation operations, T excludes improper rotation operations, the letter O indicates that the group has the symmetry of an octahedron, with or without improper operations. Due to the crystallographic restriction theorem, n =1,2,3,4, d4d and D6d are actually forbidden because they contain improper rotations with n=8 and 12 respectively. The 27 point groups in the table plus T, Td, Th, O, an abbreviated form of the Hermann–Mauguin notation commonly used for space groups also serves to describe crystallographic point groups. Group names are Molecular symmetry Point group Space group Point groups in three dimensions Crystal system Point-group symbols in International Tables for Crystallography,12.1, pp. 818-820 Names and symbols of the 32 crystal classes in International Tables for Crystallography. 10.1, p.794 Pictorial overview of the 32 groups Point Groups - Flow Chart Inorganic Chemistry Group Theory Practice Problems
25.
Cubic crystal system
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In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals and minerals, there are three main varieties of these crystals, Primitive cubic Body-centered cubic, Face-centered cubic Each is subdivided into other variants listed below. Note that although the cell in these crystals is conventionally taken to be a cube. This is related to the fact that in most cubic crystal systems, a classic isometric crystal has square or pentagonal faces. The three Bravais lattices in the crystal system are, The primitive cubic system consists of one lattice point on each corner of the cube. Each atom at a point is then shared equally between eight adjacent cubes, and the unit cell therefore contains in total one atom. The body-centered cubic system has one point in the center of the unit cell in addition to the eight corner points. It has a net total of 2 lattice points per unit cell, Each sphere in a cF lattice has coordination number 12. The face-centered cubic system is related to the hexagonal close packed system. The plane of a cubic system is a hexagonal grid. Attempting to create a C-centered cubic crystal system would result in a simple tetragonal Bravais lattice, there are a total 36 cubic space groups. Other terms for hexoctahedral are, normal class, holohedral, ditesseral central class, a simple cubic unit cell has a single cubic void in the center. Additionally, there are 24 tetrahedral voids located in a square spacing around each octahedral void and these tetrahedral voids are not local maxima and are not technically voids, but they do occasionally appear in multi-atom unit cells. A face-centered cubic unit cell has eight tetrahedral voids located midway between each corner and the center of the cell, for a total of eight net tetrahedral voids. One important characteristic of a structure is its atomic packing factor. This is calculated by assuming all the atoms are identical spheres. The atomic packing factor is the proportion of space filled by these spheres, assuming one atom per lattice point, in a primitive cubic lattice with cube side length a, the sphere radius would be a⁄2 and the atomic packing factor turns out to be about 0.524. Similarly, in a bcc lattice, the atomic packing factor is 0.680, as a rule, since atoms in a solid attract each other, the more tightly packed arrangements of atoms tend to be more common
26.
Pentagon
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In geometry, a pentagon is any five-sided polygon or 5-gon. The sum of the angles in a simple pentagon is 540°. A pentagon may be simple or self-intersecting, a self-intersecting regular pentagon is called a pentagram. A regular pentagon has Schläfli symbol and interior angles are 108°, a regular pentagon has five lines of reflectional symmetry, and rotational symmetry of order 5. The diagonals of a regular pentagon are in the golden ratio to its sides. The area of a regular convex pentagon with side length t is given by A = t 225 +1054 =5 t 2 tan 4 ≈1.720 t 2. A pentagram or pentangle is a regular star pentagon and its sides form the diagonals of a regular convex pentagon – in this arrangement the sides of the two pentagons are in the golden ratio. The area of any polygon is, A =12 P r where P is the perimeter of the polygon. Substituting the regular pentagons values for P and r gives the formula A =12 ×5 t × t tan 2 =5 t 2 tan 4 with side length t, like every regular convex polygon, the regular convex pentagon has an inscribed circle. The apothem, which is the r of the inscribed circle. Like every regular polygon, the regular convex pentagon has a circumscribed circle. For a regular pentagon with successive vertices A, B, C, D, E, the regular pentagon is constructible with compass and straightedge, as 5 is a Fermat prime. A variety of methods are known for constructing a regular pentagon, one method to construct a regular pentagon in a given circle is described by Richmond and further discussed in Cromwells Polyhedra. The top panel shows the construction used in Richmonds method to create the side of the inscribed pentagon, the circle defining the pentagon has unit radius. Its center is located at point C and a midpoint M is marked halfway along its radius and this point is joined to the periphery vertically above the center at point D. Angle CMD is bisected, and the bisector intersects the axis at point Q. A horizontal line through Q intersects the circle at point P, to determine the length of this side, the two right triangles DCM and QCM are depicted below the circle. Using Pythagoras theorem and two sides, the hypotenuse of the triangle is found as 5 /2
27.
Face (geometry)
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In solid geometry, a face is a flat surface that forms part of the boundary of a solid object, a three-dimensional solid bounded exclusively by flat faces is a polyhedron. In more technical treatments of the geometry of polyhedra and higher-dimensional polytopes, in elementary geometry, a face is a polygon on the boundary of a polyhedron. Other names for a polygonal face include side of a polyhedron, for example, any of the six squares that bound a cube is a face of the cube. Sometimes face is used to refer to the 2-dimensional features of a 4-polytope. With this meaning, the 4-dimensional tesseract has 24 square faces, some other polygons, which are not faces, are also important for polyhedra and tessellations. These include Petrie polygons, vertex figures and facets, any convex polyhedrons surface has Euler characteristic V − E + F =2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges, and F is the number of faces. This equation is known as Eulers polyhedron formula, thus the number of faces is 2 more than the excess of the number of edges over the number of vertices. For example, a cube has 12 edges and 8 vertices, in higher-dimensional geometry the faces of a polytope are features of all dimensions. A face of dimension k is called a k-face, for example, the polygonal faces of an ordinary polyhedron are 2-faces. In set theory, the set of faces of a polytope includes the polytope itself, for any n-polytope, −1 ≤ k ≤ n. For example, with meaning, the faces of a cube include the empty set, its vertices, edges and squares. Formally, a face of a polytope P is the intersection of P with any closed halfspace whose boundary is disjoint from the interior of P, from this definition it follows that the set of faces of a polytope includes the polytope itself and the empty set. In other areas of mathematics, such as the theories of abstract polytopes and star polytopes, abstract theory still requires that the set of faces include the polytope itself and the empty set. A cell is an element of a 4-dimensional polytope or 3-dimensional tessellation. Cells are facets for 4-polytopes and 3-honeycombs, examples, In higher-dimensional geometry, the facets of a n-polytope are the -faces of dimension one less than the polytope itself. A polytope is bounded by its facets, for example, The facets of a line segment are its 0-faces or vertices. The facets of a polygon are its 1-faces or edges, the facets of a polyhedron or plane tiling are its 2-faces. The facets of a 4D polytope or 3-honeycomb are its 3-faces, the facets of a 5D polytope or 4-honeycomb are its 4-faces
28.
Edge (geometry)
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For edge in graph theory, see Edge In geometry, an edge is a particular type of line segment joining two vertices in a polygon, polyhedron, or higher-dimensional polytope. In a polygon, an edge is a segment on the boundary. In a polyhedron or more generally a polytope, an edge is a segment where two faces meet. A segment joining two vertices while passing through the interior or exterior is not an edge but instead is called a diagonal. In graph theory, an edge is an abstract object connecting two vertices, unlike polygon and polyhedron edges which have a concrete geometric representation as a line segment. However, any polyhedron can be represented by its skeleton or edge-skeleton, conversely, the graphs that are skeletons of three-dimensional polyhedra can be characterized by Steinitzs theorem as being exactly the 3-vertex-connected planar graphs. Any convex polyhedrons surface has Euler characteristic V − E + F =2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges and this equation is known as Eulers polyhedron formula. Thus the number of edges is 2 less than the sum of the numbers of vertices and faces, for example, a cube has 8 vertices and 6 faces, and hence 12 edges. In a polygon, two edges meet at each vertex, more generally, by Balinskis theorem, at least d edges meet at every vertex of a convex polytope. Similarly, in a polyhedron, exactly two faces meet at every edge, while in higher dimensional polytopes three or more two-dimensional faces meet at every edge. Thus, the edges of a polygon are its facets, the edges of a 3-dimensional convex polyhedron are its ridges, archived from the original on 4 February 2007
29.
Vertex (geometry)
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In geometry, a vertex is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet. As a consequence of this definition, the point where two lines meet to form an angle and the corners of polygons and polyhedra are vertices. A vertex is a point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other higher-dimensional polytope. However, in theory, vertices may have fewer than two incident edges, which is usually not allowed for geometric vertices. However, a smooth approximation to a polygon will also have additional vertices. A polygon vertex xi of a simple polygon P is a principal polygon vertex if the diagonal intersects the boundary of P only at x and x, there are two types of principal vertices, ears and mouths. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called an ear if the diagonal that bridges xi lies entirely in P, according to the two ears theorem, every simple polygon has at least two ears. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called a mouth if the diagonal lies outside the boundary of P. Any convex polyhedrons surface has Euler characteristic V − E + F =2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges and this equation is known as Eulers polyhedron formula. Thus the number of vertices is 2 more than the excess of the number of edges over the number of faces, for example, a cube has 12 edges and 6 faces, and hence 8 vertices
30.
Point groups in three dimensions
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In geometry, a point group in three dimensions is an isometry group in three dimensions that leaves the origin fixed, or correspondingly, an isometry group of a sphere. It is a subgroup of the orthogonal group O, the group of all isometries that leave the origin fixed, or correspondingly, O itself is a subgroup of the Euclidean group E of all isometries. Symmetry groups of objects are isometry groups, accordingly, analysis of isometry groups is analysis of possible symmetries. All isometries of a bounded 3D object have one or more fixed points. We choose the origin as one of them, the rotation group of an object is equal to its full symmetry group if and only if the object is chiral. Finite Coxeter groups are a set of point groups generated purely by a set of reflectional mirrors passing through the same point. A rank n Coxeter group has n mirrors and is represented by a Coxeter–Dynkin diagram, Coxeter notation offers a bracketed notation equivalent to the Coxeter diagram, with markup symbols for rotational and other subsymmetry point groups. SO is a subgroup of E+, which consists of direct isometries, i. e. isometries preserving orientation, it contains those that leave the origin fixed. O is the product of SO and the group generated by inversion. An example would be C4 for H and S4 for M, Thus M is obtained from H by inverting the isometries in H ∖ L. This is clarifying when categorizing isometry groups, see below, in 2D the cyclic group of k-fold rotations Ck is for every positive integer k a normal subgroup of O and SO. Accordingly, in 3D, for every axis the cyclic group of rotations about that axis is a normal subgroup of the group of all rotations about that axis. e. See also the similar overview including translations, when comparing the symmetry type of two objects, the origin is chosen for each separately, i. e. they need not have the same center. Moreover, two objects are considered to be of the symmetry type if their symmetry groups are conjugate subgroups of O. The conjugacy definition would allow a mirror image of the structure, but this is not needed. For example, if a symmetry group contains a 3-fold axis of rotation, there are many infinite isometry groups, for example, the cyclic group generated by a rotation by an irrational number of turns about an axis. We may create non-cyclical abelian groups by adding more rotations around the same axis, there are also non-abelian groups generated by rotations around different axes. They will be infinite unless the rotations are specially chosen, all the infinite groups mentioned so far are not closed as topological subgroups of O
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Pseudoicosahedron
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In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces. The name comes from Greek εἴκοσι, meaning twenty, and ἕδρα, the plural can be either icosahedra or icosahedrons. There are many kinds of icosahedra, with some being more symmetrical than others, the best known is the Platonic, convex regular icosahedron. There are two objects, one convex and one concave, that can both be called regular icosahedra, each has 30 edges and 20 equilateral triangle faces with five meeting at each of its twelve vertices. The term regular icosahedron generally refers to the variety, while the nonconvex form is called a great icosahedron. Its dual polyhedron is the dodecahedron having three regular pentagonal faces around each vertex. The great icosahedron is one of the four regular star Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra, like the convex form, it also has 20 equilateral triangle faces, but its vertex figure is a pentagram rather than a pentagon, leading to geometrically intersecting faces. The intersections of the triangles do not represent new edges and its dual polyhedron is the great stellated dodecahedron, having three regular star pentagonal faces around each vertex. Stellation is the process of extending the faces or edges of a polyhedron until they meet to form a new polyhedron and it is done symmetrically so that the resulting figure retains the overall symmetry of the parent figure. In their book The Fifty-Nine Icosahedra, Coxeter et al. enumerated 58 such stellations of the regular icosahedron, of these, many have a single face in each of the 20 face planes and so are also icosahedra. The great icosahedron is among them, other stellations have more than one face in each plane or form compounds of simpler polyhedra. These are not strictly icosahedra, although they are referred to as such. A regular icosahedron can be distorted or marked up as a lower symmetry, and is called a snub octahedron, snub tetratetrahedron, snub tetrahedron. This can be seen as a truncated octahedron. If all the triangles are equilateral, the symmetry can also be distinguished by colouring the 8 and 12 triangle sets differently, pyritohedral symmetry has the symbol, with order 24. Tetrahedral symmetry has the symbol, +, with order 12 and these lower symmetries allow geometric distortions from 20 equilateral triangular faces, instead having 8 equilateral triangles and 12 congruent isosceles triangles. These symmetries offer Coxeter diagrams, and respectively, each representing the lower symmetry to the regular icosahedron, the coordinates of the 12 vertices can be defined by the vectors defined by all the possible cyclic permutations and sign-flips of coordinates of the form. These coordinates represent the truncated octahedron with alternated vertices deleted and this construction is called a snub tetrahedron in its regular icosahedron form, generated by the same operations carried out starting with the vector, where ϕ is the golden ratio
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Isohedral figure
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In geometry, a polytope of dimension 3 or higher is isohedral or face-transitive when all its faces are the same. More specifically, all faces must be not merely congruent but must be transitive, in other words, for any faces A and B, there must be a symmetry of the entire solid by rotations and reflections that maps A onto B. For this reason, convex polyhedra are the shapes that will make fair dice. They can be described by their face configuration, a polyhedron which is isohedral has a dual polyhedron that is vertex-transitive. The Catalan solids, the bipyramids and the trapezohedra are all isohedral and they are the duals of the isogonal Archimedean solids, prisms and antiprisms, respectively. The Platonic solids, which are either self-dual or dual with another Platonic solid, are vertex, edge, a polyhedron which is isohedral and isogonal is said to be noble. A polyhedron is if it contains k faces within its symmetry fundamental domain. Similarly a k-isohedral tiling has k separate symmetry orbits, a monohedral polyhedron or monohedral tiling has congruent faces, as either direct or reflectively, which occur in one or more symmetry positions. An r-hedral polyhedra or tiling has r types of faces, a facet-transitive or isotopic figure is a n-dimensional polytopes or honeycomb, with its facets congruent and transitive. The dual of an isotope is an isogonal polytope, by definition, this isotopic property is common to the duals of the uniform polytopes. An isotopic 2-dimensional figure is isotoxal, an isotopic 3-dimensional figure is isohedral. An isotopic 4-dimensional figure is isochoric, edge-transitive Anisohedral tiling Peter R. Cromwell, Polyhedra, Cambridge University Press 1997, ISBN 0-521-55432-2, p.367 Transitivity Olshevsky, George. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007
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Net (polyhedron)
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In geometry the net of a polyhedron is an arrangement of edge-joined polygons in the plane which can be folded to become the faces of the polyhedron. Polyhedral nets are an aid to the study of polyhedra and solid geometry in general. Many different nets can exist for a polyhedron, depending on the choices of which edges are joined. Conversely, a given net may fold into more than one different convex polyhedron, depending on the angles at which its edges are folded, additionally, the same net may have multiple valid gluing patterns, leading to different folded polyhedra. Shephard asked whether every convex polyhedron has at least one net and this question, which is also known as Dürers conjecture, or Dürers unfolding problem, remains unanswered. There exist non-convex polyhedra that do not have nets, and it is possible to subdivide the faces of every convex polyhedron so that the set of subdivided faces has a net, in 2014 Mohammad Ghomi showed that every convex polyhedron admits a net after an affine transformation. The shortest path over the surface between two points on the surface of a polyhedron corresponds to a line on a suitable net for the subset of faces touched by the path. The net has to be such that the line is fully within it. Other candidates for the shortest path are through the surface of a third face adjacent to both, and corresponding nets can be used to find the shortest path in each category, the geometric concept of a net can be extended to higher dimensions. The above net of the tesseract, the hypercube, is used prominently in a painting by Salvador Dalí. However, it is known to be possible for every convex uniform 4-polytope, Paper model Cardboard modeling UV mapping Weisstein, Eric W. Net. Regular 4d Polytope Foldouts Editable Printable Polyhedral Nets with an Interactive 3D View Paper Models of Polyhedra Unfolder for Blender Unfolding package for Mathematica
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Rotational symmetry
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Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn. An objects degree of symmetry is the number of distinct orientations in which it looks the same. Formally the rotational symmetry is symmetry with respect to some or all rotations in m-dimensional Euclidean space, rotations are direct isometries, i. e. isometries preserving orientation. With the modified notion of symmetry for vector fields the symmetry group can also be E+, for symmetry with respect to rotations about a point we can take that point as origin. These rotations form the orthogonal group SO, the group of m×m orthogonal matrices with determinant 1. For m =3 this is the rotation group SO, for chiral objects it is the same as the full symmetry group. Laws of physics are SO-invariant if they do not distinguish different directions in space, because of Noethers theorem, rotational symmetry of a physical system is equivalent to the angular momentum conservation law. Note that 1-fold symmetry is no symmetry, the notation for n-fold symmetry is Cn or simply n. The actual symmetry group is specified by the point or axis of symmetry, for each point or axis of symmetry, the abstract group type is cyclic group of order n, Zn. The fundamental domain is a sector of 360°/n, if there is e. g. rotational symmetry with respect to an angle of 100°, then also with respect to one of 20°, the greatest common divisor of 100° and 360°. A typical 3D object with rotational symmetry but no mirror symmetry is a propeller and this is the rotation group of a regular prism, or regular bipyramid. 4×3-fold and 3×2-fold axes, the rotation group T of order 12 of a regular tetrahedron, the group is isomorphic to alternating group A4. 3×4-fold, 4×3-fold, and 6×2-fold axes, the rotation group O of order 24 of a cube, the group is isomorphic to symmetric group S4. 6×5-fold, 10×3-fold, and 15×2-fold axes, the rotation group I of order 60 of a dodecahedron, the group is isomorphic to alternating group A5. The group contains 10 versions of D3 and 6 versions of D5, in the case of the Platonic solids, the 2-fold axes are through the midpoints of opposite edges, the number of them is half the number of edges. Rotational symmetry with respect to any angle is, in two dimensions, circular symmetry, the fundamental domain is a half-line. In three dimensions we can distinguish cylindrical symmetry and spherical symmetry and that is, no dependence on the angle using cylindrical coordinates and no dependence on either angle using spherical coordinates. The fundamental domain is a half-plane through the axis, and a radial half-line, axisymmetric or axisymmetrical are adjectives which refer to an object having cylindrical symmetry, or axisymmetry
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Quasicrystal
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A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic. A quasicrystalline pattern can continuously fill all space, but it lacks translational symmetry. Aperiodic tilings were discovered by mathematicians in the early 1960s, and, some twenty years later, the discovery of these aperiodic forms in nature has produced a paradigm shift in the fields of crystallography. Quasicrystals had been investigated and observed earlier, but, until the 1980s, in 2009, after a dedicated search, a mineralogical finding, icosahedrite, offered evidence for the existence of natural quasicrystals. Roughly, an ordering is non-periodic if it lacks translational symmetry, symmetrical diffraction patterns result from the existence of an indefinitely large number of elements with a regular spacing, a property loosely described as long-range order. Experimentally, the aperiodicity is revealed in the symmetry of the diffraction pattern. In 1982 materials scientist Dan Shechtman observed that certain aluminium-manganese alloys produced the unusual diffractograms which today are seen as revelatory of quasicrystal structures. Due to fear of the communitys reaction, it took him two years to publish the results for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2011. In 1961, Hao Wang asked whether determining if a set of tiles admits a tiling of the plane is an unsolvable problem or not. He conjectured that it is solvable, relying on the hypothesis that every set of tiles that can tile the plane can do it periodically. Nevertheless, two later, his student Robert Berger constructed a set of some 20,000 square tiles that can tile the plane. As further aperiodic sets of tiles were discovered, sets with fewer and fewer shapes were found, in 1976 Roger Penrose discovered a set of just two tiles, now referred to as Penrose tiles, that produced only non-periodic tilings of the plane. These tilings displayed instances of fivefold symmetry, around the same time Robert Ammann created a set of aperiodic tiles that produced eightfold symmetry. Mathematically, quasicrystals have been shown to be derivable from a method that treats them as projections of a higher-dimensional lattice. Icosahedral quasicrystals in three dimensions were projected from a six-dimensional hypercubic lattice by Peter Kramer and Roberto Neri in 1984, the tiling is formed by two tiles with rhombohedral shape. Shechtman first observed ten-fold electron diffraction patterns in 1982, as described in his notebook, the observation was made during a routine investigation, by electron microscopy, of a rapidly cooled alloy of aluminium and manganese prepared at the US National Bureau of Standards. In the summer of the same year Shechtman visited Ilan Blech, Blech responded that such diffractions had been seen before. Around that time, Shechtman also related his finding to John Cahn of NIST who did not offer any explanation, Shechtman quoted Cahn as saying, Danny, this material is telling us something and I challenge you to find out what it is
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Crystal habit
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In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group. A single crystals habit is a description of its shape and its crystallographic forms. Recognizing the habit may help in identifying a mineral, when the faces are well-developed due to uncrowded growth a crystal is called euhedral, one with partially developed faces is subhedral, and one with undeveloped crystal faces is called anhedral. The long axis of a quartz crystal typically has a six-sided prismatic habit with parallel opposite faces. Aggregates can be formed of individual crystals with euhedral to anhedral grains, the arrangement of crystals within the aggregate can be characteristic of certain minerals. For example, minerals used for asbestos insulation often grow in a fibrous habit, the terms used by mineralogists to report crystal habits describe the typical appearance of an ideal mineral. Recognizing the habit can aid in identification as some habits are characteristic, most minerals, however, do not display ideal habits due to conditions during crystallization. Minerals belonging to the crystal system do not necessarily exhibit the same habit. Some habits of a mineral are unique to its variety and locality, For example, while most sapphires form elongate barrel-shaped crystals, ordinarily, the latter habit is seen only in ruby. Sapphire and ruby are both varieties of the mineral, corundum. Some minerals may replace other existing minerals while preserving the originals habit, a classic example is tigers eye quartz, crocidolite asbestos replaced by silica. While quartz typically forms prismatic crystals, in tigers eye the original fibrous habit of crocidolite is preserved, the names of crystal habits are derived from, Predominant crystal faces. Abnormal grain growth Grain growth Crystallization
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Cube
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In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. The cube is the only regular hexahedron and is one of the five Platonic solids and it has 6 faces,12 edges, and 8 vertices. The cube is also a square parallelepiped, an equilateral cuboid and it is a regular square prism in three orientations, and a trigonal trapezohedron in four orientations. The cube is dual to the octahedron and it has cubical or octahedral symmetry. The cube has four special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, edges, face, the first and third correspond to the A2 and B2 Coxeter planes. The cube can also be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. In analytic geometry, a surface with center and edge length of 2a is the locus of all points such that max = a. For a cube of length a, As the volume of a cube is the third power of its sides a × a × a, third powers are called cubes, by analogy with squares. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with a surface area. Also, a cube has the largest volume among cuboids with the same linear size. They were unable to solve this problem, and in 1837 Pierre Wantzel proved it to be impossible because the root of 2 is not a constructible number. The cube has three uniform colorings, named by the colors of the faces around each vertex,111,112,123. The cube has three classes of symmetry, which can be represented by coloring the faces. The highest octahedral symmetry Oh has all the faces the same color, the dihedral symmetry D4h comes from the cube being a prism, with all four sides being the same color. The lowest symmetry D2h is also a symmetry, with sides alternating colors. Each symmetry form has a different Wythoff symbol, a cube has eleven nets, that is, there are eleven ways to flatten a hollow cube by cutting seven edges. To color the cube so that no two adjacent faces have the color, one would need at least three colors
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Wedge (geometry)
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In solid geometry, a wedge is a polyhedron defined by two triangles and three trapezoid faces. A wedge has five faces, nine edges, and six vertices, a wedge is a subclass of the prismatoids with the base and opposite ridge in two parallel planes. A wedge can also be classified as a digonal cupola, comparisons, A wedge is a parallelepiped where a face has collapsed into a line. A quadrilaterally-based pyramid is a wedge in which one of the edges between two faces has collapsed into a point. For a rectangle based wedge, the volume is V = b h, where the rectangle is a by b, c is the apex edge length parallel to a. Wedges can be created from decomposition of other polyhedra, for instance, the dodecahedron can be divided into a central cube with 6 wedges covering the cube faces. The orientations of the wedges are such that the triangle and trapezoid faces can connect, a triangular prism is a special case wedge with the two triangle faces being translationally congruent. Two obtuse wedges can be formed by bisecting a regular tetrahedron on a parallel to two opposite edges. Harris, J. W. & Stocker, H. Wedge, §4.5.2 in Handbook of Mathematics and Computational Science. New York, Springer, p.102,1998, ISBN 978-0-387-94746-4 Weisstein, Eric W. Wedge
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Golden ratio
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In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship, expressed algebraically, for quantities a and b with a > b >0, a + b a = a b = def φ, where the Greek letter phi represents the golden ratio. Its value is, φ =1 +52 =1.6180339887 …, A001622 The golden ratio is also called the golden mean or golden section. Other names include extreme and mean ratio, medial section, divine proportion, divine section, golden proportion, golden cut, the golden ratio appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts. The golden ratio has also used to analyze the proportions of natural objects as well as man-made systems such as financial markets. Two quantities a and b are said to be in the golden ratio φ if a + b a = a b = φ, one method for finding the value of φ is to start with the left fraction. Through simplifying the fraction and substituting in b/a = 1/φ, a + b a =1 + b a =1 +1 φ, multiplying by φ gives φ +1 = φ2 which can be rearranged to φ2 − φ −1 =0. First, the line segment A B ¯ is about doubled and then the semicircle with the radius A S ¯ around the point S is drawn, now the semicircle is drawn with the radius A B ¯ around the point B. The arising intersection point E corresponds 2 φ, next up, the perpendicular on the line segment A E ¯ from the point D will be establish. The subsequent parallel F S ¯ to the line segment C M ¯, produces, as it were and it is well recognizable, this triangle and the triangle M S C are similar to each other. The hypotenuse F S ¯ has due to the cathetuses S D ¯ =1 and D F ¯ =2 according the Pythagorean theorem, finally, the circle arc is drawn with the radius 5 around the point F. The golden ratio has been claimed to have held a fascination for at least 2,400 years. But the fascination with the Golden Ratio is not confined just to mathematicians, biologists, artists, musicians, historians, architects, psychologists, and even mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its ubiquity and appeal. In fact, it is fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics. Ancient Greek mathematicians first studied what we now call the golden ratio because of its frequent appearance in geometry, the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio is important in the geometry of regular pentagrams and pentagons. Euclid explains a construction for cutting a line in extreme and mean ratio, throughout the Elements, several propositions and their proofs employ the golden ratio. The golden ratio is explored in Luca Paciolis book De divina proportione, since the 20th century, the golden ratio has been represented by the Greek letter φ or less commonly by τ. Timeline according to Priya Hemenway, Phidias made the Parthenon statues that seem to embody the golden ratio, plato, in his Timaeus, describes five possible regular solids, some of which are related to the golden ratio
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Compound of two dodecahedra
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This uniform polyhedron compound is a composition of 2 icosahedra. As a holosnub, it is represented by Schläfli symbol β, the triangles in this compound decompose into two orbits under action of the symmetry group,16 of the triangles lie in coplanar pairs in octahedral planes, while the other 24 lie in unique planes. It shares the vertex arrangement as a nonuniform truncated octahedron, having irregular hexagons alternating with long. The icosahedron, as a snub tetrahedron, is similar to these snub-pair compounds. Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of this compound are all the permutations of where τ = /2 is the golden ratio. 1017/S0305004100052440, MR0397554
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Convex hull
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In mathematics, the convex hull or convex envelope of a set X of points in the Euclidean plane or in a Euclidean space is the smallest convex set that contains X. With the latter definition, convex hulls may be extended from Euclidean spaces to arbitrary real vector spaces, they may also be generalized further, to oriented matroids. The algorithmic problem of finding the convex hull of a set of points in the plane or other low-dimensional Euclidean spaces is one of the fundamental problems of computational geometry. A set of points is defined to be if it contains the line segments connecting each pair of its points. The convex hull of a given set X may be defined as The minimal convex set containing X The intersection of all convex sets containing X The set of all combinations of points in X. The union of all simplices with vertices in X and it is not obvious that the first definition makes sense, why should there exist a unique minimal convex set containing X, for every X. Thus, it is exactly the unique minimal convex set containing X. Each convex set containing X must contain all convex combinations of points in X, in fact, according to Carathéodorys theorem, if X is a subset of an N-dimensional vector space, convex combinations of at most N +1 points are sufficient in the definition above. If the convex hull of X is a set, then it is the intersection of all closed half-spaces containing X. The hyperplane separation theorem proves that in case, each point not in the convex hull can be separated from the convex hull by a half-space. However, there exist convex sets, and convex hulls of sets, more abstractly, the convex-hull operator Conv has the characteristic properties of a closure operator, It is extensive, meaning that the convex hull of every set X is a superset of X. It is non-decreasing, meaning that, for two sets X and Y with X ⊆ Y, the convex hull of X is a subset of the convex hull of Y. It is idempotent, meaning that for every X, the hull of the convex hull of X is the same as the convex hull of X. The convex hull of a point set S is the set of all convex combinations of its points. For each choice of coefficients, the convex combination is a point in the convex hull. Expressing this as a formula, the convex hull is the set. The convex hull of a point set S ⊊ R n forms a convex polygon when n =2. Each point x i in S that is not in the hull of the other points is called a vertex of Conv . In fact, every convex polytope in R n is the hull of its vertices
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Pentagram
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A pentagram is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. The word pentagram comes from the Greek word πεντάγραμμον, from πέντε, five + γραμμή, the word pentacle is sometimes used synonymously with pentagram The word pentalpha is a learned modern revival of a post-classical Greek name of the shape. The pentagram is the simplest regular star polygon, the pentagram contains ten points and fifteen line segments. It is represented by the Schläfli symbol, like a regular pentagon, and a regular pentagon with a pentagram constructed inside it, the regular pentagram has as its symmetry group the dihedral group of order 10. The pentagram can be constructed by connecting alternate vertices of a pentagon and it can also be constructed as a stellation of a pentagon, by extending the edges of a pentagon until the lines intersect. Each intersection of edges sections the edges in the golden ratio, also, the ratio of the length of the shorter segment to the segment bounded by the two intersecting edges is φ. As the four-color illustration shows, r e d g r e e n = g r e e n b l u e = b l u e m a g e n t a = φ. The pentagram includes ten isosceles triangles, five acute and five obtuse isosceles triangles, in all of them, the ratio of the longer side to the shorter side is φ. The acute triangles are golden triangles, the obtuse isosceles triangle highlighted via the colored lines in the illustration is a golden gnomon. The pentagram of Venus is the apparent path of the planet Venus as observed from Earth, the tips of the five loops at the center of the figure have the same geometric relationship to one another as the five vertices, or points, of a pentagram. Groups of five intersections of curves, equidistant from the center, have the same geometric relationship. In early monumental Sumerian script, or cuneiform, a pentagram glyph served as a logogram for the word ub, meaning corner, angle, nook, the word Pentemychos was the title of the cosmogony of Pherecydes of Syros. Here, the five corners are where the seeds of Chronos are placed within the Earth in order for the cosmos to appear. The pentangle plays an important symbolic role in the 14th-century English poem Sir Gawain, heinrich Cornelius Agrippa and others perpetuated the popularity of the pentagram as a magic symbol, attributing the five neoplatonic elements to the five points, in typical Renaissance fashion. By the mid-19th century a distinction had developed amongst occultists regarding the pentagrams orientation. With a single point upwards it depicted spirit presiding over the four elements of matter, however, the influential writer Eliphas Levi called it evil whenever the symbol appeared the other way up. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns and it is the sign of antagonism and fatality. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, faust, The pentagram thy peace doth mar