Dodge City, Kansas

Dodge City is the county seat of Ford County, United States, named after nearby Fort Dodge. The city is famous in American culture for its history as a wild frontier town of the Old West; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 27,340. Fort Mann was the first settlement of nonindigenous people in the area that became Dodge City, built by civilians in 1847 to provide protection for travelers on the Santa Fe Trail. Fort Mann collapsed in 1848 after an Indian attack. In 1850, the U. S. Army arrived to provide protection in the region and constructed Fort Atkinson on the old Fort Mann site; the army abandoned Fort Atkinson in 1853. Military forces on the Santa Fe Trail were re-established farther north and east at Fort Larned in 1859, but the area remained vacant around what would become Dodge City until the end of the Civil War. In April 1865, the Indian Wars in the West began heating up, the army constructed Fort Dodge to assist Fort Larned in providing protection on the Santa Fe Trail. Fort Dodge remained in operation until 1882.

The town of Dodge City can trace its origins to 1871, when rancher Henry J. Sitler built a sod house west of Fort Dodge to oversee his cattle operations in the region, conveniently located near the Santa Fe Trail and Arkansas River, Sitler's house became a stopping point for travelers. Others saw the commercial potential of the region with the Santa Fe Railroad approaching from the east. In 1872, Dodge City was staked out on the 100th meridian and the legal western boundary of the Fort Dodge reservation; the town site was platted and George M. Hoover established the first bar in a tent to serve thirsty soldiers from Fort Dodge; the railroad arrived in September to find a town ready and waiting for business. The early settlers in Dodge City traded in buffalo bones and hides and provided a civilian community for Fort Dodge. However, with the arrival of the railroad, Dodge City soon became involved in the cattle trade; the idea of driving Texas Longhorn cattle from Texas to railheads in Kansas originated in the late 1850s, but was cut short by the Civil War.

In 1866, the first Texas cattle started arriving in Baxter Springs in southeastern Kansas by way of the Shawnee Trail. However, Texas Longhorn cattle carried a tick that spread Texas cattle fever, among other breeds of cattle. Alarmed Kansas farmers persuaded the Kansas State Legislature to establish a quarantine line in central Kansas; the quarantine prohibited Texas Longhorns from the settled, eastern portion of the state. With the cattle trade forced west, Texas Longhorns began moving north along the Chisholm Trail. In 1867, the main cowtown was Kansas. Profits were high, other towns joined in the cattle boom: Newton in 1871, Ellsworth in 1872, Wichita in 1872. However, in 1876, the Kansas State Legislature responded to pressure from farmers settling in central Kansas and once again shifted the quarantine line westward, which eliminated Abilene and the other cowtowns from the cattle trade. With no place else to go, Dodge City became the "queen of the cow towns". A new route known as the Great Western Cattle Trail or Western Trail branched off from the Chisholm Trail to lead cattle into Dodge City.

Dodge City became a boomtown, with thousands of cattle passing annually through its stockyards. The peak years of the cattle trade in Dodge City were from 1883 to 1884, during that time the town grew tremendously. In 1880, Dodge City got a new competitor for the cattle trade from the border town of Caldwell. For a few years, the competition between the towns was fierce, but enough cattle were available for both towns to prosper. Dodge City became famous, no town could match its reputation as a true frontier settlement of the Old West. Dodge City had more famous gunfighters working at one time or another than any other town in the West, many of whom participated in the Dodge City War of 1883, it boasted the usual array of saloons, gambling halls, brothels, including the famous Long Branch Saloon and China Doll brothel. For a time in 1884, Dodge City had a bullfighting ring where Mexican bullfighters would put on a show with specially chosen Longhorn bulls; as more agricultural settlers moved into western Kansas, pressure increased on the Kansas State Legislature to do something about splenic fever.

In 1885, the quarantine line was extended across the state and the Western Trail was all but shut down. By 1886, the cowboys, saloon keepers and brothel owners moved west to greener pastures, Dodge City became a sleepy little town much like other communities in western Kansas. Dodge City is located at 37°45′35″N 100°1′6″W at an elevation of 2,493 ft, it lies on the Arkansas River in the High Plains region of the Great Plains. The city sits above one of the world's largest underground water systems, the Ogallala Aquifer, is 25 miles from the eastern edge of the Hugoton Natural Gas Area. Located at the intersection of U. S. Routes 50, 56 and 283 in southwestern Kansas, Dodge City is 151 mi west of Wichita, 199 mi northeast of Amarillo, 301 mi southeast of Denver. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.55 square miles, of which 14.44 square miles is land and 0.11 square miles is water. Dodge City lies at the intersection of North America's semi-arid and humid subtropical climate zones, with hot summers variable winters, both warm and cold periods, low to moderate humidity and precipitation throughout the year.

Areas to the west are drier and more semi-

Mindoro (province)

Mindoro was a province of the Philippines from 1921 until 1950 when it was split into two provinces, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro. It is located on Mindoro island, Philippines Legend has it that long before the Spaniards discovered the Philippines, Mindoro was among the islands that enchanted pilgrims from other countries, it was said that vast wealth was buried in the area, mystic temples of gold and images of anitos bedecked the sacred grounds of this unknown land. The Spaniards named the island Mina de Oro, believing it had large deposits of gold; the history of Mindoro dates back before the Spanish time. Records have it. Trade relations with China where Mindoro was known as Mai started when certain traders from "Mai" brought valuable merchandise to Canton in 892 A. D; the geographic proximity of the island to China Sea had made possible the establishment of such relations with Chinese merchantmen long before the first Europeans came to the Philippines. Historians claimed that China-Mindoro relations must have been earlier than 892 A.

D. the year when the first ship from Mindoro was recorded to have sailed for China. Historians believed that the first inhabitants of Mindoro were the Indonesians who came to the island 8,000 to 3,000 years ago. After the Indonesians, the Malays came from Southeast Asia around 200 B. C; the Malays were believed to have extensive cultural contact with India and Arabia long before they settled in Philippine Archipelago. The first European to visit Mindoro was Miguel López de Legazpi, the first Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines; when Legazpi conquered Cebu in 1565, he heard of a flourishing settlement in Luzon. The search for abundant food evidently lacking in most Visayas Islands prompted the exploration leading to the discovery of this island. Captain Martin de Goiti, accompanied by Juan de Salcedo, sailed for Luzon. On May 8, 1570, they anchored somewhere in Mindoro Coast, north of Panay. Salcedo and de Goiti had the chance to explore the western part of the island Ilin and Lubang. From Ilin, Salcedo sailed north of Mamburao where he found two Chinese vessels containing precious cargo of gold thread, cotton cloth, gilded porcelain bowls and water jugs to be exchanged for gold with the natives of Mindoro.

The Spanish discovered two Muslim forts, which they captured, in the nearby island of Lubang. In 1571, Miguel López de Legazpi brought the natives under the Spanish rule; the evangelization of Mindoro started in 1572 through the Augustinians. In 1578 the Franciscans took over and ten years the secular priests. In the seventeenth century did a new phase in Christianization begin for the Mangyans were visited by missionaries; the Jesuits erected seven “reducciones” in 1636. It was in these settlements that Mangyans from the inaccessible forests and hills were induced to settle down and be baptized as Christians. Mindoro, integrated into the province of Bonbon together with Marinduque, was made a separate province in the beginning of the seventeenth century; the island was divided into pueblos headed by gobernadorcillo and composed of several barangays headed by cabeza de barangay. A place now called Bayanan in present-day Minolo in Puerto Galera became the first provincial capital Baco and Calapan, founded in 1679 as a result of conflict between the Recollect priests and the Provincial Governor.

In 1801, the Spanish authorities started a program of re-populating Mindoro but such attempts failed since the people were afraid to migrate to the province. Those who were sent to Mindoro still returned to their homes after several years, it was only in the second half of the 19th century that the island's population started to increase due to demographic pressure in the main settlement centers. This resulted in the founding of new administrative units; the number of pueblos increased and education expanded. However, the number of teachers available was limited such that few were able to read and write and speak Spanish; these people formed the small native upper class in the province. In terms of trade and agriculture, change came slowly to Mindoro. In 1870, only minor quantities of crops were shipped out to Batangas due to neglected agricultural development; the coal mines between Bulalacao and Semirara Island were discovered in 1879. In 1898, the Spanish colonial government granted titles for nine coal mines but exploitation in large quantities never took place.

When the Philippine Revolution broke out in 1898, Mindoreños rallied to overthrow the Spanish Government in the province. This was not for social changes but an anti-colonial war to gain independence. However, their victory was short lived because the events that followed marked the beginning of the American Regime in the Philippines; the victory of Admiral Dewey over the Spaniards in Manila on August 13, 1898 brought about general changes in Mindoro. A general primary school system with English as the language of instruction was established. Calapan port was opened to inter-island commerce; the U. S. Army Signal Corps connecting Calapan and Batangas installed a series of military cables. Land telegraph for public use was installed in Calapan and Naujan. With the construction of provincial road along the east coast, the most important towns of the province were connected with one another. Free trade was established between the U. S. A. and the Philippines that brought about significant changes in the economy of Mindoro.

Infrastructure and economic measures were adopted which induced massiv

Léon-Victor Solon

Léon-Victor Solon, son of ceramist Marc-Louis Solon, was an English painter and graphic artist. He was a purveyor of the Art Nouveau and Art Deco styles. Solon was the eldest son of Marc-Louis Solon, employee of the factory Mintons in Stoke-on-Trent, Laure Arnoux, daughter of the artistic director there, Léon Arnoux, he was the brother of fellow artists, Camille Solon and Albert Solon of Solon and Schemmel Tile Company His grave is located in Lakeland, Florida. Solon was artistic director of Mintons between 1900 and 1909, made an important contribution to the development of art nouveau in the Minton ceramic collections. In 1901, he was joined by John William Wadsworth and both incorporated motifs borrowed from the Viennese secessionist movement, he specialized in tube-lined vases and plaques marketed as "secessionist ware". While based in Staffordshire, he worked not only in ceramics, but in other local industries: he produced textile designs for the Wardle family of silk dyers and printers based in Leek.

T. Bagguley, of Newcastle-under-Lyme, who patented the Sutherland binding technique in 1895. Solon emigrated to the United States in 1909 and in 1912 he became the artistic director of the American Encaustic Tiling Company based in Zanesville, specialized in the production of tile with slip decoration. Leon V. Solon designed the color scheme for Rockefeller Center and was responsible for the polychroming of the famous sculptural decorations on the exterior of Rockefeller Center. Solon first colored Lee Lawrie's Wisdom and Light sculpture at the entrance of 30 Rockefeller Plaza and due to the quality of his work he was hired to be the colorist for the entire public art project at Rockefeller Center, he is one of the artists associated with the creation of the pediment of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. In describing his polychrome work on the pediment, Solon stated, “Greek principle was adhered to. Polychromy: Architectural and Structural and Practice; the Architectural Record, New York, 1924.

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