A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle that slides across the surface of ice or snow. It is built with either a smooth underside or a separate body supported by two or more smooth narrow, longitudinal runners similar in principle to skis; this reduces the amount of friction. Some designs are used to transport passengers or cargo across level ground. Others are designed to go downhill for recreation by children, or competition. Shades of meaning differentiating the three terms reflect regional variations depending on historical uses and prevailing climate. In British English, sledge is the general term, more common than sled. Toboggan is sometimes used synonymously with sledge but more to refer to a particular type of sledge without runners. Sleigh refers to a moderate to large-sized open-topped vehicle to carry passengers or goods, drawn by horses, dogs, or reindeer. In American usage sled remains the general term but implies a smaller device for recreational use. Sledge implies a heavier sled used for moving freight or massive objects.
Sleigh refers more than in Britain to a vehicle, a cold-season alternative to a carriage or wagon and has seating for passengers. In Australia, where there is limited snow and sledge are given equal preference in local parlance; the word sled comes from Middle English sledde, which itself has the origins in Middle Dutch word slēde, meaning "sliding" or "slider". The same word shares common ancestry with both sledge; the word sleigh, on the other hand, is an anglicized form of the modern Dutch word "slee" and was introduced to the English language by Dutch immigrants to North America. Sleds are useful in winter but can be drawn over wet fields, muddy roads, hard ground if one helps them along by greasing the blades with oil or alternatively wetting them with water. For an explanation of why sleds and other objects glide with various degrees of friction ranging from little to little friction on ice, icy snow, wet snow, dry snow, see the relevant sections in the articles on ice and ice skating.
The traditional explanation of the pressure of sleds on the snow or ice producing a thin film of water and this enabling sleds to move on ice with little friction is incorrect. Various types of sleds are pulled by animals such as reindeer, mules, oxen, or dogs; the people of Ancient Egypt are thought to have used sledges extensively in the construction of their public works, in particular for the transportation of heavy obelisks over sand. Sleds and sledges were found in the Oseberg "Viking" ship excavation; the sledge was highly prized, because – unlike wheeled vehicles – it was exempt from tolls. Until the late 19th century, a closed winter sled, or vozok, provided a high-speed means of transport through the snow-covered plains of European Russia and Siberia, it was a means of transport preferred by royals and boyars of Muscovy. Several royal vozoks of historical importance have been preserved in the Kremlin Armoury. Man-hauled sledges were the traditional means of transport on British exploring expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic regions in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Dog sleds were used by most others, such as Roald Amundsen. Some of these used draft animals but are now more to be pulled by an engine; some use human power. The word "motor sled" is colloquial term for a snowmobile The Inuit qamutiik is uniquely adapted for travel on the sea ice; the pulk is a traditional sled of the Lapland region, used for expeditions, mountain rescue, cold weather military units to haul equipment and passengers. Rescue toboggan, developed from the pulk Stone boat, a farm vehicle used for moving heavy objects such as stones or haybales. Today some people use kites to tow exploration sleds. There are several types of recreational sleds designed for sliding down snowy hills: Toboggan, an elongated sled without runners made from wood or plastic, but sometimes made from sheet metal. Saucer, a round sled curved like a saucer without runners and made out of plastic or metal Flexible Flyer, a steerable wooden sled with thin metal runners Kicksled or spark, a human-powered sled Inflatable sled or tube, a plastic membrane filled with air to make a lightweight sled, like an inner tube Foam slider, a flat piece of durable foam with handles and a smooth underside Backcountry sled, a deep, steerable plastic sled to kneel on with pads and a seat belt Airboard, a snow bodyboard, i.e. an inflatable single-person sled A few types of sleds are used only for a specific sport: Bobsled, an aerodynamic composite-bodied vehicle on lightweight runners Luge and the skeleton, tiny one or two-person sleds with runners A cutter is a North American type of small horse-drawn sled.
Troika, a vehicle drawn by three horses a sled, but it may be a wheeled carriage In truck and tractor pulling, an implement pulled behind the machine which uses friction to stop the machine Snowboard Travois, a frame used to drag loads over land, i.e. another horse-drawn transport method without wheels
Husky is a general name for a sled-type of dog used in northern regions, differentiated from other sled-dog types by their fast pulling style. They are an ever-changing cross-breed of the fastest dogs; the Alaskan Malamute, by contrast, was used for pulling heavier loads. Huskies are used in sled dog racing. In recent years, companies have been marketing tourist treks with dog sledges for adventure travelers in snow regions as well. Huskies are today kept as pets, groups work to find new pet homes for retired racing and adventure trekking dogs; the word husky originated from the word referring to aboriginal Arctic people, in general, Eskimo, "...known as'huskies', a contraction of'Huskimos', the pronunciation given to the word'Eskimos' by the English sailors of trading vessels." The use of husky is recorded from 1852 for dogs kept by Inuit people. Nearly all dogs' genetic closeness to the gray wolf is due to admixture. However, several Arctic breeds show a genetic closeness with the now-extinct Taimyr wolf of North Asia due to admixture: the Siberian Husky and Greenland dog and to a lesser extent, the Shar Pei and Finnish spitz.
An admixture graph of the Greenland dog indicates a best-fit of 3.5% shared material. This introgression could have provided early dogs living in high latitudes with phenotypic variation beneficial for adaption to a new and challenging environment, contributing to the development of the husky, it indicates that the ancestry of present-day dog breeds descends from more than one region. Huskies are athletic, they have a thick double coat that can be gray, copper red, or white. Their eyes are pale blue, although they may be brown, blue, yellow, or heterochromic. Huskies are more prone to some degree of uveitis than most other breeds. Husky type dogs were landrace breeds kept by Arctic indigenous peoples. Examples of these landraces in modern times have been selectively bred and registered with various kennel clubs as modern purebred breeds, including the Siberian Husky and the Labrador Husky; the Sakhalin Husky is a Japanese sled dog related to the Akita Inu. The Mackenzie River husky is a subtype referring to different dog populations in the subarctic regions of the American state of Alaska and Canada.
Since many owners now have husky dogs as pets in settings that are not ideal for sledding, other activities have been found that are good for the dog and fun for the owner. Skijoring is an alternative to sled pulling, but used in somewhat the same environment as sledding with the exception that the owner does not need a full pack in order to participate. Dog hiking is an alternative for owners; the owner travels with their dogs along trails in the wilderness. This activity allows the owner and dog to gain exercise without using the huskies' strong sense of pulling; some companies make hiking equipment for dogs in which they may carry their own gear including water and bowls for each. Carting known as dryland mushing or sulky driving, is an urban alternative to dog sledding. Here, the dog can pull a cart which contains an individual; these carts can hand-made by the individual. Bikejoring is an activity where the owner bikes along with their dog while they are attached to their bike through a harness which keeps both the dog and owner safe.
The dog, or team of dogs can be attached to a towline to pull the biker. The phrase three dog night, meaning it is so cold you would need three dogs in bed with you to keep warm, originated with the Chukchi people of Siberia, who kept the Siberian husky landrace dog that became the modern purebred breed of Siberian Husky. Huskies are the mascots of several post-secondary institutions in the United States, including the University of Washington, the University of Connecticut, the Houston Baptist University, Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, Northeastern University, Michigan Technological University, Northern Illinois University, St. Cloud State University, University of Southern Maine, the University of Wisconsin-Marathon County, they are the mascots for Saint Mary's University, George Brown College, the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The World War II Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943 was called "Operation Husky". Huskies have been the subject of several motion pictures in the context of sledding, including Balto, Iron Will, Snow Dogs, Eight Below.
The Twilight Saga, which features werewolves, the TV series Game of Thrones, which featured dire wolves during season one, are thought to have inspired a surge in popularity for husky breeds. The television series Due South features a half husky, half wolf named "Diefenbaker" as a major character on the show
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere and undergo changes on the Earth's surface. It pertains to frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size and accumulate on surfaces metamorphose in place, melt, slide or sublimate away. Snowstorms develop by feeding on sources of atmospheric moisture and cold air. Snowflakes nucleate around particles in the atmosphere by attracting supercooled water droplets, which freeze in hexagonal-shaped crystals. Snowflakes take on a variety of shapes, basic among these are platelets, needles and rime; as snow accumulates into a snowpack, it may blow into drifts. Over time, accumulated snow metamorphoses, by sintering and freeze-thaw. Where the climate is cold enough for year-to-year accumulation, a glacier may form. Otherwise, snow melts seasonally, causing runoff into streams and rivers and recharging groundwater. Major snow-prone areas include the polar regions, the upper half of the Northern Hemisphere and mountainous regions worldwide with sufficient moisture and cold temperatures.
In the Southern Hemisphere, snow is confined to mountainous areas, apart from Antarctica. Snow affects such human activities as transportation: creating the need for keeping roadways and windows clear. Snow affects ecosystems, as well, by providing an insulating layer during winter under which plants and animals are able to survive the cold. Snow develops in clouds; the physics of snow crystal development in clouds results from a complex set of variables that include moisture content and temperatures. The resulting shapes of the falling and fallen crystals can be classified into a number of basic shapes and combinations, thereof; some plate-like and stellar-shaped snowflakes can form under clear sky with a cold temperature inversion present. Snow clouds occur in the context of larger weather systems, the most important of, the low pressure area, which incorporate warm and cold fronts as part of their circulation. Two additional and locally productive sources of snow are lake-effect storms and elevation effects in mountains.
Mid-latitude cyclones are low pressure areas which are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild snow storms to heavy blizzards. During a hemisphere's fall and spring, the atmosphere over continents can be cold enough through the depth of the troposphere to cause snowfall. In the Northern Hemisphere, the northern side of the low pressure area produces the most snow. For the southern mid-latitudes, the side of a cyclone that produces the most snow is the southern side. A cold front, the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, can produce frontal snowsqualls—an intense frontal convective line, when temperature is near freezing at the surface; the strong convection that develops has enough moisture to produce whiteout conditions at places which line passes over as the wind causes intense blowing snow. This type of snowsquall lasts less than 30 minutes at any point along its path but the motion of the line can cover large distances. Frontal squalls may form a short distance ahead of the surface cold front or behind the cold front where there may be a deepening low pressure system or a series of trough lines which act similar to a traditional cold frontal passage.
In situations where squalls develop post-frontally it is not unusual to have two or three linear squall bands pass in rapid succession only separated by 25 miles with each passing the same point in 30 minutes apart. In cases where there is a large amount of vertical growth and mixing the squall may develop embedded cumulonimbus clouds resulting in lightning and thunder, dubbed thundersnow. A warm front can produce snow for a period, as warm, moist air overrides below-freezing air and creates precipitation at the boundary. Snow transitions to rain in the warm sector behind the front. Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward shores; the same effect occurs over bodies of salt water, when it is termed ocean-effect or bay-effect snow. The effect is enhanced when the moving air mass is uplifted by the orographic influence of higher elevations on the downwind shores.
This uplifting can produce narrow but intense bands of precipitation, which deposit at a rate of many inches of snow each hour resulting in a large amount of total snowfall. The areas affected by lake-effect snow are called snowbelts; these include areas east of the Great Lakes, the west coasts of northern Japan, the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, areas near the Great Salt Lake, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Baltic Sea, parts of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Orographic or relief snowfall is caused when masses of air pushed by wind are forced up the side of elevated land formations, such as large mountains; the lifting of air up the side of a mountain or range results in adiabatic cooling, condensation and precipitation. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier, warmer air on the leeward side; the resulting enhanced productivity of snow fall and the decrease in temperature with elevation means that snow depth
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern
The Siberian Husky is a medium size working dog breed that originated in Northeast Asia. The breed belongs to the Spitz genetic family. With proper training, they make great sled dogs, it is recognizable by its thickly furred double coat, erect triangular ears, distinctive markings, is smaller than a similar-looking dog, the Alaskan Malamute. The original Siberian Huskies were bred by the Chukchi people — whose hunter-gatherer culture relied on their help, it is an active, resilient breed, whose ancestors lived in the cold and harsh environment of the Siberian Arctic. William Goosak, a Russian fur trader, introduced them to Nome, Alaska during the Nome Gold Rush as sled dogs; the people of Nome referred to Siberian Huskies as "Siberian Rats" due to their size of 40–50 lb, versus the Malamutes size of 75–85 lb. The first dogs arrived in the Americas 12,000 years ago; the Siberian Husky was developed by the Chukchi people of the Chukchi Peninsula in eastern Siberia. They were brought to Alaska, in 1908 for sled-dog racing.
In 1989, a study was made of ancient canis remains dated to the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene, uncovered by miners decades earlier around Fairbanks, Alaska. These were identified as Canis lupus and described as "short-faced wolves"; the collection was separated into those specimens that looked more wolf-like, those that looked more dog-like and in comparison to the skulls of Eskimo dogs from both Greenland and Siberia thought to be their forerunners. In 2015, a study using a number of genetic markers indicated that the Siberian Husky, the Alaskan Malamute and the Alaskan husky share a close genetic relationship between each other and were related to Chukotka sled dogs from Siberia, they were separate to the Canadian Eskimo Dog and the Greenland dog. In North America, the Siberian Husky and the Malamute both had maintained their Siberian lineage and had contributed to the Alaskan husky, which showed evidence of crossing with European breeds that were consistent with this breed being created in post-colonial North America.
Nearly all dog breeds' genetic closeness to the gray wolf is due to admixture. However, several Arctic dog breeds show a genetic closeness with the now-extinct Taymyr wolf of North Asia due to admixture; these breeds are associated with high latitudes - the Siberian Husky and Greenland dog that are associated with arctic human populations and to a lesser extent, the Shar Pei and Finnish spitz. An admixture graph of the Greenland dog indicates a best-fit of 3.5% shared material, however an ancestry proportion ranging between 1.4% and 27.3% is consistent with the data. This indicates admixture between the Taymyr wolf population and the ancestral dog population of these 4 high-latitude breeds; this introgression could have provided early dogs living in high latitudes with phenotypic variation beneficial for adaption to a new and challenging environment. It indicates the ancestry of present-day dog breeds descends from more than one region. A Siberian Husky's coat is thicker than that of most other dog breeds, comprising two layers: a dense undercoat and a longer topcoat of short, straight guard hairs.
It protects the dogs against harsh Arctic winters, but the coat reflects heat in the summer. It is able to withstand temperatures as low as −50 to −60 °C; the undercoat is absent during shedding. Their thick coats require weekly grooming. Siberian Huskies come in a variety of colors and patterns with white paws and legs, facial markings, tail tip; the most common coats are black and white less common copper-red and white and white, pure white, the rare "agouti" coat, though many individuals have blondish or piebald spotting. Striking masks and other facial markings occur in wide variety. Merle coat patterns are not allowed; the American Kennel Club allows all coat colors from black to pure white. The American Kennel Club describes the Siberian Husky's eyes as "an almond shape, moderately spaced and set obliquely." The AKC breed standard is that eyes may be blue or black. These eye-color combinations are considered acceptable by the American Kennel Club; the parti-color does not affect the vision of the dog.
Show-quality dogs are preferred to have neither square noses. The nose is black in gray dogs, tan in black dogs, liver in copper-colored dogs, may be light tan in white dogs. In some instances, Siberian Huskies can exhibit what is called "snow nose" or "winter nose." This condition is called hypopigmentation in animals. "Snow nose" is acceptable in the show ring. Siberian Husky tails are furred; as pictured, when curled up to sleep the Siberian Husky will cover its nose for warmth referred to as the "Siberian Swirl". The tail should be expressive, held low when the dog is relaxed, curved upward in a "sickle" shape when excited or interested in something, it should be symmetrical, not curved or deviated to the side. The breed standard indicates that the males of the breed are ideally between 20 and 24 inches tall at the withers and weighing between 35 and 65 pounds. Females are smaller, growing to between 19 to 23 inches tall at the withers and weighing between
Sled dogs were important for transportation in arctic areas, hauling supplies in areas that were inaccessible by other methods. They were used with varying success in the explorations of both poles, as well as during the Alaskan gold rush. Sled dog teams delivered mail to rural communities in northern Canada. Sled dogs today are still used by some rural communities in areas of Alaska and Canada and throughout Greenland, they are used for recreational purposes and racing events, such as the Iditarod Trail and the Yukon Quest. Sled dogs are used in Canada, Greenland, Chukotka, Norway and Alaska. A 2017 study showed that 9,000 years ago the domestic dog was present at what is now Zhokhov Island, arctic north-eastern Siberia, which at that time was connected to the mainland; the dogs were selectively bred as either sled dogs or hunting dogs, implying that a sled dog standard and a hunting dog standard co-existed. The optimal maximum size for a sled dog is 20–25 kg based on themo-regulation, the ancient sled dogs were between 16–25 kg.
The same standard has been found in the remains of sled dogs from this region 2,000 years ago and in the modern Siberian husky breed standard. Other dogs were more massive at 30 kg and appear to be dogs, crossed with wolves and used for polar bear hunting. At death, the heads of the dogs had been separated from their bodies by humans and is thought to be for ceremonial reasons; the Danish military act as the police in Greenland and conduct sled dog patrols during the winter, which record all sighted wildlife. The number of patrols averaged 14,876 km/year during 1978-1998. By 2011, the arctic wolf had re-populated eastern Greenland from their reserve in the northeast through following these dog-sled patrols over distances of up to 560 kilometers. Historical references of the dogs and dog harnesses that were used by Native American cultures date back to before European contact; the use of dogs as draft animals was widespread in North America. There were two main kinds of sled dogs; these interior dogs formed the basis of the Alaskan Husky.
Russian traders following the Yukon River inland in the mid-1800s acquired sled dogs from the interior villages along the river. The dogs of this area were reputed to be stronger and better at hauling heavy loads than the native Russian sled dogs; the Alaskan Gold Rush brought renewed interest in the use of sled dogs as transportation. Most gold camps were accessible only by dogsled in the winter. "Everything that moved during the frozen season moved by dog team. This, along with the dogs' use in the exploration of the poles, led to the late 1800s and early 1900s being nicknamed the "Era of the Sled Dog". Sled dogs were used to deliver the mail in Alaska during the late early 1900s. Malamutes were the favored breed, with teams averaging eight to ten dogs. Dogs were capable of delivering mail in conditions that would stop boats and horses; each team hauled between 320 kilograms of mail. The mail was stored in waterproofed bags to protect it from the snow. By 1901, dog trails had been established along the entirety of the Yukon River.
Mail delivery by dog sled came to an end in 1963 when the last mail carrier to use a dog sled, Chester Noongwook of Savoonga, retired. He was honored by the US Postal Service in a ceremony on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Airplanes took over Alaskan mail delivery in the 1930s. In 1924, Carl Ben Eielson flew the first Alaskan airmail delivery. Dogsleds were used to patrol western Alaska during World War II. Highways and trucking in the 40s and 50s, the snowmobile in the 50s and 60s, contributed to the decline of the working sled dog. Recreational mushing came into place to maintain the tradition of dog mushing; the desire for larger, load-pulling dogs changed to one for faster dogs with high endurance used in racing, which caused the dogs to become lighter than they were historically. Americans began to import Siberian Huskies to increase the speed of their own dogs, presenting "a direct contrast to the idea that Russian traders sought heavier draft-type sled dogs from the Interior regions of Alaska and the Yukon less than a century earlier to increase the hauling capacity of their lighter sled dogs."Outside of Alaska, dog-drawn carts were used to haul peddler's wares in cities like New York.
In 1925, there was a diphtheria outbreak in Alaska. There was not enough serum in Nome to treat the number of people infected by the disease. There was serum in Nenana, but the town was 1,100 kilometres away, inaccessible except by dog sled. A dog sled relay was set up by the villages between Nenana and Nome, 20 teams worked together to relay the serum to Nome; the serum reached Nome in six days. The Iditarod Trail was established on the path between these two towns, it was known as the Iditarod Trail. During the 1940s, the trail fell into disuse. However, in 1967, Dorothy Page, conducting Alaska's centennial celebration, ordered 14 kilometres of the trail to be cleared for a dog sled race. In 1972, the US Army performed a survey of the trail, in 1973 the Iditarod was established by Joe Redington, Sr; the race was won by Dick Wilmarth. The modern Iditarod is a 1,800-kilometre-long endurance sled dog race, it lasts for ten to eleven days, weather permitting. It begins with a ceremonial start in Anchorage, Alaska on the morning of t