Festen is a 1998 Danish film, produced by Nimbus Film and directed by Thomas Vinterberg. It was released under the title The Celebration in the United States, the film tells the story of a family gathering to celebrate their fathers 60th birthday. At the dinner, the eldest son publicly accuses his father of sexually abusing him and his twin sister. Vinterberg was inspired to write it with Mogens Rukov, based on a hoax broadcast by a Danish radio station and it was the first film created under Dogme 95 rules, a movement of young Danish film makers who preferred simple production values and naturalistic performances. The film was selected as the Danish entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 71st Academy Awards, respected family patriarch and businessman Helge is celebrating his 60th birthday at the family-run hotel. Gathered together amongst many family and friends are his wife Else, his sullen eldest son Christian, his well-traveled daughter Helene, christians twin sister, has recently taken her life at the hotel.
Before the celebration dinner, Helene finds Lindas suicide note, Michael fights with his wife, whom he had earlier abandoned on the roadside with their three children, and has sex with her. Michael is pulled aside by a waitress with whom he had an affair, during dinner, Christian makes a speech to the family in which he accuses his father Helge of sexually abusing him and his late sister Linda. There is an initial shocked silence, but the party returns to normal. In a private conversation in the pantry, a seemingly baffled Helge asks Christian about his motivations for slandering him, Christian is spurred to further action by hotel chef Kim, a childhood friend who knows about the abuse. Christian stands up and continues his toast by accusing Helge of causing Lindas death, Christian says nothing in response to the threat. Christian responds by accusing her of interrupting Helge during one of the rapes, yet not interfering with the incident and two other guests violently eject Christian from the hotel.
When Christian walks back in, they beat Christian and tie him to a tree in the nearby woods, Christian unties himself and returns to the house. Helene has a headache and asks one of the waitresses to go, Pia finds Lindas suicide note in the medicine bottle and gives it to Christian. Christian gives the note to Helene and leaves a note with the toastmaster. The toastmaster reads aloud the note that urges Helene to read the note to the guests. Lindas note states that she decided to herself after feeling overwhelmed by dreams in which her father was molesting her again. In a fit of anger, Helge admits to the abuse in front of all the guests by saying that it was all Christian was good for and he leaves the dining room with the guests stunned
Martinus Wouter Martin Koolhoven is a Dutch film director and screenwriter. He directed the Dutch-language films Schnitzel Paradise, Knetter, n Beetje Verliefd, almost immediately, he made an impact on the Dutch film industry with his 53-minute television film Duister Licht in which the slaughtering of a pig was shown. The film was nominated twice at the Dutch Film Festival and it was his next film however that established his name, outside of the Netherlands. Suzy Q became the most awarded Dutch film of 1999 and established both Koolhovens career and that of actress Carice van Houten, who Koolhoven worked with several times in the films to come. His first film for the cinema, AmnesiA, got a small release in New York City. Koolhoven was one of the New Faces In European Cinema as presented at the AFI festival in 2004, Koolhoven started off with strongly stylized films that were all hailed by the critics, but never gained commercial success. In 2005 that changed when he went into the mainstream with Schnitzel Paradise, that not only got him rave reviews, the film was shown at many international film festivals The film was sold to more than 20 countries, which is a remarkable amount for a Dutch film.
In the same year Koolhoven released Bonkers, which became his most awarded film. He was the first director to have two films in the Dutch box office top 20, N Beetje Verliefd was his third hit film in two years time, earning him another Golden Film. It was followed in 2008 by Oorlogswinter, a Dutch movie based on the hit novel by the name, written by Jan Terlouw. The movie was praised by almost all critics and was a success at the box office. Winter in Wartime grossed more money than all previous movies Koolhoven made together, the movie outgrossed competing movies like The Dark Knight and Twilight and was the Dutch entry for the Academy Awards. It made the shortlist of 9 movies, but failed to get nominated, the movie is being distributed in the United States by Sony Classics. In 2011, Koolhoven started his own company, together with producer Els Vandevorst. Koolhoven latest project is the thriller/western, called Brimstone, which was his first production for N279 Entertainment as a director and it premiered September 32016 at the 73rd Venice International Film Festival.
All his films have won awards at the Dutch Film Festival, but Koolhovens work has won awards in France, Lithuania, Surinam, Uruguay, Spain. Films Chess – short film KOEKOEK
35 mm film
35 mm film is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography. The name of the gauge refers to the width of the photographic film, the standard negative pulldown for movies is four perforations per frame along both edges, which results in 16 frames per foot of film. For still photography, the frame has eight perforations on each side. This resulted in cameras and other equipment having to be calibrated to each gauge, the 35 mm width, originally specified as 1.375 inches, was introduced in 1892 by William Dickson and Thomas Edison, using film stock supplied by George Eastman. The gauge has been versatile in application, Eastman Kodak and Agfa-Gevaert are some companies which offered 35 mm films. Today Kodak is the last remaining manufacturer of motion picture film and it is difficult to compare the quality of film to digital media but a good estimate would be about 20.8 million total pixels would equal one 35 millimeter high quality color frame of film. In 1880, George Eastman began to manufacture gelatin dry plates in Rochester.
Along with W. H. Walker, Eastman invented a holder for a roll of picture-carrying gelatin layer coated paper, hannibal Goodwins invention of nitrocellulose film base in 1887 was the first transparent, flexible film. With the advent of film, Thomas Alva Edison quickly set out on his invention, the Kinetoscope. The Kinetoscope was a loop system intended for one-person viewing. Edison, along with assistant W. K. L. Dickson, followed that up with the Kinetophone, beginning in March 1892, Eastman and then, from April 1893 into 1896, New Yorks Blair Camera Co. supplied Edison with film stock. Edisons aperture defined a single frame of film at 4 perforations high, a court judgment in March 1902 invalidated Edisons claim, allowing any producer or distributor to use the Edison 35 mm film design without license. Filmmakers were already doing so in Britain and Europe, where Edison had failed to file patents, at the time, film stock was usually supplied unperforated and punched by the filmmaker to their standards with perforation equipment.
A variation developed by the Lumière Brothers used a circular perforation on each side of the frame towards the middle of the horizontal axis.33 aspect ratio. Spehr describes the importance of these developments, The early acceptance of 35 mm as a standard had momentous impact on the development and spread of cinema. The film format was introduced into still photography as early as 1913 but first became popular with the launch of the Leica camera, created by Oskar Barnack in 1925. The costly image-forming silver compounds in a film stocks emulsion meant from the start that 35 mm filmmaking was to be a hobby with a high barrier to entry for the public at large. Furthermore, the film base of all early film stock was highly flammable
Thomas Vinterberg is a Danish film director who, along with Lars von Trier, co-founded the Dogme 95 movement in filmmaking, which established rules for simplifying movie production. Vinterberg was born in Frederiksberg and that year Vinterberg made his first TV drama for DR TV and his short fiction film The Boy Who Walked Backwards, produced by Birgitte Hald at Nimbus Film. His first feature film was The Biggest Heroes, a movie that received acclaim in his native Denmark. In 1995, Vinterberg formed the Dogme 95 movement with Lars von Trier, Kristian Levring, following that dogma in 1998, he conceived and directed the first of the Dogme movies, The Celebration. As per the rules of the Dogme manifesto, he did not take a directorial credit, however, he and the film won numerous nominations and awards, including the Jury Prize at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival. In 2003 he directed the science fiction love story Its All About Love. This movie was entirely in English and featured, among others, Joaquin Phoenix, Claire Danes, the movie did not do well, as critics and audiences found it idiosyncratic and somewhat incomprehensible.
His next film, the English-language Dear Wendy, scripted by Lars von Trier, however he won the Silver George for Best Director at the 27th Moscow International Film Festival. Vinterberg tried to retrace his roots with a smaller Danish-language production, En mand kommer hjem and he directed the music video for The Day That Never Comes, the first single off Metallicas album Death Magnetic. His 2010 film Submarino was nominated for the Golden Bear at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival, in 2012, his film The Hunt competed for the Palme dOr at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film award at the 86th Academy Awards. In 2015, he directed Far From The Madding Crowd, an adaptation of the acclaimed Thomas Hardy novel, starring Carey Mulligan, Matthias Schoenaerts, Michael Sheen, Vinterberg will reunite with Matthias Schoenaerts in Kursk, a film about the Kursk submarine disaster that happened in 2000. In April 2016, the French government appointed Vinterberg a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
Michael Mike Figgis is an English film director and composer. He was nominated for two Academy Awards for his work in Leaving Las Vegas, Figgis was born in Carlisle and grew up in Nairobi, Kenya until he was eight. The rest of his childhood was spent in Newcastle upon Tyne, figgiss early interest was in music and he played keyboards for Bryan Ferrys first band. In 1983 he directed a play, produced in Theatre Gerard-Philipe. This play performed with success at Festival de Grenada and in Theater der Welt. After working in theatre he made his film debut with the low budget Stormy Monday in 1988. The film earned him attention as a director who could get interesting performances from established Hollywood actors and he initially made a splash in America in the 1990s with the gritty thriller Internal Affairs that helped to revive the career of Richard Gere. His next Hollywood feature, Mr. Jones, was misunderstood by the studio and he followed this up with the romantic drama One Night Stand, starring Wesley Snipes and Nastassja Kinski, but the movie received a poor response from critics and was a commercial failure.
His most ambitious film to date is the low-budget film The Loss of Sexual Innocence, since then, his work output has almost exclusively been on the cutting edge of creative digital filmmaking, with the exception of star-laden Cold Creek Manor. He returned to the Timecode quad-screen approach for his section of Ten Minutes Older, but has worked on documentary pieces including a segment of The Blues. His curiosity with the use of time has led him to cite Robert Enricos 1962 film version of An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge as an influential film for him. He was the patron of the independent filmmakers online community Shooting People. At one of their events in 2005 he said that filmmaking with a digital camera made the experience more like painting or novel writing than the movie industry. In 2007, Figgis shot his newest feature Love Live Long set between Istanbul and Bratislava on the infamous Gumball 3000 Rally, starring Sophie Winkleman and Daniel Lapaine. Figgis, since 2008, has been professor of film studies at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, the ad comprised the screen split into four sections, each section showing one of four scenarios all on the same double-decker bus.
At the end of the ad, the scenarios were resolved. For several years, he had a relationship with the actress Saffron Burrows and he is the cousin of Irish filmmakers Jonathan Figgis and Jason Figgis, who run the award-winning film production company October Eleven Pictures. His sons and Louis Figgis, have followed their father into the industry, Arlen as an editor
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in part a matter of technique and training. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the depiction of lifeforms, perspective. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of realism, regionalism. There have been various movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, the realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the appearance of scenes. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism, realistic art was created in many periods, and it is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.
It becomes especially marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Jan van Eyck, however such realism is often used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had ever seen in real life. It is the choice and treatment of matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting. The development of increasingly accurate representation of the appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy. Pliny the Elders famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects. The art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy and gradually spread across Europe, and accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art.
As in classical times, idealism remained the norm, having led the development of illusionic painting, still life was to be equally significant in its abandonment in Cubism. The depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects in art has a history, though it was often squeezed into the edges of compositions. However these objects are at least largely there because they carry layers of complex significance, pieter Bruegel the Elder pioneered large panoramic scenes of peasant life
Le cygne, pronounced, or The Swan, is the 13th and penultimate movement of The Carnival of the Animals by Camille Saint-Saëns. Originally scored for solo cello accompanied by two pianos, it has been arranged and transcribed for many instruments but remains best known as a cello solo, the piece is in 6/4 time, with a key signature of G major and a tempo marking andantino grazioso. The slow cello melody is accompanied by almost constant broken chord figurations on the pianos, when performed as a separate movement, not in the context of The Carnival, The Swan is frequently played with accompaniment on only one piano. This is the movement from The Carnival of the Animals that the composer allowed to be played in public during his lifetime. He thought the remaining movements were too frivolous and would damage his reputation as a serious composer, Le cygne is often known as The Dying Swan, after a poem by Tennyson. According to tradition, the swan in Pavlovas dance is badly injured, Maya Plisetskaya re-interpreted the swan simply as elderly and stubbornly resisting the effects of aging, much like herself.
Eventually the piece came to be considered one of Pavlovas trademarks, in 1949 the American synchronized swimmer Beulah Gundling created a routine inspired by Fokines choreography and entitled The swan to Le cygne by Saint-Saëns. In the 1890s, Louis van Waefelghem adapted Le cygne for viola or viola damore, the edition was published by Durand in 1895. In Leonard Bernsteins famous recording of the piece with the New York Philharmonic the melody is performed on bass by a 20-year-old Gary Karr. Montserrat Caballé recorded a version in which she vocalizes sections of the melody accompanied by a piano, in the early 20th century, Clara Rockmore, the renowned thereminist, performed it on theremin with her sister Nadia Reisenberg accompanying her on the piano. Steven Mead arranged the piece for Euphonium and Piano in 1995, public-domain scores and recordings in the Petrucci Music Library Performance of Godowskys transcription of The Swan for solo piano by Jiyang Chen MP3 file of Le cygne Performance of Le cygne
Mark Ramos Nishita, known professionally as Money Mark, is an American producer and musician, best known for his collaborations with the Beastie Boys from 1992 until 2011. Born in Detroit to a Japanese-Hawaiian father and a Chicano mother and his first album Marks Keyboard Repair, was made up of keyboard driven pop-funk songs recorded at demo quality. Guy Ritchie used a song from the album in Lock Stock, MKR was followed up by the Third Version EP in 1996 and Push the Button in 1998, for which Mark received critical praise. Whereas his 1996 EP was similar to his debut, Push the Button was extremely eclectic, combining aspects of music and pop with soul, funk. This LP was met with reviews, as was his 2001 follow up Change is Coming which had a tropical yet danceable disco. Mark met the Beastie Boys during their migration to the West Coast and he helped them build a studio, and quickly became a principal collaborator. He has performed and collaborated on every Beastie Boys album from 1992s Check Your Head to the final album.
Mark co-authored the Grammy Award winning album The Mix-Up, Money Mark contributed the keyboard phrase that opens and underpins Where Its At from Becks 1996 album, Odelay. He played keyboards on tour for the Omar Rodriguez-Lopez Quintet in support of their self-titled album, in 1996, Money Mark contributed the song Use Your Head to the AIDS benefit album Red Hot + Rio produced by the Red Hot Organization. He contributed songs to Red Hots Silencio=Muerte, Red Hot + Latin, in 2004 Mark scored and played all instruments for HBOs first ever documentary prime time series, Family Bonds, directed by Steve Santor. In that same year, Mark contributed songs and score cues for Along Came Polly, Fun With Dick and Jane. In September 2006, Money Mark signed to Jack Johnsons Brushfire Records label, Brand New By Tomorrow, his first album with Brushfire, was released in February 2007. In late 2006, he opened for Gnarls Barkley at the Riviera Theatre in Chicago, in 2007, Money Mark and The Woodrow Jackson Orchestra recorded a cover version of Love Unlimited Orchestras Loves Theme for Engine Room Recordings compilation album Guilt by Association.
Money Mark composed original music for the 2008 documentary film Beautiful Losers, Mark scored and played all instruments for HBOs first ever documentary prime time series, Family Bonds, directed by Steve Santor. In 2011, he contributed the Mario C, the album is a follow-up to the 1996 Red Hot + Rio. Proceeds from the sales will be donated to raise awareness and money to fight AIDS/HIV and related health, Mark scored the Slamdance Audience Award- winning and critically acclaimed documentary film, Getting Up, The Tempt One Story. Money Mark, working with Mike McCready and Stefan Lessard, contributed to many of the used in the soundtrack to the 2011 film Horrible Bosses. He performed in 2011 with Karen O on her pop opera Stop the Virgens and he is now on DVDASA, a podcast with David Choe and Asa Akira every Tuesday and Thursday
A prop, formally known as property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production. In practical terms, a prop is considered to be anything movable or portable on a stage or a set, distinct from the actors, costumes, consumable food items appearing in the production are considered props. The earliest known use of the properties in English to refer to stage accessories is in the 1425 CE Morality play. The Oxford English Dictionary finds the first usage of props in 1841, during the Renaissance in Europe, small acting troupes functioned as cooperatives, pooling resources and dividing any income. Many performers provided their own costumes, but special items—stage weapons, furniture or other hand-held devices—were considered company property, some experts however seem to think that the term comes from the idea that stage or screen objects belong to whoever uses them on stage. There is no difference between props in different media, such as theatre, film, or television, bland Wade, a properties director, says, A coffee cup onstage is a coffee cup on television, is a coffee cup on the big screen.
He adds, There are definitely different responsibilities and different vocabulary, the term theatrical property originated to describe an object used in a stage play and similar entertainments to further the action. Technically, a prop is any object that gives the scenery, actors, or performance space specific period, props in a production originate from off stage unless they have been preset on the stage before the production begins. Props are stored on a prop table backstage near the entrance during production generally locked in a storage area between performances. The term has readily transferred to television, motion picture and video game production, in recent years, the increasing popularity of movie memorabilia has added new meaning to the term prop, broadening its existence to include a valuable after-life as a prized collectors item. Typically not available until after a premiere, movie props appearing on-screen are called screen-used. However, a prop must read well from the house or on-screen, in some cases, a prop is designed to behave differently from how the real object would, often for the sake of safety. A mop, representing a string mop, but built out of a shape covered with fabric. A prop weapon that reads well but lacks the intentional harmfulness of the real weapon.
In the theater, prop weapons are almost always either non-operable replicas, guns fire caps or noisy blanks, swords are dulled, and knives are often made of plastic or rubber. In film production, fully functional weapons are used. Real cartridges with bullets removed are still dangerously charged which has caused several instances when used on stage or film. The safety and proper handling of weapons used as movie props is the premiere responsibility of the prop master