Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
The Austin Chronicle
The Austin Chronicle is an alternative weekly newspaper published every Thursday in Austin, United States. The paper is distributed through free news-stands at local eateries or coffee houses frequented by its targeted demographic; the newspaper reported a weekly readership of 545,500. It is part of the Association of Alternative Newsmedia and it emulates the typical publications of the 1960s counter-culture movement; the Chronicle was co-founded in 1981 by Nick Barbaro and Louis Black, with assistance from others who met through the graduate film studies program at the University of Texas. Barbaro and Black are co-founders of the South by Southwest Festival, although the festival operates as a separate company; the paper was published bi-weekly, weekly. Its precursor in style and format was the Austin Sun, a bi-weekly that had ceased operations in 1978, after four years of publication; the first issue of the Chronicle was distributed on September 4, 1981. With a progressive point of view and irreverent voice, the Chronicle covers local and state news as well as the Austin food, theater and music communities.
The paper has a number of annual features, including the'Best of Austin' awards, cut-out masks for Halloween, the April Fool's edition, the First Plates Restaurant Awards. The Chronicle produces the annual Austin Chronicle Hot Sauce Festival held in late August, it is a profit-oriented business. The newspaper endorses its reporters check official sources. Tennant, J. Ian. "Free Newspapers in the United States: Alive and Kicking". International Journal on Media Management. 16: 105–121. Doi:10.1080/14241277.2014.974244. Official website
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit fear. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, Mary Shelley, horror has existed as a film genre for more than a century; the macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction, thriller genres. Horror films aim to evoke viewers' nightmares, fears and terror of the unknown. Plots with in the horror genre involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, extraterrestrials, werewolves, Satanism, evil clowns, torture, vicious animals, evil witches, zombies, psychopaths, ecological or man-made disasters, serial killers; some sub-genres of horror film include low-budget horror, action horror, comedy horror, body horror, disaster horror, found footage, holiday horror, horror drama, psychological horror, science fiction horror, supernatural horror, gothic horror, natural horror, zombie horror, disaster films, first-person horror, teen horror.
The first depiction of the supernatural on screen appear in several of the short silent films created by the French pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès in the late 1890s. The best known of these early supernatural-based works is the 3-minute short film Le Manoir du Diable known in English as The Haunted Castle or The House of the Devil; the film is sometimes credited as being the first horror film. In The Haunted Castle, a mischievous devil appears inside a medieval castle and harasses the visitors. Méliès' other popular horror film is La Caverne maudite, which translates to "the accursed cave"; the film known for its English title The Cave of the Demons, tells the story of a woman stumbling over a cave, populated by the spirits and skeletons of people who died there. Méliès would make other short films that historians consider now as horror-comedies. Une nuit terrible, which translates to A Terrible Night, tells a story of a man who tries to get a good night's sleep but ends up wrestling a giant spider.
His other film, L'auberge ensorcelée, or The Bewitched Inn, features a story of a hotel guest getting pranked and tormented by an unseen presence. In 1897, the accomplished American photographer-turned director George Albert Smith created The X-Ray Fiend, a horror-comedy that came out a mere two years after x-rays were invented; the film shows a couple of skeletons courting each other. An audience full of people unaccustomed to the idea would have found it frightening and otherworldly; the next year, Smith created the short film Photographing a Ghost, considered a precursor to the paranormal investigation subgenre. The film portrays three men attempting to photograph a ghost, only to fail time and again as the ghost eludes the men and throws chairs at them. Japan made early forays into the horror genre. In 1898, a Japanese film company called Konishi Honten released two horror films both written by Ejiro Hatta. Though there are no records of the cast, crew, or plot of Bake Jizo, it was based on the Japanese legend of Jizo statues, believed to provide safety and protection to children.
The presence of the word bake—which can be translated to "spook," "ghost," or "phantom"—may imply a haunted or possessed statue. Spanish filmmaker Segundo de Chomón, regarded as one of the most significant silent film directors, was popular for his frequent camera tricks and optical illusions, an innovation that contributed to the popularity of trick films in the period, his famous works include Satan at Play. The Selig Polyscope Company in the United States produced one of the first film adaptations of a horror-based novel. In 1908, the company released Mr. Hyde, now a lost film, it is based on Robert Louis Stevenson's classic gothic novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, published 15 years prior, about a man who transforms between two contrasting personas. Georges Méliès liked adapting the Faust legend into his films. In fact, the French filmmaker produced at least six variations of the German legend of the man who made a pact with the devil. Among his notable Faust films include Faust aux enfers, known for its English title The Damnation of Faust, or Faust in Hell.
It is the filmmaker's third film adaptation of the Faust legend. In it, Méliès took inspiration from Hector Berlioz's Faust opera, but it pays less attention to the story and more to the special effects that represent a tour of hell; the film takes advantage of stage machinery techniques and features special effects such as pyrotechnics, substitution
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States, it was named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south; the Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. The region lies on the broad Interior Plain between the states occupying the Appalachian Mountain range and the states occupying the Rocky Mountain range. Major rivers in the region include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River, the Missouri River. A 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684; the Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions.
The East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. The West North Central Division includes Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, several of which are located, at least within the Great Plains region. Chicago is the most populous city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country. Other large Midwestern cities include: Columbus, Detroit, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Cleveland, St. Louis, St. Paul, Cincinnati and Des Moines. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan statistical area with 9.9 million people, followed by Metro Detroit, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, the Kansas City metro area, the Columbus metro area; the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has been used since the 19th century and remains common. Another term sometimes applied to the same general region is the heartland.
Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest and Mid-America. The Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and the upper-Mississippi; the upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country and the Ohio Country. Economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming important, its central location makes it a transportation crossroads for river boats, autos and airplanes. Politically, the region swings back and forth between the parties, thus is contested and decisive in elections. After the sociological study Middletown, based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as "typical" of the nation. Earlier, the rhetorical question, "Will it play in Peoria?", had become a stock phrase using Peoria, Illinois to signal whether something would appeal to mainstream America.
The region has a higher employment-to-population ratio than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states as of 2011. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase; the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the southeastern section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states, where the Missouri River is a major waterway joining with the Mississippi; the Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the dividing line between future slave and non-slave states. The Midwest Region is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as these 12 states: Illinois: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River state Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state Minnesota: Old Northwest, Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Lakes state Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River, border state Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Plains, Missouri River state Ohio: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state.
The southeastern part of the state is part of northern Appalachia South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Wisconsin: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Great Lakes stateVarious organizations define the Midwest with different groups of states. For example, the Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination among state governments, includes in its Midwe
A shotgun is a firearm, designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm bore up to 5 cm bore, in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, lever-action, semi-automatic, fully automatic variants. A shotgun was a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled but rifled shotgun barrels and slugs become available. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were used by armies in the 18th century; the direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. In the 19th century, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges.
The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, military applications; the shot pellets from a shotgun spread upon leaving the barrel, the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets, which means that the energy of any one ball of shot is low. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful for hunting birds and other small game. However, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon. Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are owned civilian weapons in many countries. Shotguns are used for target shooting sports such as skeet and sporting clays; these involve. Shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from small up to massive punt guns, in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.
The common characteristics that make a shotgun unique center on the requirements of firing shot. These features are the features typical of a shotgun shell, namely a short, wide cartridge, with straight walls, operating at a low pressure. Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotshells, or just shells; the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel; the typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets while in the air. The spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim as in the case of a single projectile; the disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, why shotguns are used at short ranges, against smaller targets. Larger shot sizes, up to the extreme case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration, but at the expense of fewer projectiles and lower probability of hitting the target. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, the shotgun has several advantages when used against still targets.
First, it has enormous stopping power at more than nearly all handguns and many rifles. Though many believe the shotgun is a great firearm for inexperienced shooters, the truth is, at close range, the spread of shot is not large at all, competency in aiming is still required. A typical self-defense load of buckshot contains 8–27 large lead pellets, resulting in many wound tracks in the target. Unlike a jacketed rifle bullet, each pellet of shot is less to penetrate walls and hit bystanders, it is favored by law enforcement for its low penetration and high stopping power. On the other hand, the hit potential of a defensive shotgun is overstated; the typical defensive shot is taken at close ranges, at which the shot charge expands no more than a few centimeters. This means. Balancing this is the fact that shot spreads further upon entering the target, the multiple wound channels of a defensive load are far more to produce a disabling wound than a rifle or handgun; some of the most common uses of shotguns are the sports of skeet shooting, trap shooting, sporting clays.
These involve shooting clay discs known as clay pigeons, thrown in by hand and by machine. Both skeet and trap competitions are featured at the Olympic Games; the shotgun is popular for bird hunting, it is used for more general forms of hunting in semi-populated areas where the range of rifle bullets may pose a hazard. Use of a smooth bore shotgun with a rifled slug or, alternatively, a rifled barrel shotgun with a sabot slug, improves accuracy to 100 m or more; this is well within the range of the majority of kill shots by experienced hunters using shotguns. However, given the low muzzle velocity of slug ammunition around 500 m/s, the blunt, poorly streamlined shape of typical slugs (which cause them to lose
Child's Play (1988 film)
Child's Play is a 1988 American horror film directed and co-written by Tom Holland, produced by David Kirschner from a story by Don Mancini. It is the first film in the Child's Play series and the first installment to feature the character Chucky, it stars Catherine Hicks, Dinah Manoff, Chris Sarandon, Alex Vincent, Brad Dourif. Hicks plays a widowed mother who gives her son a doll for his birthday, unaware that the doll is possessed by the soul of an infamous serial killer; the film was released on November 9, 1988, grossed more than $44 million against a production budget of $9 million. Along with the film gaining a cult following, the box office success spawned a media franchise that includes a series of six sequels, comic books and a remake film of the same name to be released in the summer of 2019. Child's Play was the only film in the series to be distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, as the rights to the series were sold to Universal Pictures in 1990, right before production on Child's Play 2 started.
On the night of November 9, 1988, Charles Lee Ray, a fugitive and serial killer, is chased by homicide detective Mike Norris through the streets of South Side, Chicago after a failed robbery attempt. Mike shoots Charles several times. However, Charles is left behind after his accomplice, Eddie Caputo and drives away without him. Charles breaks into a toy shop. Realizing that he is dying, Charles transfers his soul into a Good Guys doll, using a Haitian Vodou spell; the store is struck by lightning, causing it to explode. Mike enters the shop, only to find Charles' dead body; the following day, widow Karen Barclay unknowingly purchases the doll from a peddler, as a birthday gift for her six-year-old son Andy Barclay. That evening, Karen's best friend Maggie Peterson babysits Andy while Karen is working late. After tucking Andy and Chucky into bed, Maggie is hit in the face with a hammer by an unseen assailant and falls out the window to her death; the police search the apartment and Detective Norris deems Andy a suspect.
Before going back to bed, Andy claims. Karen angrily tells the police to leave; the next morning, Chucky orders Andy to skip school and take the Chicago "L" downtown to get revenge on Eddie Caputo for betraying him the night he died. While Andy is distracted, Chucky sneaks into Eddie's house, turning off the kitchen oven's pilot and turning on the gas. Eddie hears the noises from the kitchen, bursts through the door and shoots the oven, which causes his home to explode, killing him in the process. Andy is once again placed in a psychiatric hospital. At dusk, Karen attempts to throw the Good Guys box in the garbage. While reading the box, a pack of batteries drop out, she realizes Chucky has been functioning without batteries and Andy was truthful. Unnerved, Karen threatens him to speak. Chucky springs to life and bites Karen in the arm, causing it to bleed, before scampering from the apartment. Karen runs after him, only to find Mike at the station. After mistrusting Karen, Mike drives home. Mike shoots Chucky.
Chucky visits John Bishop, his former voodoo instructor. John tells Chucky. After John declines Chucky's help, he tortures John with a voodoo doll. After revealing the solution, to transfer his soul into the first human he told he was alive, Chucky stabs the doll, fatally injuring John. After leaving and Mike discover the gruesome scene. Before dying, John tells them that although Chucky is a doll, his heart is human at this point and vulnerable to fatal injury. At the hospital, Andy tries to escape from Chucky. Dr. Ardmore finds Andy in the surgery room and attempts to subdue him before Chucky kills him with an electroshock machine. Andy runs home, followed by Chucky. Chucky prepares to possess him until Mike arrive to stop the process. Chucky hits Mike with a baseball bat before being tossed into the fireplace by Karen. Andy drops a lit match in it. Karen and Andy leave the room to help Mike, but a charred Chucky escapes the fireplace and chases Andy. Karen dismembers Chucky with a gun and Chucky is again presumed to be killed.
Mike's partner Jack Santos arrives at the apartment. However, Jack refuses to believe the trio's story until Chucky's body bursts to strangle him with his remaining arm. During the struggle, Chucky is shot in the heart and is dead. Mike is taken outside by Karen and Jack, while Andy stays and stares at Chucky's battered corpse before shutting the lights and closing the door in a freeze frame. Alex Vincent as Andy Barclay, a 6-year-old boy, framed for Chucky's crimes. Catherine Hicks as Karen Barclay, Andy's mother. Chris Sarandon as Detective Mike Norris, a senior homicide police detective and Chucky's arch enemy. Brad Dourif as Charles Lee Ray/Chucky, a well known voodoo serial killer who transfers his soul into a "Good Guys" doll in order to cheat death after being killed by Mike Norris. Dinah Manoff as Maggie Peterson, Karen's friend and Andy's babysitter. Tommy Swerdlow as Jack Santos, Norris's partner. Jack Colvin as Dr. Ardmore, the head doctor of a mental hospital. Raymond Oliver as John "Dr. Death" Bishop, Chucky's former voodoo mentor.
Neil Giuntoli as Eddie Caputo, Chucky's old accomplice. Alan Wilder as Mr. Walter Criswell and Maggie's boss. Aaron Osborne as the Orderly Juan Ramirez as the Peddler According to an interview with Mental Floss, screenwriter Don Mancini first conceived of the concept while studying as a film maj
Watchman (law enforcement)
Watchmen were organized groups of men authorized by a state, city, or society, to deter criminal activity and provide law enforcement as well as traditionally perform the services of public safety, fire watch, crime prevention, crime detection, recovery of stolen goods. Watchmen have existed since earliest recorded times in various guises throughout the world and were succeeded by the emergence of formally organized professional policing. An early reference to a watch can be found in the Bible where the Prophet Ezekiel states that it was the duty of the watch to blow the horn and sound the alarm; the existence of watchmen has been found in the Ottoman and Egyptian Empires. The Roman Empire turned the role of a watchman into a profession by creating two organizations: the Praetorian Guard thus establishing a rank and file system with a Captain of the Guard. Vigiles the watch; the streets in London had a shortage of and poor quality artificial light. It had been recognized for centuries that the coming of darkness to the unlit streets of a town brought a heightened threat of danger, that the night provided cover to the disorderly and immoral, to those bent on robbery or burglary or who in other ways threatened physical harm to people in the streets and in their houses.
The anxieties that darkness gave rise to had been met by the formation of a night watch in the 13th century, by the rules about who could use the streets after dark. These rules had for long been underpinned in London and other towns by the curfew, the time at which the gates closed and the streets were cleared. Only people with good reason to be abroad could travel through the City. Anyone outside at night without reason or permission was suspicious and criminal. Allowances were made for people who had some social status on their side. Lord Fielding expected to pass through London's streets untroubled at 1 am one night in 1641, he became piqued when his coach was stopped by the watch, shouting huffily that it was a'disgrace' to stop someone of such high standing as he, telling the constable in charge of the watch that he would box him on the ears if he did not let his coach carry on back to his house.'It is impossible' to'distinguish a lord from another man by the outside of a coach', the constable said in his defence,'especially at unreasonable times'.
The Ordinance of 1233 required the appointment of watchmen. The Assize of Arms of 1252, which required the appointment of constables to summon men to arms, quell breaches of the peace, to deliver offenders to the sheriff, is cited as one of the earliest creations of an English police force, as was the Statute of Winchester of 1285. In 1252 a royal writ established a Watch and Ward with royal officers appointed as Shire Reeves: By order of the King of England the Winchester Act Mandating The Watch. Part Four and the King commandth that from henceforth all Watches be made as it hath been used in past times, to wit from the day of Ascension unto the day of St. Michael in every city by six men at every gate in every borough by twelve men in every town by six or four according to the number of inhabitants of the town, they shall keep the Watch all night from sun setting unto sun rising. And if any stranger do pass them by them he shall be arrested until morning and if no suspicion be found he shall go quit.
In 1279 King Edward I formed a special guard of 20 sergeants at arms who carried decorated battle maces as a badge of official office. By 1415 a watch was appointed to the Parliament of England and in 1485 King Henry VII established a household watch that became known as the Beefeaters. After 1660 it seems that large numbers of men had avoided night-time service by paying for a substitute well before 1660. Substitution had become so common by the late 17th century that the night watch was by a paid force. In October 1663 was promulgated an act of Common Council, known as'Robinson's Act' from the name of the sitting lord mayor, that confirmed the duty of all householders in the City to take their turn at watching in order'to keep the peace and apprehend night-walkers and suspected persons'. For the most part the Common Council Act of 1663 reiterated the rules and obligations that had long existed; the number of watchmen required for each ward, it declared, was to be the number'established by custom' – in fact, by an act of 1621.
Though it had been true before the civil war that the watch had become a body of paid men, supported by what were in effect the fines collected from those with an obligation to serve, the Common Council did not acknowledge this in the confirming Act of 1663. The act of 1663 confirmed that watch on its old foundations, left its effective management to the ward authorities; the important matter to be arranged in the wards was, going to serve and on what basis. How the money was to be collected to support a force of paid constables, by whom, were crucial issues; the 1663 act left it to the ward beadle or a constable and it seems to have been the case that rather than individuals paying directly for a substitute, when their turn came to serve, the eligible householders were asked to contribute to a watch fund that supported hired man. From the mid-1690s the City authorities made several attempts to replace Robinson's Act and establish the watch on a new footing. Though they did not say it directly, the overwhelming requirement was to get quotas adjusted to reflect the reality that the watch consisted of hired men rather than citizens doing their civic duty—the assumption upon which the 1663 act, all previous acts, had been based.
The implications and consequences of changes