Holon is a city on the central coastal strip south of Tel Aviv, Israel. Holon is part of the metropolitan Gush Dan area. In 2017 it had a population of 192,624. Holon has the second-largest industrial zone in Israel, after Haifa; the name of the city comes from the Hebrew word חוֹלוֹן holon, meaning " sand". The name Holon appears in the Bible: "And Holon with its suburbs, Debir with its suburbs". Holon was founded on sand dunes six kilometers from Tel Aviv in 1935; the Łódzia textile factory was established there by Jewish immigrants from Łódź, along with many other industrial enterprises. In the early months of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Holon was on the front line, with constant shooting taking place on the border with the village of Tel A-Rish to its northwest—a suburb of Arab Jaffa—and clashes in the direction of the town of Yazur to the east. An attack by the Holon-based Haganah militia units on Tel A-Rish was repulsed with considerable losses. After the establishment of the state, Holon expanded to include Tel A-Rish and the orange groves of Yazur.
In February 2001, eight Israelis were killed and twenty-five were injured in a Palestinian attack on a crowded bus stop in Holon. The image of Holon as a working-class bedroom community has changed over the years. Through municipal efforts, the city has been rebranded as a child-friendly city, offering family attractions such as the Yamit Water Park, the Israeli Children's Museum and the Israel Museum of Caricature and Comics. Historic landmarks in Holon slated for preservation include Derech Habitachon, paved during the Israeli war of independence. A new neighborhood, Migdalim Bashdera, is under construction, with plans for 23 upscale residential towers, a new city hall, several cultural and commercial centers, some of them built. A French urban planner was commissioned to design a north-south boulevard with pedestrian walks, bicycle paths, sports fields and waterfalls; the last undeveloped land reserve remaining in Holon is the H-500 Holon plan, that consists of 4,080 dunams in the south of the city, is intended to consist of 13,700 dwelling units in total.
Holon hosts a variety of springtime events, including the Yemay Zemer Festival during Passover and a Women's Festival in March, both at the Holon Theater. Holon is one of the host cities for the Rhythmic Gymnastics Grand Prix Series in March. Israeli violinist Pinchas Zukerman runs a summer music camp in the city for young violinists. Since the election of Mayor Moti Sasson in 1993, many cultural projects have been inaugurated. Billing itself as a "children's city," Holon is home to the Holon Children's Museum and the Mediatheque youth theater. Holon plays host each year to a street carnival in celebration of the Jewish holiday of Purim, the Adloyada. Thousands of children dress up in costumes and the streets close down for a parade featuring colorful floats; the Design Museum Holon, which opened in 2010 near the "Médiathèque" and the Faculty of Design of Holon Institute of Technology, is the first Israeli museum of design. In October 2013, Holon hosted major international designers who arrived for Holon Fashion Week, among them milliner Stephen Jones and BioCouture founder Suzanne Lee.
Cinematheque Holon hosts the only digital arts and media arts festival in Israel, Print Screen Festival. The festival was established 2010. In 1954, the president of Israel, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, helped to establish a Samaritan quarter on the outskirts of Holon; the quarter was named Neve Pinchas after Pinhas Ben-Abraham, the high priest of the Samaritan community. Holon is one of only two cities in the world to have a Samaritan community, the other being the village of Kiryat Luza on Mount Gerizim above Nablus on the West Bank; the Collège-Lycée franco-israélien Raymond Leven is located in Holon. Hapoel Holon – premier league, national champion in 2008 and state cup holder in 2009 Hapoel Tzafririm Holon F. C. – Liga Alef Moshik Afia, singer Chen Aharoni, singer Oz Almog, Israeli-Austrian artist & author Rafi Amit, poker player Avraam Benaroya, Greek-Jewish Socialist leader, founder of the Communist Party of Greece David Ben Dayan, football player Omri Casspi, NBA basketball player Bat-Sheva Dagan, Holocaust survivor, psychologist, author David D'Or, countertenor & composer.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted since. Orthodox Judaism therefore advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law, or Halakha, to be interpreted and determined only according to traditional methods and in adherence to the continuum of received precedent through the ages, it regards the entire halakhic system as grounded in immutable revelation beyond external and historical influence. More than any theoretical issue, obeying the dietary, purity and other laws of Halakha is the hallmark of Orthodoxy. Other key doctrines include belief in a future resurrection of the dead, divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel, an eventual restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem under the Messiah. Orthodox Judaism is not a centralized denomination. Relations between its different subgroups are sometimes strained, the exact limits of Orthodoxy are subject to intense debate.
It may be divided between Ultra-Orthodox or "Haredi", more conservative and reclusive, Modern Orthodox Judaism, open to outer society. Each of those is itself formed of independent streams, they are uniformly exclusionist, regarding Orthodoxy as the only authentic form of Judaism and rejecting all competing non-Orthodox philosophies as illegitimate. While adhering to traditional beliefs, the movement is a modern phenomenon, it arose as a result of the breakdown of the autonomous Jewish community since the 18th century, was much shaped by a conscious struggle against the pressures of secularization and rival alternatives. The observant and theologically aware Orthodox are a definite minority among all Jews, but there are numerous semi- and non-practicing persons who are affiliated or identifying with the movement. In total, Orthodox Judaism is the largest Jewish religious group, estimated to have over 2 million practicing adherents and at least an equal number of nominal members or self-identifying supporters.
The earliest known mentioning of the term "Orthodox Jews" was made in the Berlinische Monatsschrift in 1795. The word "Orthodox" was borrowed from the general German Enlightenment discourse, used not to denote a specific religious group, but rather those Jews who opposed Enlightenment. During the early and mid-19th century, with the advent of the progressive movements among German Jews and early Reform Judaism, the title "Orthodox" became the epithet of the traditionalists who espoused conservative positions on the issues raised by modernization, they themselves disliked the alien, name, preferring titles like "Torah-true", declared they used it only for the sake of convenience. The Orthodox leader Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch referred to "the conviction designated as Orthodox Judaism". By the 1920s, the term became common and accepted in Eastern Europe, remains as such. Orthodoxy perceives itself ideologically as the only authentic continuation of Judaism throughout the ages, as it was until the crisis of modernity.
Its progressive opponents shared this view, regarding it as a fossilized remnant of the past and lending credit to their own rivals' ideology. Thus, the term "Orthodox" is used generically to refer to traditional synagogues, prayer rites, so forth. However, academic research has taken a more nuanced approach, noting that the formation of Orthodox ideology and organizational frameworks was itself a product of modernity, it was brought about by the need to defend and buttress the concept of tradition, in a world where it was not self-evident anymore. When deep secularization and the dismantlement of communal structures uprooted the old order of Jewish life, traditionalist elements united to form groups which had a distinct self-understanding. This, all that it entailed, constituted a great change, for the Orthodox had to adapt to the new circumstances no less than anyone else. "Orthodoxization" was a contingent process, drawing from local circumstances and dependent on the extent of threat sensed by its proponents: a sharply-delineated Orthodox identity appeared in Central Europe, in Germany and Hungary, by the 1860s.
Among the Jews of the Muslim lands, similar processes on a large scale only occurred around the 1970s, after they immigrated to Israel. Orthodoxy is described as conservative, ossifying a once-dynamic tradition due to the fear of legitimizing change. While this was not true, its defining feature was not the forbidding of change and "freezing" Jewish heritage in its tracks, but rather the need to adapt to being but one segment of Judaism in a modern world inhospitable to traditional practice. Orthodoxy developed as a variegated "spectrum of reactions" – as termed by Benjamin Brown – involving in many cases much accommodation and leniency. Scholars nowadays since the mid-1980s, research Orthodox Judaism as a field in i
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that operates late into the night. A nightclub is distinguished from regular bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music; the upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry; some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Saturday night. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as hip hop. Many clubs have recurring club nights on different days of the week. Most club nights focus on a particular sound for branding effects. From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox.
Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in 1886 and starting off as a "social hall" functioning as a home for dance and political activism events. During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capone's involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New York's 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, the Stork Club; these nightclubs featured big bands. In Germany, the first discothèque on record that involved a disc jockey was Scotch-Club, which opened in 1959. In Occupied France and bebop music, the jitterbug dance were banned by the Nazis as "decadent American influences", so as an act of resistance, people met at hidden basements called discothèques where they danced to jazz and swing music, played on a single turntable when a jukebox was not available; these discothèques were patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous.
There were underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids. In Harlem, Connie's Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences. Before 1953 and some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or live bands. In Paris, at a club named Whisky à Gogo, founded in 1947, Régine in 1953 laid down a dance-floor, suspended coloured lights and replaced the jukebox with two turntables that she operated herself so there would be no breaks between the music; the Whisky à Gogo set into place the standard elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the coffee bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing and the most famous was Les Enfants Terribles at 93 Dean St; these original discothèques were nothing like the night clubs, as they were unlicensed and catered to a young public—mostly made up of French and Italians working illegally in catering, to learn English as well as au pair girls from most of western Europe.
While the discothèque swept Europe throughout the 1960s, it did not reach the United States until the 1970s, where the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs until the disco era. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabel's, in Berkeley Square, London. In 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated. Sybil Burton opened the "Arthur" discothèque in 1965 on East 54th Street in Manhattan on the site of the old El Morocco nightclub and it became the first and hottest disco in New York City through 1969; the first large-scale discothèque in Germany opened in 1967 as the club Blow Up in Munich, which because of its extravagance and excesses gained international reputation. Disco has its roots in the underground club scene. During the early 1970s in New York City, disco clubs were places where oppressed or marginalized groups such as homosexuals, Latinos, Italian-Americans, Jews could party without following male to female dance protocol or exclusive club policies.
Discoteques had a law. This shifted the idea of this post-heterosexist community, as women could be seen as a kind of gateway for men to advance their own experience without fear of being arrested under the male-to-male dancing law; the women sought these experiences to seek safety in a venue that embraced the independent woman — with an eye to one or more of the same or opposite sex or none. Although the culture that surrounded disco was progressive in dance couples, cross-genre music, a push to put the physical over the rational, the role of female bodies looked to be placed in the role of safety net, it brought together people from different backgrounds. These clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. By the late 1970s many major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes centered on discothèques and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played "... a smooth mix of long single records to keep people'dancing all night long'".
Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music. The genre of disco has changed through the years, it is classified both as a nightclub. This club culture that originated in downtown New York, was attended by a variety of different ethnicities and economic backgrounds, it was an inex
Israeli West Bank barrier
The Israeli West Bank barrier or wall is a separation barrier in the West Bank or along the Green Line. Israel considers it a security barrier against terrorism, while Palestinians call it a racial segregation or apartheid wall. At a total length of 708 kilometres upon completion, the border traced by the barrier is more than double the length of the Green Line, with 15% running along it or in Israel, while the remaining 85% cuts at times 18 kilometres deep into the West Bank, isolating about 9% of it, leaving an estimated 25,000 Palestinians isolated from the bulk of that territory; the barrier was built during the Second Intifada that began in September 2000, was defended by the Israeli government as necessary to stop the wave of violence inside Israel that the uprising had brought with it. The Israeli government says that the barrier has been effective, as the number of suicide bombings carried out from the West Bank fell from 73, to 12. While the barrier was presented as a temporary security measure in a time of heightened tensions, it has since been associated with a future political border between Israel and Palestine.
Barrier opponents claim it seeks to annex Palestinian land under the guise of security and undermines peace negotiations by unilaterally establishing new borders. Opponents object to a route that in some places deviates eastward from the Green Line restricts the travel of many Palestinians and impairs their ability to commute to work within the West Bank or to Israel; the International Court of Justice issued an advisory opinion stating that the barrier is a violation of international law. In 2003, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that stated the wall contradicts international law and should be removed. In Hebrew, descriptions include: separation fence. In Arabic, it is called jidar al-fasl al - ` unsuri. In English, the BBC's style guide uses the terms barrier as do The Economist, PBS and the The New York Times; the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs uses the phrase security fence in English. The International Court of Justice has used the term wall explaining "the other expressions sometimes employed are no more accurate if understood in the physical sense."
It is referred to as the Apartheid Wall or Apartheid Fence in a derogatory manner. Seam zone refers to the land between the fence. About 90–95% of the barrier will be constructed as a "multi-layered fence system" with the IDF's preferred design having three fences, pyramid-shaped stacks of barbed wire on the two outer fences, a lighter-weight fence with intrusion detection equipment in the middle, an anti-vehicle ditch, patrol roads on both sides, a smooth strip of sand for "intrusion tracking"; the barrier contains an on-average 60-metre wide exclusion area. The width of some sections is larger due to topographic conditions; the width of some sections is 3 metres where the barrier is constructed as a concrete wall up to 8 metres high. These sections are narrower, require less land, provide more protection against snipers. Wall construction is more common in urban settings, e.g. Qalqilyah and Jerusalem, in areas where people have been killed by snipers, e.g. the Trans-Israel Highway. The barrier runs along or near the 1949 Jordanian–Israeli armistice line and through the Israeli-occupied West Bank diverging eastward from the armistice line by up to 20 km to include on the western side several of the areas with concentrations of populated Israeli settlements, such as East Jerusalem, the Ariel Bloc, Gush Etzion, Givat Ze'ev, Maale Adumim.
The barrier nearly encircles some Palestinian towns, about 20% follows the armistice line, a projected 77,000 ha, or about 13.5 percent, of the West Bank area is on the west side of the wall. According to a study of the April 2006 route by the Israeli human rights organization B'Tselem, 8.5% of the West Bank area will after completion be on the Israeli side of the barrier, 3.4% or surrounded on the eastern side. Some 27,520 to 31,000 Palestinians will be captured on the Israeli side. Another 124,000, on the other hand, will be controlled and isolated; some 230,000 Palestinians in Jerusalem will be placed on the West Bank side. Most of the barrier was built at the northern and western edges of the West Bank beyond the Green Line and created 9 enclaves, which enclosed 15,783 ha. An additional barrier, circa 10 km long, run south of Ramallah. Israel states that the topography does not permit putting the barrier along the Green Line in some places because hills or tall buildings on the Palestinian side would make the barrier ineffective against terrorism.
The International Court of Justice states that in such cases it is only legal to build the barrier inside Israel. The barrier route has been changed several times. Argument presented to the court has reiterated that the cease-fire line of 1949 was negotiated "without prejudice to future territorial settlements or boundary lines". In 1992, the idea of creating a physical barrier separating the Israeli and Palestinian populations was proposed by then
Netanya is a city in the Northern Central District of Israel, is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain. It is 30 km north of Tel Aviv, 56 km south of Haifa, between the'Poleg' stream and Wingate Institute in the south and the'Avichail' stream in the north. Netanya was named in honor of Nathan Straus, a prominent Jewish American merchant and philanthropist in the early 20th century, the co-owner of Macy's department store, its 14 kilometres of beaches have made the city a popular tourist resort. In addition, the city is known for its large immigrant population. A significant percentage of the city's population consists of immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia, the city is home to a notably large population of English-speaking immigrants from the United Kingdom, United States, South Africa and New Zealand. In 2017, it had a population of 214,101. An additional 150,000 people live in the local and regional councils within 10 kilometres of Netanya which serves as a regional center for them.
The city mayor is Miriam Feirberg. The idea to create the settlement of Netanya was drawn up at a meeting of the Bnei Binyamin association in Zikhron Ya'akov; the location was decided upon near the ancient site of Poleg, it was decided to name it in honor of Nathan Straus, co-owner of Macy's department store, New York City Parks Commissioner, president of the New York City Board of Health, who gifted two-thirds of his personal fortune to projects benefiting Jews and Arabs in Palestine. "Netanya... was named for Straus in the hope. When he told them he had no more money to give they were disappointed, but decided to keep the city's name anyway." In 1928 members of Bnei Binyamin and Hanote, an organisation set up after Straus was informed of the establishment of the settlement, purchased 350 acres of Umm Khaled lands. On December 14, 1928 a team led by Moshe Shaked began digging for water at the site, finding it in February 1929. Subsequently, on February 18, 1929, the first five settlers moved onto the land and cultivating it for the first time.
In the weeks that followed, more settlers began arriving. The land was divided between the settlers in June 1929 as the vision of the settlement became reality. Development was set back, however when the 1929 Palestine riots and massacre of Jews caused the settlement to be abandoned for a couple of weeks. By September, development was back on track with the cornerstones for the first 10 houses being laid on Sukkot. In the following years, Netanya continued to grow, with the first kindergarten and shop opening in 1930, the first school in 1931. In the 1931 census of Palestine, Netanya was recorded as having 253 residents. In 1933, the British architect Cliff Holliday proposed a plan for Netanya to become a tourist city. Holliday prepared urban projects in Jaffa, Tiberias and Ramla; the first urban plan for the city, saw it being divided into three sections with a tourism district along the coastline, housing and commerce in the center, agriculture and industry to the east. That year saw the completion of the Tel Aviv Hotel, the first hotel in Netanya, as well as the establishment of two new neighborhoods, Ben Zion and Geva.
The moshava as it was continued to grow in 1934, when the first ship of illegal immigrants carried 350 to Netanya's shoreline. These operations continued until 1939, with over seventeen ships landing near the city, being aided by the residents of Netanya. Whilst flourishing agriculturally, 1934 saw the city diversify with Primazon opening the first factory there, producing fruit and vegetable preserves. Following this, the first industrial zone was set up, whilst the Shone Halahot Synagogue was built and the Bialik School inaugurated; as the settlement continued to grow, 1937 saw a cornerstone laid for a new commercial center and the connection of Netanya to the Tel Aviv-Haifa road. In 1940, the British Mandate government defined Netanya as a local council of which Oved Ben-Ami was elected head of. Expansion continued after this point. In 1944, Netanya had a population of 4,900; the first high school in Netanya opened in 1945. During the Jewish insurgency in Palestine, the Jewish underground group Irgun launched a number of attacks against British military and police forces in the Netanya area.
The town itself was a bastion of support for the Irgun. The most infamous incident happened in what became known as the Sergeants affair. After three Irgun fighters had been sentenced to death by the British, the Irgun abducted two British sergeants on a Netanya street, hid them in an abandoned factory; the British responded by declaring martial law and placing Netanya and the surrounding area under curfew. The British Army did not find the sergeants. After the three Irgun fighters were hanged, the Irgun hanged the two sergeants in the factory and re-hanged and booby trapped their bodies in an orange grove. In November 1947, an Egged bus which left Netanya for Jerusalem was attacked in Petah Tikva. In 1948, following the withdrawal of British forces from Netanya and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, a large military base was established in the city. On December 3, 1948, after fighting in the area had calmed down, Netanya was designated a city, the first city to be designated in the newly established State of Israel.
A number of nearby settlements, Ramat Tiomkin, Ein Hatchlelet, Pardes Hagdud, Ramat Ephraim, were annexed to Netanya. At this time, Netanya had a population of 11,600. In 1949, the Kiryat Eliezer Kaplan Industrial Zone was inaugurated and t
Israeli casualties of war
Israeli casualties of war, in addition to those of Israel's seven major wars, include 9,745 soldiers and security forces personnel killed in "miscellaneous engagements and terrorist attacks", which includes security forces members killed during military operations, by fighting crime, natural disasters, traffic or labor accidents and disabled veterans whose disabilities contributed to their deaths. Between 1948 and 1997, 20,093 Israeli soldiers were killed in combat, 75,000 Israelis were wounded, nearly 100,000 Israelis were considered disabled army veterans. On the other hand, in 2010 Yom Hazikaron, Israel honored the memory of 22,684 Israeli soldiers and pre-Israeli Palestinian Jews killed since 1860 in the line of duty for the independence and protection of the nation, 3,971 civilian terror victims; the memorial roll, in addition to IDF members deceased include fallen members of the Shin Bet security service, the Mossad intelligence service, the Israel Police, the Border Police, the Israel Prisons Service, other Israeli security forces, the pre-state Jewish underground, the Jewish Brigade and the Jewish Legion.
According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Anti-Defamation League, a total of 1,194 Israelis and foreigners were killed and 7,000 wounded between September 2000 and August 2010 by Palestinian terror attacks. Another 685 Jewish residents of Mandatory Palestine were killed between 1920 and 1947 as a result of Arab riots, British anti-Zionist operations and World War II attacks. Palestinians killed 1,074 Israelis and wounded 7,520 between 2000 and 2005; the following tables summarize Israeli casualties by conflict or incident. In the White Paper of 1939 the British government limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 over the following five years. European Jews were anxious for ways to leave Europe. No countries were willing to take Jewish immigrants. However, some Eastern European states were willing to give transit visas. During World War II, many countries denied or limited Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, Palestine was one of the few destinations available. In post-Holocaust Europe, the 1,000,000 Jewish survivors were classified as "non-repatrifiable" by the Austrian and German government.
In other words, Jews were not "officially allowed to leave the countries of Central and East Europe" by the allied powers, nor were they permitted to settle in Palestine by the British. An unknown number of Jewish refugees perished en route from European ports to Palestine, over 30,000 holocaust survivors who immigrated were interned by the British in POW camps. Many immigrant ships were sunk during the British blockade. Note: Graph is not comprehensive Bold indicates conflicts considered wars by the Israeli Ministry of Defense: Note: Table is not comprehensive From 1993–2003, 303 Palestinian suicide bombers attacked Israel. More than 80% of all suicide bombings occurred after the year 2000. 55% of all suicide attacks were deemed "successful" – that is, resulted in killing themselves and injuring or killing others. Suicide bombings constituted just 0.5% of Palestinian attacks against Israelis in the first two years of the Second Intifada, though this percentage accounted for half of the Israelis killed in that period.
Between 2000 and 2006, 521 suicide bombing plots were thwarted by the Israeli Defense Forces and 540 Israelis were killed by suicide bombings. 171 Israeli soldiers have been killed in training exercises and non-combat roles since 1977. 1948 Arab–Israeli War Yom Kippur War War of Attrition Six-Day War 1982 Lebanon War Suez Crisis 2006 Lebanon War Palestinian political violence Timeline of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict List of attacks against Israeli civilians before 1967 List of Israeli civilian casualties in the Second Intifada Violence against Israelis in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2001 Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2002 Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2003 Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2004 Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2005 Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2006 Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2007 Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2008 List of violent incidents in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, 2011 Yom Hazikaron Palestinian casualties of war