Thomas Pennant was a Welsh naturalist, traveller and antiquarian. He was born and lived his whole life at his family estate, Downing Hall near Whitford, Flintshire, in Wales; as a naturalist he had a great curiosity, observing the geography, plants, birds, reptiles and fish around him and recording what he saw and heard about. He wrote acclaimed books including British Zoology, the History of Quadrupeds, Arctic Zoology and Indian Zoology although he never travelled further afield than continental Europe, he maintained correspondence with many of the scientific figures of his day. His books influenced the writings of Samuel Johnson; as an antiquarian, he amassed a considerable collection of art and other works selected for their scientific interest. Many of these works are now housed at the National Library of Wales; as a traveller he wrote about them. Many of his travels took him to places that were little known to the British public and the travelogues he produced, accompanied by painted and engraved colour plates, were much appreciated.
Each tour started at his home and related in detail the route, the scenery, the habits and activities of the people he met, their customs and superstitions and the wildlife he saw or heard about. He travelled on horseback accompanied by his servant, Moses Griffith, who sketched the things they encountered to work these up into illustrations for the books, he was an amiable man with a large circle of friends and was still busily following his interests into his sixties. He died at Downing at the age of seventy two; the Pennants were a family of Welsh gentry from the parish of Whitford, who had built up a modest estate at Bychton by the seventeenth century. In 1724 Thomas' father, David Pennant, inherited the neighbouring Downing estate from a cousin augmenting the family's fortune. Downing Hall, where Thomas was born in the'yellow room', became the main Pennant residence; this house had been built in 1600 and the front and main entrance were set back between two forward facing wings. By the time the Pennants moved there it was in a state of disrepair and many alterations were set in hand.
It had a number of fine rooms including a well-stocked library and a smoking room "most antiquely furnished with ancient carvings, the horns of all the European beasts of chase". The grounds were very overgrown and much effort was put into their improvement and the creation of paths and pleasure gardens. Pennant received his early education at Wrexham Grammar School, before moving to Thomas Croft's school in Fulham in 1740. At the age of twelve, Pennant recalled, he had been inspired with a passion for natural history through being presented with Francis Willughby's Ornithology. In 1744 he entered Queen's College, Oxford moving to Oriel College. Like many students from a wealthy background, he left Oxford without taking a degree, although in 1771 his work as a zoologist was recognised with an honorary degree. Pennant married Elizabeth Falconer, the daughter of Lieutenant James Falconer of the Royal Navy, in 1759 and they had a son, David Pennant, born in 1763. Pennant's wife died the following year and fourteen years he married Ann Mostyn, daughter of Sir Thomas Mostyn, 4th Baronet of Mostyn, Flintshire.
A visit to Cornwall in 1746–1747, where he met the antiquary and naturalist William Borlase, awakened an interest in minerals and fossils which formed his main scientific study during the 1750s. In 1750, his account of an earthquake at Downing was inserted in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, where there appeared in 1756 a paper on several coralloid bodies he had collected at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire. More Pennant used his geological knowledge to open a lead mine, which helped to finance improvements at Downing after he had inherited the estate in 1763. In 1754, he was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries but by 1760 he was married and resigned his fellowship because "my circumstances at that time were narrow, my worthy father being alive, I vainly thought my happiness would have been permanent, that I never should have been called again from my retirement to amuse myself in town, or to be of use to the society." When his financial circumstances improved, he became a patron and collector.
He amassed a considerable collection of works of art, many of, commissioned and which were selected for their scientific interest rather than their connoisseur value. He had several works by Nicholas Pocock representing topographical landforms in Wales, others by the artist Peter Paillou commissioned, representing different climate types, his portrait by Thomas Gainsborough shows him as a country gentleman. Included in the "Pennant Collection", housed at the National Library of Wales, are many watercolours by Moses Griffith and John Ingleby, some drawings by Pennant himself; the artist Moses Griffith, a native of Bryncroes in the Llŷn Peninsula, provided illustrations to most of Pennant's books. He was accommodated at Downing. Many of these paintings are included in the Pennant Collection held by the National Museum of Wales. Another artist whom Pennant employed on an occasional basis was John Ingleby of Halkyn, he supplied town scenes and vignettes. Pennant's first publications were scientific papers on the earthquake he had experienced, other geological subjects and palaeontology.
One of these so impressed Carl Linnaeus, that in 1757, he put Pennant's name forward and he was duly elected a member of the Royal Swedish Society of Sciences. Pennant felt honoured by this a
Ministry of Works (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Works was a department of the UK Government formed in 1940, during World War II, to organise the requisitioning of property for wartime use. After the war, the Ministry retained responsibility for Government building projects. In 1962 it was renamed the Ministry of Public Building and Works, acquired the extra responsibility of monitoring the building industry as well as taking over the works departments from the War Office, Air Ministry and Admiralty; the Chief Architect of the Ministry from 1951 to 1970 was Eric Bedford. In 1970 the Ministry was absorbed into the Department of the Environment, although from 1972 most former Works functions were transferred to the autonomous Property Services Agency. Subsequent reorganisation of PSA into Property Holdings was followed by abolition in 1996 when individual Government departments took on responsibility for managing their own estate portfolios; the tradition of building specific structures for military or governmental use began to break down at the time of World War I, when the unprecedented need for armaments prompted the rapid construction of factories in English locations where a skilled workforce was not recruited.
The department derived from the Office of Works responsible only for royal properties which became the Office of Woods, Land Revenues and Works. The Office of Works was founded in 1851 and became the Ministry of Works in 1940; this became the Ministry of Works & Planning, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government 1951-62, the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works before being subsumed in the Department of the Environment in 1970 and English Heritage in 1984. Architect Frank Baines guided the rapid development of estates of houses in a terraced style, for workers and their families in places close to the required factories and depots. Examples included the Well Hall garden suburb south of the Royal Arsenal, Aeroville near the Grahame-White aeroplane factory at Hendon, the Roe Green estate at Stag Lane in the London Borough of Brent. Considering the pace of their construction, these estates were picturesque and were subsequently considered superior in scenic terms to many estates of municipal housing that followed in the peacetime of the 1920s, guided by the Tudor Walters Committee report of 1919 and the Housing and Town Planning Act 1919.
Their styling owed much to the English garden suburb tradition and garden areas and front boundaries were more varied than on contemporary estates within military bases where state ownership endured over a longer period. By the late 20th century the Well Hall example had become known as the Progress Estate and legend has it that no two houses there are built to the same plan. From the 1880s the Office of Works was responsible for the upkeep of ancient monuments, a role taken on by the Department of the Environment and when responsibility for heritage matters was devolved, in 1977, by English Heritage and the other Home Country heritage organisations; as such it forms the basis for any research into official or historic structures ranging from post offices to palaces and all archaeological sites in state care, including Stonehenge. In conjunction with the Foreign Office it was responsible for the fabric of British embassies and consulates across the world. Apart from English Heritage, Historic Scotland and Cadw, its vast archive is dispersed throughout many other organisations including national Museums and Galleries, other government departments including the Government Art Collection and the now hived-off agencies covering Royal Parks and Palaces.
Every Record Office, every museum and every town council in the British Isles will hold files relating to the MOW who in 1947 enabled the first'Lists' defining and protecting historic buildings which now forms the heritage protection of over 400,000 sites. A detailed history of offices and staff remains to be written: the work of the completely anonymous civil servants who worked for this large government department is absent from published or online sources unless these manifold official activities impinge on current specialized research on the military, archaeological or architectural links; the Ministry of Works descended from a long line of offices with responsibilities for managing Royal and Governmental property. These are summarised below. 1378–1832 Office of Works. This office was established to oversee the building of the King's residences. 1832–1851 Office of Woods, Land Revenues and Buildings. The Office of Works continued to operate as the Works Department within the larger Office.
1851–1940 Office of Works. The Office was given a separate identity in order to bring it under the direct control of Parliament. 1940–1942 Ministry of Works and Buildings. The Ministry was formed during World War II as the Government's need for new buildings and the conversion of existing buildings became more urgent. 1942–1943 Ministry of Works and Planning. 1943–1962 Ministry of Works. See above. 1962–1970 Ministry of Public Building and Works. See above. BT Tower, London Ordnance Survey head office, Southampton First Commissioner of Works
Cadw is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government and part of the Tourism and Culture group. Cadw works to protect the historic buildings and structures, the landscapes and heritage sites of Wales, so that the public can visit them, enjoy them and understand their significance. Cadw manages 127 state owned sites, it arranges events at its managed properties, provides lectures and teaching sessions, offers heritage walks and hosts an online shop. Members of the public can become members of Cadw to gain membership privileges; as the Welsh Government's historic environment service, Cadw is charged with protecting the historic environment of Wales, making it accessible to members of the public. To this end, in 2010–11 it identified four aspects of its work. Cadw is responsible for the care and upkeep of three World Heritage Sites in Wales: the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd, the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and the Blaenavon Industrial Landscape. Many of these listed sites are in private ownership, but Cadw has a specific responsibility for the care and upkeep of the 127 historic sites that are in state ownership.
Many of Wales' great castles and other monuments, such as bishop's palaces, historic houses, ruined abbeys, are protected and maintained in this way, as well being opened to the public. Cadw has been appointed by the Welsh Government and is the successor body in Wales to the Ministry of Works. Cadw identifies of historical assets in Wales. In 2011 there were 29,936 listed buildings in Wales. Most of these were in private ownership. In Wales were 4,175 Scheduled Monuments, 6 Designated historic wrecks, 523 Conservation Areas. A register of significant Welsh battlefield sites is under preparation. There are 58 Historic Landscapes and 376 Historic gardens in Wales. Cadw is undertaking urban character studies of urban areas. Eight had been completed by September 2013. Combined with a register of buildings and ancient monuments at risk these aim to enable management decision making and grant allocation to strengthen the character of different areas. Cadw opens them to the public. In 2010–11 there were an estimated 2 million visits to Cadw properties.
In some cases, these are major tourist attractions and offer tours of the monuments and display panels. Cadw produces books and guidebooks on many of their properties; however many of the sites are unstaffed, free to access, have interpretation boards to explain their significance. Alongside this, a mobile app was released in 2016, which provides basic information for visitors as well as an interpretative aspect for larger sites; the five most visited properties in 2010-11 were Caernarfon Castle, Conwy Castle, Caerphilly Castle, Harlech Castle and Beaumaris Castle. To provide a better context for the history of Wales, in 2010–11 Cadw was developing thematic'All Wales Interpretation Plans', that could develop themes across numerous sites and localities. There were eight themes: prehistory. Roman invasion and settlement. Celtic saints and pilgrimage. Churches and monastic landscapes. Castles and Princes of Medieval Wales. Artistic responses to the landscape; the Defence of the Realm — Pembrokeshire.
Wales — the first industrial nation. Cadw Membership known as Heritage in Wales, gives the member free admission to all Cadw properties and World Heritage Sites in Wales for the length of their membership. Other membership advantages are a free magazine, reduced prices at the online gift shop and free entry to most Cadw-organised events. Cadw has entered into reciprocal agreements with English Heritage, Historic Scotland and Manx National Heritage for free entry to the properties they manage. Cadw organises events for families; these include lectures, re-enactments of historical events, training sessions for teachers, informing them on how to use visits to historic sites to help deliver literacy and numeracy skills and an appreciation of history. Historical and cultural events are one of the ways people are encouraged to engage more with the places and history of Cadw properties, some 200 events a year are held. Cadw provides work experience opportunities for young people, sandwich courses for undergraduates.
Equivalent organisations in other parts of the United Kingdom are: England — Historic England Scotland – Historic Scotland Northern Ireland – Northern Ireland Environment Agency Isle of Man – Manx National Heritage Abbeys and priories in Wales Castles in Wales Conservation in the United Kingdom Historic houses in Wales Museums in Wales Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales Scheduled Monuments in Wales Official Cadw website Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet, in which gaps or indentations, which are rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences. These gaps are termed "crenels", the act of adding crenels to a unbroken parapet is termed crenellation. A defensive building might be designed and built with battlements, or a manor house might be fortified by adding battlements, where no parapet existed, or cutting crenellations into its existing parapet wall; the solid widths between the crenels are called merlons. A wall with battlements is said to be embattled. Battlements on walls have protected walkways behind them. On tower or building tops, the roof is used as the protected fighting platform; the term originated in about the 14th century from the Old French word batailler, "to fortify with batailles". The word crenel derives from the ancient French cren, Latin crena, meaning a notch, mortice or other gap cut out to receive another element or fixing.
The modern French word for crenel is créneau used to describe a gap of any kind, for example a parking space at the side of the road between two cars, interval between groups of marching troops or a timeslot in a broadcast. In medieval England and Wales a licence to crenellate granted the holder permission to fortify their property; such licences were granted by the king, by the rulers of the counties palatine within their jurisdictions, e.g. by the Bishops of Durham and the Earls of Chester and after 1351 by the Dukes of Lancaster. The castles in England vastly outnumber the licences to crenellate Royal pardons were obtainable, on the payment of an arbitrarily determined fine, by a person who had fortified without licence; the surviving records of such licences issued by letters patent, provide valuable evidence for the dating of ancient buildings. A list of licences issued by the English Crown between the 12th and 16th centuries was compiled by Turner & Parker and expanded and corrected by Philip Davis and published in The Castle Studies Group Journal.
There has been academic debate over the purpose of licensing. The view of military-focused historians is that licensing restricted the number of fortifications that could be used against a royal army; the modern view, proposed notably by Charles Coulson, is that battlements became an architectural status-symbol much sought after by the ambitious, in Coulson's words: "Licences to crenellate were symbolic representations of lordly status: castellation was the architectural expression of noble rank". They indicated to the observer that the grantee had obtained "royal recognition and compliment", they could however provide a basic deterrent against wandering bands of thieves, it is suggested that the function of battlements was comparable to the modern practice of householders fitting visible CC-TV and burglar alarms merely dummies. The crown did not charge for the granting of such licences, but charged a fee of about half a mark. Battlements may be stepped out to overhang the wall below, may have openings at their bases between the supporting corbels, through which stones or burning objects could be dropped onto attackers or besiegers.
Battlements have been used for thousands of years. Battlements were used in the walls surrounding Assyrian towns, as shown on bas reliefs from Nimrud and elsewhere. Traces of them remain at Mycenae in Greece, some ancient Greek vases suggest the existence of battlements; the Great Wall of China has battlements. In the European battlements of the Middle Ages the crenel comprised one-third of the width of the merlon: the latter, in addition, could be provided with arrow-loops of various shapes, depending on the weapon being utilized. Late merlons permitted fire from the first firearms. From the 13th century, the merlons could be connected with wooden shutters that provided added protection when closed; the shutters were designed to be opened to allow shooters to fire against the attackers, closed during reloading. The Romans used low wooden pinnacles for their first aggeres. In the battlements of Pompeii, additional protection derived from small internal buttresses or spur walls, against which the defender might stand so as to gain complete protection on one side.
Loop-holes were frequent in Italian battlements, where the merlon has much greater height and a distinctive cap. Italian military architects used the so-called Ghibelline or swallowtail battlement, with V-shaped notches in the tops of the merlon, giving a horn-like effect; this would allow the defender to be protected whilst shooting standing upright. The normal rectangular merlons were nicknamed Guelph. In Muslim and African fortifications, the merlons were rounded; the battlements of the Arabs had a more decorative and varied character, were continued from the 13th century onwards not so much for defensive purposes as for a crowning feature to the walls. They serve a function similar to the cresting found in the Spanish Renaissance. "Irish" crenellations are a distinctive form that appeared in Ireland between the 14th and 17th centuries. These were battlements of a "stepped" form, with each merlon shaped like an inverted'T'. European architects persistently used battlements as a purely decorative feature throughout the Decorated and Perpendicular periods of Gothi
Caernarfon Castle anglicized as Carnarvon Castle, is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Government's historic environment service. It was a motte-and-bailey castle in the town of Caernarfon from the late 11th century until 1283 when King Edward I of England began replacing it with the current stone structure; the Edwardian town and castle acted as the administrative centre of north Wales and as a result the defences were built on a grand scale. There was a deliberate link with Caernarfon's Roman past and the Roman fort of Segontium is nearby. While the castle was under construction, town walls were built around Caernarfon; the work cost between £20,000 and £25,000 from the start until the end of work in 1330. Despite Caernarfon Castle's external appearance of being complete, the interior buildings no longer survive and many of the building plans were never finished; the town and castle were sacked in 1294. Caernarfon was recaptured the following year.
During the Glyndŵr Rising of 1400–1415, the castle was besieged. When the Tudor dynasty ascended to the English throne in 1485, tensions between the Welsh and English began to diminish and castles were considered less important; as a result, Caernarfon Castle was allowed to fall into a state of disrepair. Despite its dilapidated condition, during the English Civil War Caernarfon Castle was held by Royalists, was besieged three times by Parliamentarian forces; this was the last time. Caernarfon Castle was neglected until the 19th century. In 1911, Caernarfon Castle was used for the investiture of the Prince of Wales, again in 1969, it is part of the World Heritage Site "Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd". The first fortifications at Caernarfon were built by the Romans, their fort, which they named Segontium, is on the outskirts of the modern town. The fort sat near the bank of the River Seiont. Caernarfon derives its name from the Roman fortifications. In Welsh, the place was called "y gaer yn Arfon", meaning "the stronghold in the land over against Môn".
Little is known about the fate of Segontium and its associated civilian settlement after the Romans departed from Britain in the early 5th century. Following the Norman Conquest of England, William the Conqueror turned his attention to Wales. According to the Domesday Survey of 1086, the Norman Robert of Rhuddlan was nominally in command of the whole of northern Wales, he was killed by the Welsh in 1088. His cousin Hugh d'Avranches, Earl of Chester, reasserted Norman control of north Wales by building three castles: one at an unknown location somewhere in Meirionnydd, one at Aberlleiniog on Anglesey, another at Caernarfon; this early castle was built on a peninsula, bounded by the Menai Strait. While the motte, or mound, was integrated into the Edwardian castle, the location of the original bailey is uncertain, although it may have been to the north-east of the motte. Excavations on top of the motte in 1969 revealed no traces of medieval occupation, suggesting any evidence had been removed, it is that the motte was surmounted by a wooden tower known as a keep.
The Welsh recaptured Gwynedd in 1115, Caernarfon Castle came into the possession of the Welsh princes. From contemporary documents written at the castle, it is known that Llywelyn the Great and Llywelyn ap Gruffudd stayed at Caernarfon. War broke out again between England and Wales on 22 March 1282; the Welsh leader, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, died that year on 11 December. His brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd continued to fight against the English, but in 1283 Edward I was victorious. Edward marched through northern Wales, capturing castles such as that at Dolwyddelan, establishing his own at Conwy. War drew to a close in May 1283 when Dolbadarn Castle, Dafydd ap Gruffudd's last castle, was captured. Shortly after, Edward began building castles at Caernarfon; the castles of Caernarfon and Harlech were the most impressive of their time in Wales, their construction — along with other Edwardian castles in the country — helped establish English rule. The master mason responsible for the design and orchestrating the construction of the castle was James of Saint George, an experienced architect and military engineer who played an important role in building the Edwardian castles in Wales.
According to the Flores Historiarum, during the construction of the castle and planned town, the body of the Roman emperor Magnus Maximus was discovered at Caernarfon and Edward I ordered his reburial in a local church. The construction of the new stone castle was part of a programme of building which transformed Caernarfon; the earliest reference to building at Caernarfon dates from 24 June 1283, when a ditch had been dug separating the site of the castle from the town to the north. A bretagium, a type of stockade, was created around the site to protect it while the permanent defences were under construction. Timber was shipped from as far away as Liverpool. Stone was quarried around the town. A force of hundreds digging the foundations for the castle; as the site expanded, it began to encroach on the town. Residents were not paid compensation until three years la
Kingdom of Gwynedd
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd rose to dominance and were acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or invasions; the kingdom of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn—the King of Wales from 1055 to 1063—was shattered by a Saxon invasion in 1063 just prior to the Norman invasion of Wales, but the House of Aberffraw restored by Gruffudd ap Cynan recovered and Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd was able to proclaim the Principality of Wales at the Aberdyfi gathering of Welsh princes in 1216. In 1277, the Treaty of Aberconwy granted peace between the two but would guarantee that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death, so it represented the completion of the first stage of the conquest of Wales by Edward I. Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the Brittonic polity of Gododdin from Lothian invading the lands of the Brittonic polities of the Deceangli and Gangani in the 5th century.
The sons of their leader, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi. The true borders of the realm varied over time, but Gwynedd Proper was thought to comprise the cantrefs of Aberffraw and Cantref Rhosyr on Anglesey and Arllechwedd, Dunoding, Dyffryn Clwyd, Llŷn, Rhos and Tegeingl at the mountainous mainland region of Snowdonia opposite; the name Gwynedd is believed to be an early borrowing from Irish, either cognate with the Old Irish ethnic name Féni, "Irish People", from Primitive Irish *weidh-n- "Forest People"/"Wild People", or Old Irish fían "war band", from Proto-Irish *wēnā. The 5th-century Cantiorix Inscription now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name, it is in memory of a man named Cantiorix, the Latin inscription is Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati: "Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate"; the use of terms such as "citizen" and "magistrate" may be cited as evidence that Romano-British culture and institutions continued in Gwynedd long after the legions had withdrawn.
Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the "Promontory of the Gangani", a name he recorded in Ireland. In the late and post-Roman eras, Irish from Leinster may have arrived in Anglesey and elsewhere in northwest Wales, with the name Llŷn derived from Laigin, an Old Irish form that means "of Leinster"; the region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey, but broadened to refer to Irish settlers as a whole in North Wales by the 5th century. According to 9th century monk and chronicler Nennius, North Wales was left defenseless by the Roman withdrawal and subject to increasing raids by marauders from the Isle of Man and Ireland, a situation which led Cunedda, his sons and their entourage, to migrate in the mid-5th century from Manaw Gododdin to settle and defend North Wales against the raiders and bring the region within Romano-British control. According to traditional pedigrees, Cunedda's grandfather was Padarn Beisrudd, Paternus of the red cloak, "an epithet which suggests that he wore the cloak of a Roman officer", according to Davies.
Nennius recounts how Cunedda brought order to North Wales and after his death Gwynedd was divided among his sons: Dynod was awarded Dunoding, another son Ceredig received Ceredigion, so forth. However, this overly neat origin myth has been met with skepticism: Early Welsh literature contains a wealth of stories seeking to explain place-names, doubtless the story is propaganda aimed at justifying the right of Cunedda and his descendants to territories beyond the borders of the original Kingdom of Gwynedd; that kingdom consisted of the two banks of the Menai Straits and the coast over towards the estuary of the river Conwy, the foundations upon which Cunedda's descendants created a more extensive realm. Undoubtedly, a Brittonic leader of substance established himself in North Wales, he and his descendants defeated any remaining Irish presence, incorporated the settlements into their domain and reoriented the whole of Gwynedd into a Romano-British and "Welsh" outlook; the Welsh of Gwynedd remained conscious of their Romano-British heritage, an affinity with Rome survived long after the Empire retreated from Britain with the use of Latin in writing and sustaining the Christian religion.
The Welsh ruling classes continued to emphasize Roman ancestors within their pedigrees as a way to link their rule with the old imperial Roman order, suggesting stability and continuity with that old order. According to Professor John Davies, "here is a determinedly Brythonic, indeed Roman, air to early Gwynedd." So palpable was the Roman heritage felt that Professor Bryan Ward-Perkins of Trinity College, wrote "It took until 1282, when Edward I conquered Gwynedd, for the last part of Roman Britain to fall a strong case can be made for Gwynedd as the last part of the entire Roman Empire and west, to fall to the barbarians." There was quick abandonment of Roman political and ecclesiastical practices and institutions within Gwynedd and elsewhere in Wales. Roman knowledge was lost as the Romano-Britons shifted towards a streamlined militaristic near-tribal society that no longer
A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower. It is a structure that uses a water wheel or water turbine to drive a mechanical process such as milling, rolling, or hammering; such processes are needed in the production of many material goods, including flour, paper and many metal products. These watermills may comprise gristmills, paper mills, textile mills, trip hammering mills, rolling mills, wire drawing mills. One major way to classify watermills is by wheel orientation, one powered by a vertical waterwheel through a gear mechanism, the other equipped with a horizontal waterwheel without such a mechanism; the former type can be further divided, depending on where the water hits the wheel paddles, into undershot, overshot and pitchback waterwheel mills. Another way to classify water mills is by an essential trait about their location: tide mills use the movement of the tide. According to Terry S. Reynolds and R. J. Forbes, the water wheel may have originated from the ancient Near East in the 3rd century BC for use in moving millstones and small-scale grain grinding.
Reynolds suggests that the first water wheels were norias and, by the 2nd century BC, evolved into the vertical watermill in Syria and Asia Minor, from where it spread to ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. S. Avitsur supports a Near-Eastern origin for the watermill. Engineers in the Hellenistic world used the two main components of watermills, the waterwheel and toothed gearing, along with the Roman Empire, operated undershot and breastshot waterwheel mills. Early evidence of a water-driven wheel is the Perachora wheel, in Greece. An early written reference is in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium; the British historian of technology M. J. T. Lewis has shown that those portions of Philo of Byzantium's mechanical treatise which describe water wheels and which have been regarded as Arabic interpolations date back to the Greek 3rd-century BC original; the sakia gear is fully developed, attested in a 2nd-century BC Hellenistic wall painting in Ptolemaic Egypt.
Lewis assigns the date of the invention of the horizontal-wheeled mill to the Greek colony of Byzantium in the first half of the 3rd century BC, that of the vertical-wheeled mill to Ptolemaic Alexandria around 240 BC. The Greek geographer Strabon reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC; the Roman engineer Vitruvius has the first technical description of a watermill, dated to 40/10 BC. He seems to indicate the existence of water-powered kneading machines; the Greek epigrammatist Antipater of Thessalonica tells of an advanced overshot wheel mill around 20 BC/10 AD. He praised for its use in grinding grain and the reduction of human labour: Hold back your hand from the mill, you grinding girls. For Demeter has imposed the labours of your hands on the nymphs, who leaping down upon the topmost part of the wheel, rotate its axle. If we learn to feast toil-free on the fruits of the earth, we taste again the golden age.
The Roman encyclopedist Pliny mentions in his Naturalis Historia of around 70 AD water-powered trip hammers operating in the greater part of Italy. There is evidence of a fulling mill in 73/4 AD in Roman Syria. Another Roman author Ausonius mentions a lot of watermills in the walley of Rhine and its tributaries in the 4th century, it is that a water-powered stamp mill was used at Dolaucothi to crush gold-bearing quartz, with a possible date of the late 1st century to the early 2nd century. The stamps were operated as a batch of four working against a large conglomerate block, now known as Carreg Pumpsaint. Similar anvil stones have been found at other Roman mines across Europe in Spain and Portugal; the 1st-century AD multiple mill complex of Barbegal in southern France has been described as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world". It featured 16 overshot waterwheels to power an equal number of flour mills; the capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for the 12,500 inhabitants occupying the town of Arelate at that time.
A similar mill complex existed on the Janiculum hill, whose supply of flour for Rome's population was judged by emperor Aurelian important enough to be included in the Aurelian walls in the late 3rd century. A breastshot wheel mill dating to the late 2nd century AD was excavated at Les Martres-de-Veyre, France; the 3rd-century AD Hierapolis water-powered stone sawmill is the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism. Further sawmills powered by crank and connecting rod mechanisms, are archaeologically attested for the 6th-century water-powered stone sawmills at Gerasa and Ephesus. Literary references to water-powered marble saws in what is now Germany can be found in Ausonius 4th-century poem Mosella, they seem to be indicated about the same time by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia, demonstrating a diversified use of water-power in many parts of the Roman Empire. The earliest turbine mill was