A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and for application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name identifies a network domain, or it represents an Internet Protocol resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a web site, or the web site itself or any other service communicated via the Internet. In 2017, 330.6 million domain names had been registered. Domain names are formed by the procedures of the Domain Name System. Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are organized in subordinate levels of the DNS root domain, nameless; the first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains, including the generic top-level domains, such as the prominent domains com, net and org, the country code top-level domains. Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run web sites.
The registration of these domain names is administered by domain name registrars who sell their services to the public. A qualified domain name is a domain name, specified with all labels in the hierarchy of the DNS, having no parts omitted. Labels in the Domain Name System are case-insensitive, may therefore be written in any desired capitalization method, but most domain names are written in lowercase in technical contexts. Domain names serve to identify Internet resources, such as computers and services, with a text-based label, easier to memorize than the numerical addresses used in the Internet protocols. A domain name may represent entire collections of individual instances. Individual Internet host computers use domain names as host identifiers called hostnames; the term hostname is used for the leaf labels in the domain name system without further subordinate domain name space. Hostnames appear as a component in Uniform Resource Locators for Internet resources such as web sites. Domain names are used as simple identification labels to indicate ownership or control of a resource.
Such examples are the realm identifiers used in the Session Initiation Protocol, the Domain Keys used to verify DNS domains in e-mail systems, in many other Uniform Resource Identifiers. An important function of domain names is to provide recognizable and memorizable names to numerically addressed Internet resources; this abstraction allows any resource to be moved to a different physical location in the address topology of the network, globally or locally in an intranet. Such a move requires changing the IP address of a resource and the corresponding translation of this IP address to and from its domain name. Domain names are used to establish a unique identity. Organizations can choose a domain name that corresponds to their name, helping Internet users to reach them easily. A generic domain is a name that defines a general category, rather than a specific or personal instance, for example, the name of an industry, rather than a company name; some examples of generic names are books.com, music.com, travel.info.
Companies have created brands based on generic names, such generic domain names may be valuable. Domain names are simply referred to as domains and domain name registrants are referred to as domain owners, although domain name registration with a registrar does not confer any legal ownership of the domain name, only an exclusive right of use for a particular duration of time; the use of domain names in commerce may subject them to trademark law. The practice of using a simple memorable abstraction of a host's numerical address on a computer network dates back to the ARPANET era, before the advent of today's commercial Internet. In the early network, each computer on the network retrieved the hosts file from a computer at SRI, which mapped computer hostnames to numerical addresses; the rapid growth of the network made it impossible to maintain a centrally organized hostname registry and in 1983 the Domain Name System was introduced on the ARPANET and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force as RFC 882 and RFC 883.
Today, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers manages the top-level development and architecture of the Internet domain name space. It authorizes domain name registrars, through which domain names may be reassigned; the domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. Each node in the tree holds information associated with the domain name; the tree sub-divides into zones beginning at the DNS root zone. A domain name consists of one or more parts, technically called labels, that are conventionally concatenated, delimited by dots, such as example.com. The right-most label conveys the top-level domain; the hierarchy of domains descends from the right to the left label in the name. For example: the label example specifies a node example.com as a subdomain of the com domain, www is a label to create www.example.com, a subdomain of example.com. Each label may contain from 1 to 63 octets; the empty label is reserved for the root node and when qualified is expressed as the empty label terminated by a dot.
The full domain name
Richard David Harpin is the founder and CEO of Homeserve, an international home repairs and improvements business. Harpin was born in Huddersfield and educated at the Royal Grammar School, before going on to the University of York. Harpin joined Procter & Gamble in 1986 to pursue a marketing career, he worked at Gamble until 1990 before joining Deloitte as a management consultant. In 1993 Harpin and Jeremy Middleton established Homeserve as a joint venture with South Staffordshire Water and built it into one of the United Kingdom's largest home emergency businesses, it has since expanded into France in a joint venture with the USA and Spain. In 2017, HomeServe acquired 100% of Checkatrade and in 2019, acquired the Spanish business Habitissimo. Harpin founded The Enterprise Trust to inspire young people to consider entrepreneurship as a career by creating skills-based apprenticeships and injecting £1 million each year into youth enterprise support. In 2015 he founded an investment fund, Growth Partner, that has invested in Crafter's Companion, run by Sara Davies MBE, Iguana Developments and Keelham Farm Shop.
He is a member of the Apprenticeship Ambassadors Network. In 2013, Harpin and his wife bought their village pub, The Alice Hawthorn Inn in Nun Monkton, to prevent its closure, it won Yorkshire Life magazine's Dining Pub of the Year award in 2017. They helped revive the Nun Monkton Ferryboat across the River Ouse in 2017, closed since 1952, he is married to Kate and together they have one daughter and two sons. He lives near York and uses a helicopter to commute to work in Walsall
The 1955 college football season saw the Oklahoma Sooners win the national championship after going 10-0-0. Although the final poll was taken before the postseason bowl games, Oklahoma played against the nation's other unbeaten and untied team, the Maryland Terrapins, at the Orange Bowl in Miami, won 20-6. During the 20th century, the NCAA had no playoff for the college football teams that would be described as "Division I-A"; the NCAA did recognize a national champion based upon the final results of "wire service" polls. The extent of that recognition came in the form of acknowledgment in the annual NCAA Football Guide of the "unofficial" national champions; the AP poll in 1955 consisted of the votes of as many as 391 sportswriters. Though not all writers voted in every poll, each would give their opinion of the twenty best teams. Under a point system of 20 points for first place, 19 for second, etc. the "overall" ranking was determined. Although the rankings were based on the collective opinion of the representative sportswriters, the teams that remained "unbeaten and untied" were ranked higher than those that had not.
A defeat against a strong opponent, tended to cause a team to drop in the rankings, a team with two or more defeats was unlikely to remain in the Top 20. The top teams played on New Year's Day in the four major postseason bowl games: the Rose Bowl, the Sugar Bowl, the Orange Bowl, the Cotton Bowl. One conference began play in 1955: Presidents' Athletic Conference – an active NCAA Division III conference One conference played its final season in 1955: Texas Collegiate Athletic Conference – active since the 1926 season One conference changed its name prior to the 1955 season: The New Mexico Intercollegiate Conference became the Frontier Conference, the name it retained until its demise after the 1962 season In the preseason poll released on September 12, 1955, the UCLA Bruins, 1954's co champions, received 33 first place votes, while Oklahoma had 32. Michigan had the third most points overall. Other teams nominated for the top spot were defending champ Ohio State, Notre Dame, Miami, Georgia Tech, Iowa, USC, West Virginia, Purdue.
As the regular season progressed, a new poll would be issued on the Monday following the weekend's games. The preseason Top Five was 1. UCLA 2. Oklahoma 3. Michigan 4. Ohio State 5. Maryland. On Friday, September 16, #1 UCLA opened in Los Angeles with a 21-0 win over visiting Texas A&M. September 17, Oklahoma and Ohio State were idle, but #5 Maryland edged Missouri on the road, 13-12. #10 Georgia Tech, which had beaten #9 Miami 14-6 in Atlanta, rose to 2nd place in the next poll: 1. UCLA 2. Georgia Tech 3. Oklahoma 4. Michigan 5. Maryland. On September 24, # 1 UCLA and # 5 Maryland met before a record crowd. UCLA's Doug Peters plunged into the end zone in the first half, but fumbled the ball before crossing the goal line. In the second half, the home team Terrapins had the ball 17 yards from goal, on fourth down. Rather than kicking a field goal, Ed Vereb ran for the winning touchdown, giving Maryland a 7-0 win.#2 Georgia Tech won at #15 Florida, 14-7. #3 Oklahoma won at North Carolina 13-6. #4 Michigan beat Missouri 42-7.
Maryland took over the top spot. #11 Notre Dame, which had beaten SMU 17-0, moved into the Top 5: 1. Maryland 2. Michigan 3. Georgia Tech 4. Notre Dame 5. Oklahoma. October 1, #1 Maryland won 20-6 at #20 Baylor in Texas. #2 Michigan beat Michigan State 14-7 before a crowd of 97,239 at home in Ann Arbor. MSU had tied the score 7-7. Minutes Earl Morrall's punt was blocked to give Michigan the ball on the MSU 21, from which the winning score was made. #3 Georgia Tech beat SMU 20-7 in Atlanta. #4 Notre Dame defeated Indiana 19-0. #5 Oklahoma beat #12 Pittsburgh 26-14, marking its 21st consecutive win, new record. The poll: 1. Maryland 2. Michigan 3. Oklahoma 4. Georgia Tech 5. Notre Dame October 8 #1 Maryland beat Wake Forest 28-7, #2 Michigan defeated visiting #6 Army, 26-2. Both stayed unbeaten. #3 Oklahoma defeated Texas 20-0 in Dallas. #4 Georgia Tech won 7-0 at LSU. #5 Notre Dame won 14-0 at #15 Miami, with both touchdowns coming on fourth down passes from Paul Hornung, before an Orange Bowl record crowd of 75,685.
In a game that would decide the Pac-8 title, UCLA beat Oregon State 38-0. The poll: 1. Michigan 2. Maryland 3. Oklahoma 4. Notre Dame 5. Georgia Tech October 15 #1 Michigan defeated Northwestern, 14-2. #2 Maryland won at North Carolina, 25-7. #3 Oklahoma beat Kansas 44-6. However, #5 Georgia Tech lost to visiting #17 Auburn 14-12, #4 Notre Dame lost 21-7 when it hosted #13 Michigan State, they were replaced by # 8 Navy and # 11 Duke. The poll: 1. Michigan 2. Maryland 3. Oklahoma 4. Navy 5. Duke October 22 In Minneapolis #1 Michigan faced a 1-3-0 Minnesota team, was stunned when the Gophers racked up two touchdowns in the first quarter. Michigan's Terry Barr blocked the extra point attempt on the second touchdown, but the nation's #1 team was losing 13-0. Still down 13-7 at the half, the Wolverines fought back. Jim Van Pelt passed to Tom Maentz for a touchdown, Van Pelt added the extra point to save Michigan, 14-13. Minnesota would go on to a 3-6-0 finish. Meanwhile # 2 Maryland won more convincingly at 34-13, to regain the top spot.
#3 Oklahoma beat #14 Colorado, 56-21. #4 Navy won at Penn, 33-0. #5 Duke lost to Pitt, 26-7, was replaced in the top five by #6 Michigan State, which beat Illinois 21-7. The poll: 1. Maryland