Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Johann Christian Bach
Johann Christian Bach was a German composer of the Classical era, the eighteenth child of Johann Sebastian Bach, the youngest of his eleven sons. After a spell in Italy, Bach moved to London in 1762, where he became known as "the London Bach", he is sometimes known as "the English Bach", during his time spent living in the British capital, he came to be known as John Bach. He is noted for influencing the concerto style of Mozart. Johann Christian Bach was born to Anna Magdalena Bach in Leipzig, Germany, his distinguished father was 50 at the time of his birth—an age gap exemplified by the sharp differences in the musical styles of father and son. So, father Bach instructed Johann Christian in music until his death in 1750. After his father's death, he worked with his second-oldest half brother Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, twenty-one years his senior and considered at the time to be the most musically gifted of Bach's sons, he enjoyed a promising career, first as a composer as a performer playing alongside Carl Friedrich Abel, the notable player of the viola da gamba.
He composed cantatas, chamber music and orchestral works and symphonies. Bach lived in Italy for many years starting in 1754, he became organist at the Milan cathedral in 1760. During his time in Italy, he converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and devoted much time to the composition of church music, including music for a Requiem Mass and a Te Deum, his first major work was a Mass, which received an excellent performance and acclaim in 1757. In 1762, Bach travelled to London to première three operas at the King's Theatre, including Orione on 19 February 1763; that established his reputation in England, he became music master to Queen Charlotte. In 1766, Bach met soprano Cecilia Grassi, eleven years his junior, married her shortly thereafter, they had no children. J. C. Bach performed symphonies and concertos at the Hanover Square Rooms on the corner of Hanover Square and Hanover Street; this was London’s premier concert venue in the heart of fashionable Mayfair. The surrounding Georgian homes offered well-to-do clientele for his performances.
One of London’s primary literary circles consisting of Jane Timbury, Robert Gunnell Esq. Lord Beauchamp and Her Grace the Duchess of Buccleuch, to note a few, were acquainted with Bach and were regular attendees at his events. By the late 1770s, both his popularity and finances were in decline. By the time of Bach's death on New Year's Day 1782, he had become so indebted, that Queen Charlotte stepped in to cover the expenses of the estate and provided a life pension for Bach's widow, he was buried in the graveyard of London. A full account of J. C. Bach's career is given in the fourth volume of Charles Burney's History of Music. There are two others named Johann Christian Bach in the Bach family tree, but neither was a composer. In 1764 Bach met with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, aged eight at the time and had been brought to London by his father. Bach spent five months teaching Mozart in composition. Bach is regarded as having a strong influence on the young Mozart, with scholars such as Teodor Wyzewa and Georges Saint-Foix describing him as "the only, true teacher of Mozart".
Mozart arranged three sonatas from Bach's Op. 5 into keyboard concertos, in life Mozart "often acknowledged the artistic debt he owed" to Johann Christian. The works of JC Bach are given'W' numbers, from Ernest Warburton's Thematic catalog of his works. Bach's compositions include eleven operas, as well as chamber music, orchestral music and compositions for keyboard music. Notes Sources Hans T. David, A. Mendel, C. Wolff; the New Bach Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. Heinz Gärtner. John Christian Bach: Mozart's Friend and Mentor.. Philipp Spitta. Johann Sebastian Bach, his work and influence on the music of Germany, 1685–1750, 3 vols.: Vol I, Vol II, Vol III Charles Sanford Terry. John Christian Bach. Christoph Wolff et al; the New Grove Bach Family. Pp. 315ff. ISBN 0-393-30088-9. Percy M. Young; the Bachs: 1500–1850. Information Johann Christian Bach at Encyclopædia Britannica J C Bach J C Bach J C Bach Article: "Gainsborough and Music" by Brian RobinsMusic Free scores by Johann Christian Bach at the International Music Score Library Project Piano sonatas Op. 17, 1–6 on YouTube Concerto in D major, Op. 13, No.
2, 1st movement on YouTube Quartet in B-flat major on YouTube Flute sonatas, W. B 10–15, 1780 edition
Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Henry Charles Angelo the Younger
Henry Charles Angelo the Younger was a British master of fencing, part of the Angelo dynasty of fencers. Henry was born in 1780 to Henry Angelo the elder, he was the grandson of the founder of the dynasty. The younger Henry took over his father's fencing academy in Bond Street from his father in 1817, he subsequently moved it to St. James's Street, he was superintendent of sword exercise to the Royal Navy. Henry died in 1852, he is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. The Infantry Sword Exercise. 1845
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, archducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning baron, duke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are referred to as royalty or "royals." It is customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all. A royal family includes the spouse of the reigning monarch, surviving spouses of a deceased monarch, the children, brothers and paternal cousins of the reigning monarch, as well as their spouses.
In some cases, royal family membership may extend to great grandchildren and more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, a royal family may include one or more former monarchs. In certain instances, such as in Canada, the royal family is defined by who holds the styles Majesty and Royal Highness. There is a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts, that is, potential successors to the throne; this is not always observed. In addition, certain relatives of the monarch possess special privileges and are subject to certain statutes, conventions, or special common law; the precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. In certain monarchies, such as that found in Saudi Arabia or Kuwait, or in political systems where the monarch exercises executive power, such as in Jordan, it is not uncommon for the members of a royal family to hold important government posts or military commands.
In most constitutional monarchies, members of a royal family perform certain public, social, or ceremonial functions, but refrain from any involvement in electoral politics or the actual governance of the country. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do the titles and royal and noble styles held by members of the family; the composition of the royal family may be regulated by statute enacted by the legislature, the sovereign's prerogative and common law tradition, or a private house law. Public statutes, constitutional provisions, or conventions may regulate the marriages and personal titles of royal family members; the members of a royal family may not have a surname or dynastic name. In a constitutional monarchy, when the monarch dies, there is always a law or tradition of succession to the throne that either specifies a formula for identifying the precise order of succession among family members in line to the throne or specifies a process by which a family member is chosen to inherit the crown.
In the former case the exact line of hereditary succession among royal individuals may be identified at any given moment during prior reigns whereas in the latter case the next sovereign may be selected only during the reign or shortly after the demise of the preceding monarch. Some monarchies employ a mix of these selection processes, providing for both an identifiable line of succession as well as authority for the monarch, dynasty or other institution to alter the line in specific instances without changing the general law of succession; some countries have abolished royalty altogether, as in post-revolutionary Russia. Whilst mediatization occurred in other countries such as France and Russia, only the certain houses within the former Holy Roman Empire are collectively called the Mediatized Houses. Arenberg ducal family Fürstenberg princely family Ligne princely family Merode princely family Schwarzenberg princely family Thurn und Taxis princely family Media related to Royal families at Wikimedia Commons
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of 158,493 residents in December 2017, it has traditionally been known in English as Leghorn. The origins of Livorno are controversial, although the place was inhabited since the Neolithic Age as shown by worked bones, pieces of copper and ceramic found on the Livorno Hills in a cave between Ardenza and Montenero. Livorno was Etruscan; the construction of the Via Aurelia coincided with the occupation of the region by the Romans, who left traces of their presence in the toponyms and ruins of towers. The natural cove called Liburna, is a reference to the type of ship, the liburna, used by Roman navy. Others ancient toponyms include: Salviano, Antignano, the place situated before Ardenza where were the beacons for the ships directed to Porto Pisano. Cicerone call it Labrone. Livorna is mentioned for the first time in 1017 as a small coastal village, the port and the remains of a Roman tower under the rule of Lucca.
In 1077, a tower was built by Matilda of Tuscany. The Republic of Pisa owned Livorna from 1103 and built a quadrangular Fort called Quadratura dei Pisani to defend the port. Porto Pisano was destroyed after the crushing defeat of the Pisan fleet in the Battle of Meloria in 1284. In 1399, Pisa sold Livorna to the Visconti of Milan, in 1405 it was sold to the Republic of Genoa and on 28 August 1421 it was bought by the Republic of Florence; the name'Leghorn' derives from genoan name Ligorna. Livorno was used in the eighteen century by Florentine. Between 1427 and 1429, a census counted 118 families in Livorno, including 423 persons. Monks, military personnel, the homeless were not included in the census; the only remainder of medieval Livorno is a fragment of two towers and a wall, located inside the Fortezza Vecchia. After the arrival of the Medici, the ruling dynasty of Florence, some modifications were made. By 1551, the population had grown to 1562 residents. During the Italian Renaissance, when it was ruled by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany of the House of Medici Livorno was designed as an "Ideal town".
In 1577 the architect Bernardo Buontalenti drew up the first plan. The new fortified town had a pentagonal design, for which it is called Pentagono del Buontalenti, incorporating the original settlement; the Porto Mediceo was defended by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, declared Livorno a free port, which meant that the goods traded here were duty-free within the area of the town's control. In 1593, the Duke's administration established the Leggi Livornine to regulate the trade; these laws protected merchant activities from crime and racketeering, instituted laws regarding international trade. The laws established a well-regulated market and were in force until 1603. Expanding Christian tolerance, the laws offered the right of public freedom of religion and amnesty to people having to gain penance given by clergy in order to conduct civil business; the Grand Duke attracted numerous Turks, Moors and Armenians, along with Jewish immigrants.
Arrival of the latter begun in the late sixteenth century with the Alhambra Decree, which resulted in the expulsion of Jews from Spain and Portugal - while Livorno extended to them rights and privileges. Livorno became an enlightened European city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterranean Basin. Many European foreigners moved to Livorno; these included Christian Protestant reformers who supported such leaders as Martin Luther, John Calvin, others. French and English arrived, along with Orthodox Greeks. Meanwhile, Jews continued to trade under their previous treaties with the Grand Duke. On 19 March 1606, Ferdinando I de' Medici elevated Livorno to the rank of city; the Counter-Reformation increased tensions among Christians. Livorno's tolerance fell victim to the European wars of religion. But, in the preceding period, the merchants of Livorno had developed a series of trading networks with Protestant Europe, the Dutch and Germans worked to retain these. In 1653 a naval battle, the Battle of Leghorn was fought near Livorno during the First Anglo-Dutch War.
At the end of the 17th century, Livorno underwent a period of expansion. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress was built, together with the town walls and the system of navigable canals through neighborhoods. After the port of Pisa had silted up in the 13th century, its distance from the sea increased and it lost its dominance in trade, so Livorno took over as the main port in Tuscany. By 1745 Livorno's population had risen to 32,534 persons; the more successful of the European powers re-established trading houses in the region the British with the Levant Company. In turn, the trading networks grew, with it, Britain's cultural contact with Tuscany. An increasing number of British writers, artists and travelers visited the area and developed the unique historical ties between the two communities; the British referred to the city as "Leghorn". Through t