SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Domesday Book

Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire. Written in Medieval Latin, it was abbreviated and included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents; the survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, thereby allowing William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest. The assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal; the name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century. As Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.

That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the land that made up the United Kingdom. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works: "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday". No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Other areas of modern London were in Middlesex, Essex, etc. and are included in Domesday Book. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland were not yet conquered."Little Domesday"—so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's—is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.

It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the section of the Devonshire chapter concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists one hundred seventy-six holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief, who thereby became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.

As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, the subject of separate inquiry. Under the feudal system, the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, by virtue of his allodial title, he was thus the ultimate overlord, the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of bishops followed of the abbeys and s of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of the towns, which wer

Glycerol (data page)

This page provides supplementary chemical data on glycerol. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety precautions, it is recommended that you seek the Material Safety Datasheet for this chemical from a reliable source and follow its directions. Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th ed. log10 of Glycerol vapor pressure. Uses formula: log e ⁡ P m m H g = log e ⁡ − 21.25867 log e ⁡ − 16726.26 T + 273.15 + 165.5099 + 1.100480 × 10 − 05 2 obtained from CHERIC Table data obtained from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. Specific gravity is at 15°C, referenced to water at 15°C. See details on: Freezing Points of Glycerine-Water Solutions Dow Chemical or Freezing Points of Glycerol and Its Aqueous Solutions. Except where noted otherwise, data relate to pressure. Disclaimer applies

Shadows in the Skull

"Shadows in the Skull" is a short story by American writers L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter, featuring the fictional sword and sorcery hero Conan the Barbarian created by Robert E. Howard, it was first published in the February 1975 issue of the magazine Fantastic, first appeared in book form by Ace Books in the paperback collection Conan of Aquilonia in May 1977, reprinted several times through 1994. The first British edition was published by Sphere Books in October 1978. Aided by Zembabwean Wyvern-riders and black Amazons, King Conan of Aquilonia and his son, Prince Conn, track their arch-foe, Stygian sorcerer Thoth-Amon, to the extreme southern end of the Hyborian continent; the sorcerer has taken refuge with the last remnants of the evil Serpent Men, shape-changers who have menaced mankind throughout its prehistory. Conan's allies locate their skull-shaped hideout, only to fall victim to the Serpent Men's ploy of emulating beautiful Stygian women, his final battle with Thoth-Amon in the sorcerer's own domain proves as hard-fought as their previous encounters, but is successful at ridding the world of the fiend.

Conan's 13-years old son, deals the death blow to his father's old arch-enemy