Roast goose is a dish found in Chinese and Middle Eastern cuisines. The goose is in the biological family of birds including ducks and swans, known as the family of Anatidae; the family has a cosmopolitan distribution. Roasting is a cooking method using dry heat with hot air enveloping the food, cooking it evenly on all sides. Roasting can enhance flavor. Many varieties of roast goose appear in cuisines around the world. In southern China, roast goose is a variety of siu mei, or roasted meat dishes, within Cantonese cuisine, it is made by roasting geese with seasoning in a charcoal furnace at high temperature. Roasted geese of high quality have crisp skin with tender meat. Slices of roasted goose may be served with plum sauce. Roast goose, as served in Hong Kong, is similar to its counterpart in the neighboring Guangdong Province of southern China; some restaurants offer a prepared roast duck. Goose has a distinct flavor. In Germany, roasted goose is a staple for Christmas Day meals. For European cultures, roasted goose is traditionally only eaten on appointed holidays, including St. Martin's Day.
It is replaced by the turkey in the United Kingdom and United States. Goose is an alternative to turkey on European Christmas tables. Roast goose is a popular ingredient for post-Christmas meals. There are a number of recipes for Boxing Day which make use of left over roasted goose from one's Christmas Day banquet. Prevalent stuffings are apples, sweet chestnuts and onions. Typical seasonings include pepper, mugwort, or marjoram. Used are red cabbage, Klöße, gravy, which are used to garnish the goose. Another version of roast goose is the Alsatian-style with Bratwurst-stuffing and sauerkraut as garnish. Among the most famous food products special to Kars region of Turkey are Kars honey, Kars Kasseri, Kars Gruyère cheese, which tastes like Swiss Emmental cheese, Kars style roasted goose. Siu mei Char siu List of Christmas dishes Gordon's Christmas roast goose recipe Retrieved 26 April 2013 The Perfect Christmas Goose Recipe Retrieved 26 April 2013
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
The Emden Goose is a breed of domestic goose. The origins of this breed are thought to be from the North Sea region, in the Netherlands and Germany; the eminent author Lewis Wright wrote around 1900 that he was of the opinion that they originated from the town of Emden in Lower Saxony, although Edward Brown in his 1906 Races of Domestic Poultry believed that the breed was created by crossing the German White with the English White and by a process of careful selections, creating the goose as it is today. Others suggest that the English Emden's great weight and size was produced by selective breeding with the Toulouse breed, bred out leaving the large size of this breed. In any case, the continental stock used in breeding the modern birds is most descended from the great white landrace of Frisia, attested as early as the 13th century. In German the breed is known as Emdener Gans; the breed is pure white with a short, light orange bill, orange feet and shanks. They are fast growing birds and will reach about 9 kg for the Goose, 14 kg for the Gander.
The Emden's legs are short. The head is oval-shaped and they have a long and graceful neck; the eyes are an ocean blue. The body is well rounded, having a long back and a short tail; the wings are strong and of a good length. The feathers are close and hard; the breed's habits are to forage for tidbits in the water. They prefer living near some water as they eat small insects and water dwellers, they are a hardy breed and don't mind mild sub-zero temperatures. Males are more vocal than females and can be heard honking loudly if approached but geese in general talk throughout the day. Emden geese that are accustomed to their owners presence don't mind being in close proximity but tend to keep their distance; when cornered or defending their nest male or female geese will try to warn away predators by loudly hissing at them and ruffling their feathers. If provoked in an enclosed area their strong wings can be used as a weapon. Being domesticated they don't migrate. An Emden goose will start to look for a mate for life.
The adult bird will commence laying eggs early in the year, in February as a rule, laying 30 to 40 eggs. The goose starts incubating the eggs around the beginning of spring for about 28–34 days. Domestic goose List of goose breeds Batty, Joseph: Domesticated Ducks & Geese: Beech Publishing House. ISBN 1-85736-091-5 Emden Geese on the Domestic Waterfowl Site. Embden Geese on poultrykeeper - Photos and breed information. Emden Geese on feathersite
Domestic ducks are ducks that are raised for meat and down. Many ducks are kept for show, as pets, or for their ornamental value. All varieties of domestic duck apart from the Muscovy duck are descended from the mallard. Mallard ducks were first domesticated in Southeast Asia at least 4000 years ago, during the Neolithic Age, were farmed by the Romans in Europe, the Malays in Asia. In ancient Egypt, ducks were captured in nets and bred in captivity. During the Ming Dynasty, the Peking duck—mallards force-fed on grains, making them larger— was known to have good genetic characteristics. All varieties of domestic duck except the muscovy have been derived from the mallard. Domestication has altered their characteristics. Domestic ducks are polygamous, where wild mallards are monogamous. Domestic ducks have lost the mallard's territorial behaviour, are less aggressive than mallards. Despite these differences, domestic ducks mate with wild mallard, producing fertile hybrid offspring. Ducks have been farmed for thousands of years.
In the Western world, they are not as popular as the chicken, because chickens have much more white lean meat and are easier to keep confined, making the total price much lower for chicken meat, whereas duck is comparatively expensive. While popular in haute cuisine, duck appears less in the mass-market food industry and restaurants in the lower price range. However, ducks are more popular in China and there they are raised extensively. Ducks are farmed for their meat and down. A minority of ducks are kept for foie gras production; the blood of ducks slaughtered for meat is collected in some regions and is used as an ingredient in many cultures' dishes. Their eggs are blue-green to white, depending on the breed. Ducks can be kept free range, in cages, in batteries. Ducks do not require it to survive, they should be fed a insect diet. It is a popular misconception. Ducks should be monitored for avian influenza, as they are prone to infection with the dangerous H5N1 strain; the females of many breeds of domestic ducks are unreliable at sitting their eggs and raising their young.
Exceptions include the Rouen duck and the Muscovy duck. It has been a custom on farms for centuries to put duck eggs under broody hens for hatching. However, young ducklings rely on their mothers for a supply of preen oil to make them waterproof. Once the duckling grows its own feathers, it produces preen oil from the sebaceous gland near the base of its tail. Domestic ducks can be kept as pets, in a garden or backyard with a pond or deep water dish. If they are given access to a pond, they dabble in the mud, dredging out and eating wildlife and frog spawn, swallow adult frogs and toads up to the size of the common frog Rana temporaria, as they have been bred to be much bigger than wild ducks, with a waterline length of up to 1 foot. Protection from predators such as foxes and hawks is required. Ducks are kept for their ornamental value. Breeds have been developed with crests and tufts or striking plumage, for exhibition in competitions; the domestic duck has appeared numerous times in children's stories.
Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck was published by Frederick Warne & Co in 1908. One of Potter's best-known books, the tale was included in the Royal Ballet's The Tales of Beatrix Potter, it is the story of how Jemima, a domestic duck, is saved from a cunning fox who plans to kill her, when she tries to find a safe place for her eggs to hatch. The domestic duck features in the musical composition Peter and the Wolf, written by Sergei Prokofiev in 1936; the orchestra illustrates the children's story. In this, a domestic duck and a little bird argue on each other's flight capabilities; the duck is represented by the oboe. The story ends with the wolf eating the duck alive, its quack heard from inside the wolf's belly. Domestic ducks are depicted in wall paintings and grave objects from ancient Egypt, they are featured in a range of ancient artefacts. Since ancient times, the duck has been eaten as food. Only the breast and thigh meat is eaten, it does not need to be hung before preparation, is braised or roasted, sometimes flavoured with bitter orange or with port.
Peking duck is a dish of roast duck from Beijing, prepared since medieval times. It is today traditionally served with spring onions and sweet bean sauce. Duck and Goose from Farm to Table factsheet from USDA
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers. These birds are most members of the superorder Galloanserae the order Galliformes. Poultry includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game; the word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal. The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago; this may have been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity. Domesticated chickens may have been used for cockfighting at first and quail kept for their songs, but soon it was realised how useful it was having a captive-bred source of food. Selective breeding for fast growth, egg-laying ability, conformation and docility took place over the centuries, modern breeds look different from their wild ancestors.
Although some birds are still kept in small flocks in extensive systems, most birds available in the market today are reared in intensive commercial enterprises. Together with pig meat, poultry is one of the two most eaten types of meat globally, with over 70% of the meat supply in 2012 between them. All poultry meat should be properly handled and sufficiently cooked in order to reduce the risk of food poisoning; the word "poultry" comes from the West & English "pultrie", from Old French pouletrie, from pouletier, poultry dealer, from poulet, pullet. The word "pullet" itself comes from Middle English pulet, from Old French polet, both from Latin pullus, a young fowl, young animal or chicken; the word "fowl" is of Germanic origin. "Poultry" is a term used for any kind of domesticated bird, captive-raised for its utility, traditionally the word has been used to refer to wildfowl and waterfowl but not to cagebirds such as songbirds and parrots. "Poultry" can be defined as domestic fowls, including chickens, turkeys and ducks, raised for the production of meat or eggs and the word is used for the flesh of these birds used as food.
The Encyclopædia Britannica lists the same bird groups but includes guinea fowl and squabs. In R. D. Crawford's Poultry breeding and genetics, squabs are omitted but Japanese quail and common pheasant are added to the list, the latter being bred in captivity and released into the wild. In his 1848 classic book on poultry and Domestic Poultry: Their History, Management, Edmund Dixon included chapters on the peafowl, guinea fowl, mute swan, various types of geese, the muscovy duck, other ducks and all types of chickens including bantams. In colloquial speech, the term "fowl" is used near-synonymously with "domesticated chicken", or with "poultry" or just "bird", many languages do not distinguish between "poultry" and "fowl". Both words are used for the flesh of these birds. Poultry can be distinguished from "game", defined as wild birds or mammals hunted for food or sport, a word used to describe the flesh of these when eaten. Chickens are medium-sized, chunky birds with an upright stance and characterised by fleshy red combs and wattles on their heads.
Males, known as cocks, are larger, more boldly coloured, have more exaggerated plumage than females. Chickens are gregarious, ground-dwelling birds that in their natural surroundings search among the leaf litter for seeds and other small animals, they fly except as a result of perceived danger, preferring to run into the undergrowth if approached. Today's domestic chicken is descended from the wild red junglefowl of Asia, with some additional input from grey junglefowl. Domestication is believed to have taken place between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, what are thought to be fossilized chicken bones have been found in northeastern China dated to around 5,400 BC. Archaeologists believe domestication was for the purpose of cockfighting, the male bird being a doughty fighter. By 4,000 years ago, chickens seem to have reached the Indus Valley and 250 years they arrived in Egypt, they were regarded as symbols of fertility. The Romans used them in divination, the Egyptians made a breakthrough when they learned the difficult technique of artificial incubation.
Since the keeping of chickens has spread around the world for the production of food with the domestic fowl being a valuable source of both eggs and meat. Since their domestication, a large number of breeds of chickens have been established, but with the exception of the white Leghorn, most commercial birds are of hybrid origin. In about 1800, chickens began to be kept on a larger scale, modern high-output poultry farms were present in the United Kingdom from around 1920 and became established in the United States soon after the Second World War. By the mid-20th century, the poultry meat-producing industry was of greater importance than the egg-laying industry. Poultry breeding has produced strains to fulfil different needs. Male birds are unwanted in the egg-laying industry and can b
The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. Young birds are clad only in down. Powder down is a specialized type of down found only in a few groups of birds. Down is a fine thermal insulator and padding, used in goods such as jackets, bedding and sleeping bags; the discovery of feathers trapped in ancient amber suggests that some species of dinosaur may have possessed down-like feathers. The word down comes from the Old Norse word dúnn, which had the same meaning as its modern equivalent; the down feather is considered to be the most "straightforward" of all feather types. It has a short or vestigial rachis, few barbs, barbules that lack hooks. There are three types of down: body down and powder down. Natal down is the layer of down feathers that cover most birds at some point in their early development. Precocial nestlings are covered with a layer of down when they hatch, while altricial nestlings develop their down layer within days or weeks of hatching.
Megapode hatchlings are the sole exception. Body down is a layer of small, fluffy feathers that lie underneath the outer contour feathers on a bird's body. Powder down, or pulviplumes, is a special type of down that occurs in a few groups of unrelated birds. In some species, the tips of the barbules on powder down feathers disintegrate, forming fine particles of keratin, which appear as a powder, or "feather dust", among the feathers; these feathers are not molted. In other species, powder grains come from cells; these specialized feathers are scattered among ordinary down feathers, though in some species, they occur in clusters. All parrots have powder down, with some species producing copious amounts, it is found in tinamous and herons. The dust produced from powder down feathers is a known allergen in humans; the loose structure of down feathers traps air, which helps to insulate the bird against heat loss and contributes to the buoyancy of waterbirds. Species that experience annual temperature fluctuations have more down feathers following their autumn moult.
There is some evidence that down feathers may help to decrease the incidence of nestling cannibalism among some colonially nesting species, as the stiffness of the feathers make the young more difficult to swallow. Pollutants can reduce the efficiency of these functions; when oiled, for example, down feathers mat and clump together, which breaks down the bird's insulation and allows water to reach the skin. Female wildfowl use down feathers plucked from their own breasts to line their scrape nests; this process performs the dual function of helping to insulate the eggs and exposing the female's brood pouch—an area of bare skin, rich in blood vessels, which transmits heat efficiently. Of the various items birds use to line their nests, down feathers provide the most effective insulation, though only when dry. Down may help camouflage the eggs when the female is away from the nest as the birds draw the feathers over their eggs before leaving; because a bird can eliminate heavy metals in its feathers and because feathers can be collected non-invasively and stored indefinitely, down feathers can be used to check for evidence of metal contamination in the bird's environment.
Studies have shown a high level of correlation between the level of metal contamination in a bird's diet and the level found in its feathers, with the proportion of the chemicals found in its feathers remaining constant. Mutations in the genes that control the formation of down feathers have been recorded in a German White Leghorn flock. Although the elements of a normal down feather are present, a hyperkeratosis of the feather's horny sheath after 16–17 days of incubation results in the sheath not splitting as it should during the final stages of the feather's growth; because of that abnormal splitting, the bird's down appears to be matted. Down feathers were used by indigenous North Americans for religious ceremonies and as powerful symbols. In the stories of some cultures, the down feathers of an eagle were important gifts given by the bird to the story's hero. In the Ghost Dance, a religious movement that became widespread among the Plains Indians, each dancer held a painted feather, tipped with a down feather painted with another color.
Zuni prayer sticks were made using eagle down. While eagle feathers belonged to the Sun Priest, who planted them to the sun, other priests could use them if rain was needed, as the down is said to suggest "fleecy clouds that gather on the horizon before rain"; the Hopi rubbed eagle down feathers over rattlesnakes being collected for their Snake Dances, in an effort to soothe and calm the reptiles. For centuries, humans across the globe have used down feathers for insulation. Russian documents from the 1600s list "bird down" among the goods sold to Dutch merchants, communities in northern Norway began protecting the nests of eider ducks as early as 1890. Eiders are still "farmed" by people in Iceland and Siberia; the birds are provided with nest sites and protected from predators, down is collected intermittently during the nesting season without harming the nests or female ducks. The first collection is made halfway through the incubation per