A given name is a part of a persons personal name. It identifies a person, and differentiates that person from other members of a group, such as a family or clan. The term given name refers to the fact that the name usually is bestowed upon a person and this contrasts with a surname, which is normally inherited, and shared with other members of the childs immediate family. Given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner in informal situations. In more formal situations the surname is commonly used, unless it is necessary to distinguish between people with the same surname. The idioms on a basis and being on first-name terms allude to the familiarity of addressing another by a given name. The order given name – family name, commonly known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by Western Europe. The order family name – given name, commonly known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India.
The order given name - fathers family name - mothers family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed legally in Spain using given name - mothers family name - fathers family name, under the common Western naming convention, people may have one or more forenames. If more than one, there is usually a main forename for everyday use, sometimes however two or more forenames may carry equal weight. There is no particular ordering rule for forenames – often the main forename is at the beginning, a childs given name or names are usually chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a ceremony, with family. In most jurisdictions, a name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate. In western cultures, people normally retain the same name throughout their lives. However, in some cases names may be changed by petitioning a court of law. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions, in France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge.
Some jurisdictions, like in Sweden, restrict the spelling of names, parents may choose a name because of its meaning
Sonora is the county seat of Tuolumne County, California. The city population was 4,903 during the 2010 Census, Sonora is the only incorporated community in Tuolumne County. Sonora is located at 37°59′04″N 120°22′54″W, around the intersection of California State Highways 49 and 108 The altitude is 1,825 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 3.1 square miles,99. 55% of it land and 0. 45% of it water. Sonora has cool, wet winters and hot, mostly dry summers, average January temperatures are a maximum of 54.5 °F and a minimum of 33.5 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 94.6 °F, there are an average of 75.5 days annually with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 52.2 days annually with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high temperature was 113 °F on June 22,1961, the record low temperature was 8 °F on December 9,1972. There are an average of 60 days annually with measurable precipitation, the wettest “rain year” has been from July 1994 to June 1995 with 56.40 inches and the driest from July 1975 to June 1976 with 15.26 inches.
The most rainfall in one month was 21.69 inches in December 1955, including 7.10 inches on December 27, average annual snowfall is only 4.7 inches. The most snowfall in one month was 30.5 inches in January 1933, the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Csa. The 2010 United States Census reported that Sonora had a population of 4,903, the population density was 1,593.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Sonora was 4,402 White,24 African American,95 Native American,79 Asian,12 Pacific Islander,84 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 542 persons. The census reported that 4,613 people lived in households,85 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 192 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 12 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 881 households were made up of individuals and 312 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.10. There were 1,113 families, the family size was 2.77.
The median age was 39.7 years, for every 100 females there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males, there were 2,463 housing units at an average density of 800.2 per square mile, of which 898 were owner-occupied, and 1,301 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4. 6%, the vacancy rate was 8. 6%
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Ghirardelli Square is a landmark public square with shops and restaurants in the Fishermans Wharf area of San Francisco, California. A portion of the area was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982 as Pioneer Woolen Mills, the square once featured over 40 specialty shops and restaurants. Some of the shops and restaurants still occupy the square. In 1893, Domenico Ghirardelli purchased the city block in order to make it into the headquarters of the Ghirardelli Chocolate Company. In the early 1960s, the Ghirardelli Chocolate Company was bought by the Golden Grain Macaroni Company which moved the headquarters off-site to San Leandro and put the square up for sale. San Franciscan William M. Roth and his mother, Lurline Matson Roth, in 1965, Benjamin Thompson and Associates renovated the lower floor of the Clock Tower, keeping the existing architectural elements, for a Design Research store. The lower floors of the Clock Tower are now home to Ghirardelli Squares main chocolate shop, in order to preserve Ghirardelli Square for future generations, the Pioneer Woolen Mills and D.
Ghirardelli Company was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks 49-Mile Scenic Drive Ghirardelli Square - Official site and source of info Guide to the Ghirardelli Square Architectural Records at The Bancroft Library
San Francisco Chronicle
It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a fall in circulation in the early 21st century. The newspaper publishes two web sites, SFGate, which has a mixture of news and web features. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Josephine Newhall took a bold, the newspaper grew in circulation to become the citys largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner. The demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner, from 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation. This arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle, beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco.
The Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper, the sections covered San Francisco, and four different suburban areas. They each featured a unique columnist, enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community, the newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27,2000, following the sale, the Hearst Corporation transferred the Examiner to the Fang family, publisher of the San Francisco Independent and AsianWeek, along with a $66-million subsidy. Under the new owners, the Examiner became a free tabloid, in 1949, the de Young family founded KRON-TV, the Bay Areas third television station. Until the mid-1960s, the station, operated from the basement of the Chronicle Building, KRON moved to studios at 1001 Van Ness Avenue. The frequent bold-faced, all-capital-letter headlines typical of the Chronicles front page were eliminated, editor Ward Bushees note heralded the issue as the start of a new era for the Chronicle.
On July 6,2009, the paper unveiled some alterations to the new design that included yet newer section fronts and wider use of color photographs and graphics. In a special section publisher Frank J. Vega described new, the newer look was accompanied by a reduction in size of the broadsheet. On November 9,2009, the Chronicle became the first newspaper in the nation to print on high-quality glossy paper, the high-gloss paper is used for some section fronts and inside pages. As of 2013 the publisher of the Chronicle is Jeffrey Johnson, audrey Cooper was named editor-in-chief in January 2015 and is the first woman to hold the position
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of origin, race. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries, the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as a nation with universal values, France has always valued. However, the success of such assimilation has recently called into question.
There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves, the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration, the name France etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire, in the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, the area became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture, the Gaulish vernacular language disappeared step by step to be replaced everywhere by Vulgar Latin, which would develop under Frankish influence into the French language in the North of France.
With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture, the Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands, at the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is spoken as a kind of Dutch in northern France. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace, the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there and they were competitors of the Franks, thats why it became at the Renaissance time the word for German in French, Allemand. By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the process
Outline of chocolate
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chocolate, Chocolate – raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. The seeds of the tree have an intense bitter taste. Chocolate is an ingredient in confectionery items and candies. Confectionery – the set of items that are rich in sugar. Modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well, candy – confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water, to which flavorings and colorants are added. Candies come in colors and varieties and have a long history in popular culture. Ingredient – substance that forms part of a mixture, for example, in cooking, recipes specify which ingredients are used to prepare a specific dish. Chocolate is often used as an ingredient in dessert items, such as cakes and cookies. com Outline of chocolate at DMOZ Glossary of Chocolate Terms Chisholm, food of the Gods A Popular Account of Cocoa – Freely downloadable book from Project Gutenberg
Dark chocolate is a form of chocolate which has a higher content of cocoa butter and less milk than other forms of chocolate. Government and industry standards of products may be labeled dark chocolate vary by country. Dark chocolate contains antioxidants, such as polyphenols, and is low in sugar. It has a reputation as an alternative to other types of chocolate. Dark chocolate has been identified as a potential superfood and this has helped lead to a global increase in demand for dark chocolate
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Australia and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852.
Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with.
The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher
Ghirardelli Chocolate Company
The Ghirardelli Chocolate Company is a United States division of Swiss confectioner Lindt & Sprüngli. The company was founded by and is named after Italian chocolatier Domenico Ghirardelli, the Ghirardelli Chocolate Company was incorporated in 1852, and is the third-oldest chocolate company in the United States, after Bakers Chocolate and Whitmans. In 1817, Domenico Ghirardelli was born in Rapallo, Italy, to an exotic foods importer, Domenico received his first education in the chocolate trade when he was apprenticed to a local candymaker as a child. By the time he was 20, Ghirardelli sailed to Uruguay with his wife to work in a chocolate, a year later, Ghirardelli moved to Lima and opened a confectionery store. In 1847, nine years later, James Lick moved to Mexico with 600 pounds of Ghirardellis chocolate, Ghirardelli remained and continued to operate his store in Peru. In 1849, Ghirardelli received news of the strike at Sutter’s Mill. After doing some prospecting, Ghirardelli opened a store in Stockton, offering supplies.
Ghirardellis tent-based store was one of the first shops set up in the area, several months later, Ghirardelli opened a second store on the corner of Broadway and Battery in San Francisco, which became, in 1850, his first establishment in that city. A fire on May 3,1851 destroyed Ghirardellis San Francisco business, however, in September of the same year, Ghirardelli used his remaining assets to open the Cairo Coffee House in San Francisco. This business venture proved unsuccessful, and Ghirardelli opened a new store, named Ghiardelli & Girard, on the corner of Washington, soon afterward, Ghirardelli was making enough money to send for his family, who were still living in Peru. He changed the name to D. Ghirardelli & Co. and, in 1852. The company was incorporated in 1852 and has been in operation since. The next year, in 1853, the relocated to the corner of Jackson and Mason Streets. By 1855, a manufacturing facility was needed, and so the factory was moved to the corner of Greenwich and Powell Streets.
During this time, the company sold liquor, but dropped their line of alcoholic products sometime after 1871, by 1866, the company was importing 1000 pounds of cocoa seeds a year. By that time, the not only sold chocolate, but coffee and spices to the United States, Japan. In 1885, the company imported 450,000 pounds of cocoa seeds, in 1892, Ghirardelli retired as head of the company and was replaced by his three sons. Two years later, on 17 January 1894 Ghirardelli died at the age of 77 in Rapallo, by 1900, Ghirardellis company was selling only chocolate and mustard, having sold its coffee and spices businesses
Its seeds, cocoa beans, are used to make cocoa mass, cocoa powder, confectionery and chocolate. Leaves are alternate, unlobed, 10–40 cm long, the flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches, this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm diameter, with pink calyx, the floral formula is ✶ K5 C5 A G. While many of the flowers are pollinated by bees or butterflies/moths, cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies. Having the natural pollinator Forcipomyia midges for Theobroma cacao was shown to have more fruit production than using artificial pollinators. The fruit, called a pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm long and 8–10 cm wide, ripening yellow to orange. The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds, usually called beans, the seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate, while the pulp is used in some countries to prepare refreshing juice, smoothies and nata. The fermented pulp, until recently discarded in Ecuador, the Dominican Republic, each seed contains a significant amount of fat as cocoa butter.
Their most noted active constituent is theobromine, a similar to caffeine. Small amounts of cocoa flavanol, a natural nutrient found in cocoa, has found to increase oxygen flow to the cerebral. Compounds found in Theobroma cacao have found to have other substances that are beneficial for health such as proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidin is a compound made by the plant that is not needed directly for growth, but it has been found to promote antiviral, antibacterial. Pectin is a field of study that many land plants grow including Theobroma cacao. Pectin from Theobroma cacao has antimicrobial effects and has the potential to be used in the pharmaceutical, pectin can be extracted from Theobroma cacao with a variety ways but two ways involve using aqueous nitric acid or boiling water. Cacao belongs to the genus Theobroma classified under the subfamily Sterculioidea of the mallow family Malvaceae, Cacao is one of 22 species of Theobroma. The generic name is derived from the Greek for food of the gods, from θεός, meaning god, the specific name cacao is derived from the native name of the plant in indigenous Mesoamerican languages.
The cacao was known as kakaw in Tzeltal, K’iche’ and Classic Maya, kagaw in Sayula Popoluca, cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, is a closely related species found in Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Like cacao, it is the source for a kind of known as cupulate or cupuaçu chocolate
History of chocolate
The history of chocolate begins in Mesoamerica. Fermented beverages made from chocolate date back to 1900 BC, the Aztecs believed that cacao seeds were the gift of Quetzalcoatl, the god of wisdom, and the seeds once had so much value that they were used as a form of currency. Originally prepared only as a drink, chocolate was served as a bitter, frothy liquid, mixed spices, wine. It was believed to have powers and to give the drinker strength. Today, such drinks are known as Chilate and are made by locals in the South of Mexico. After its arrival to Europe in the century, sugar was added to it and it became popular throughout society, first among the ruling classes. In the 20th century, chocolate was considered a staple, essential in the rations of United States soldiers at war, the word chocolate comes from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl, and entered the English language from the Spanish language. Cultivation and cultural elaboration of cacao were early and extensive in Mesoamerica, when pollinated, the seed of the cacao tree eventually forms a kind of sheath, or ear,20 long, hanging from the branches.
Within the sheath are 30 to 40 brownish-red almond-shaped beans embedded in a viscous pulp. While the beans themselves are bitter due to the alkaloids within them, evidence suggests that it may have been fermented and served as an alcoholic beverage as early as 1400 BC. While researchers do not agree which Mesoamerican culture first domesticated the cacao tree, scientists have been able to confirm its presence in vessels around the world by evaluating the chemical footprint detectable in the microsamples of contents that remain. Ceramic vessel with residues from the preparation of chocolate beverages have been found at sites dating back to the Early Formative period. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokayanan archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, earliest evidence of domestication of the cacao plant dates to the Olmec culture from the Preclassic period.
The Olmecs used it for religious rituals or as a medicinal drink, little evidence remains of how the beverage was processed. The Mayan people, by contrast, do leave some surviving writings about cacao which confirm the identification of the drink with the gods. The Dresden Codex specifies that it is the food of the rain deity Kon, the consumption of the chocolate drink is depicted on pre-Hispanic vases. By 1400, the Aztec empire took over a part of Mesoamerica