Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Salamanca is a city in western Spain, the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León. The city lies on several hills by the Tormes River, its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. With a metropolitan population of 228,881 in 2012 according to the National Institute of Statistics, Salamanca is the second most populated urban area in Castile and León, after Valladolid, ahead of León and Burgos, it is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain's market for the teaching of the Spanish language. Salamanca attracts thousands of international students, it is situated 200 kilometres west of the Spanish capital Madrid and 80 km east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca, founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university, but the first to be given its status by the Pope Alexander IV who gave universal validity to its degrees. With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca.
It is on the Via de la Plata path of the Camino de Santiago. The city was founded in the pre-Ancient Rome period by the Vaccaei, a Celtic tribe, or the Vettones, a Celtic or pre-Celtic indo-European tribe, as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river. In 220 BC Hannibal captured it. With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans, the city of Helmantica, as it was known, began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania due to its favorable location. Salamanca lay on a Roman road, known as the Vía de la Plata, which connected it with Emerita Augusta to the south and Asturica Augusta to the north, its Roman bridge dates from the 1st century, was a part of this road. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the Alans established in Lusitania, Salamanca was part of this region; the city was conquered by the Visigoths and included in their territory. The city was an episcopal see, signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo. Salamanca surrendered to the Moors, led by Musa bin Nusair, in the year 712 AD.
For years, this area between the south of Duero River and the north of Tormes River, became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al-Andalus rulers. The constant fighting of the Kingdom of León first, the Kingdom of Castile and León against the Caliphate depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement. After the battle of Simancas the Christians resettled this area. After the capture of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1085, the definitive resettlement of the city took place. Raymond of Burgundy, instructed by his father-in-law Alfonso VI of León, led a group of settlers of various origins in 1102. One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX of León granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca, although formal teaching had existed at least since 1130. Soon it became one of the most prestigious academic centres in Europe. During the 16th century, the city reached its height of splendour.
During that period, the University of Salamanca hosted the most important intellectuals of the time. The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts, including rights as a corporeal being, economic rights and spiritual rights. In 1551, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius and anatomist, was in line with Catholic doctrine. Vesalius was acquitted. Salamanca suffered the general downturns of the Kingdom of Castile during the 17th century, but in the 18th century it experienced a rebirth. In this period, the new baroque Cathedral and main square were finished. In the Peninsular War of the Napoleonic campaigns, the Battle of Salamanca, in which an Anglo-Portuguese Army led by Wellington decisively defeated the French army of Marmont, was fought on 22 July 1812; the western quarter of Salamanca was damaged by cannon fire.
The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history and many thousands of men were killed in the space of only a few short hours. During the devastating Spanish Civil War the city went over to the Nationalist side and was used as the de facto capital. Franco was named Generalissimo on 21 September 1937 while at the city, in the same year was formed, by a decree signed in the city, the official fascist party that ruled Spain until the end of the Francoist regime suppressing any other political party; the Nationalists soon moved most of the administrative departments to Burgos, which being more central was better suited for this purpose. However, some administrative departments, Franco's headquarters and the military commands stayed in Salamanca, along with the German and Italian fascist delegations, making it the de facto Nationalist capital and centre of power during the entire civil war. Like much of fervently Catholic and rural Leon and Old Castile regions, Salamanca was a staunch supporter of the Nationalist side and Fran
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain. The city is famous for its historic buildings including the three main landmarks: its midtown Roman aqueduct, its cathedral, the castle, an influence for Walt Disney's Cinderella Castle; the city center of Segovia was declared World Heritage by the Unesco in 1985. It is the capital of Province of Segovia; the name of Segovia is of Celtiberian origin. Although the historians linked the old name of the city to Segobriga, the recent discovery of the original Roman city in the Spanish village of Saelices discarded this possibility; the name of "Segovia" is mentioned by Livy in the context of the Sertorian War. Under the Romans and Berbers, the city was called Šiqūbiyyah respectively. Segovia is located on the plains of Old Castile, near the Spanish capital, Madrid. Segovia is one of nine provinces that make up the autonomous region of León. Burgos and Valladolid lie to the north, Ávila to the west, Madrid to the south, Soria to the east.
The altitude of the province varies from 750 metres in the extreme northwest to a maximum of 2,430 m at Peñalara peak in the Sierra de Guadarrama. The town lies on the main route of the Camino de Santiago de Madrid; the climate is hot-summer Mediterranean near the boundaries of Csb and BSk, resulting from the high altitude and the distance from the coast. The average annual temperature is 12.42 °C, with an average low in January of 0.3 °C and an average high in July of 29.7 °C. The annual precipitation range from 400 to 500 mm per year in the lower plains, can reach above 1000 mm right in the nearby mountainous area of Sierra de Guadarrama, as rainfall and snowfall is more frequent up the mountains. Decent showers coming from summer thunderstorms help the mountainous area of the province to be rainier than average than most of the central Spanish plateau, which gives the area lush vegetation. All of this make the province a damp corner in the context of the region; the predominant forms of vegetation in the mountainous areas include pine, oak and juniper.
Aside from the main city, there are a number of other villages within the municipality of Segovia. Fuentemilanos Hontoria Madrona Revenga, established in 1983 as a "minor local entity", a category of sub-municipal entities in Spain. Zamarramala Torredondo Perogordo The first recorded mention of a settlement in what is today Segovia was a Celtic possession. Control passed into the hands of the Romans; the city is a possible site of the battle in 75 BCE where Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius was victorious over Quintus Sertorius and Hirtuleius. Hirtuleius died in the fighting. During the Roman period the settlement belonged to one of numerous contemporary Latin convents, it is believed. After the conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the son of King Alfonso VI, Segovia was resettled with Christians from the north of the Iberian peninsula and beyond the Pyrenees, providing it with a significant sphere of influence whose boundaries crossed the Sierra de Guadarrama and the Tagus. Segovia's position on trading routes made it an important centre of trade in wool and textiles.
The end of the Middle Ages saw something of a golden age for Segovia, with a growing Jewish population and the creation of a foundation for a powerful cloth industry. Several splendid works of Gothic architecture were completed during this period. Notably, Isabella I was proclaimed queen of Castile in the church of San Miguel de Segovia on December 13, 1474. Like most Castilian textile centres, Segovia joined the Revolt of the Comuneros under the command of Juan Bravo. Despite the defeat of the Communities, the city's resultant economic boom continued into the sixteenth century, its population rising to 27,000 in 1594; as well as all the cities of Castile, Segovia entered a period of decline. Only a century in 1694, the population had been reduced to only 8,000 inhabitants. In the early eighteenth century, Segovia attempted to revitalize its textile industry, with little success. In the second half of the century, Charles III made another attempt to revive the region's commerce. However, the lack of competitiveness of production caused the crown withdraw its sponsorship in 1779.
In 1764, the Royal School of Artillery, the first military academy in Spain, was opened. This academy remains present in the city today. In 1808, Segovia was sacked by French troops during the War of Independence. During the First Carlist War, troops under the command of Don Carlos unsuccessfully attacked the city. During the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, Segovia experienced a demographic recovery, the result of relative economic stability; the population growth experienced during the nineteenth century accelerated beginning around 1920: 16,013 inhabitants that year, 33,360 in 1960, 53,237 in 1981. Since the 1980s growth has slowed markedly: 55,586 in 2004 and 56,047 in 2007. In 1985 the old city of Segovia and its Aqueduct were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO; the old city contains a multitude of historic buildings both civil and religious, including a large number of buildings of Jewish origin, notably within the old Jewish Quarter. One of the most important Jewish sites is the Jewish cemetery, El Pinarillo.
Among the most important monuments in the city are: The Aqueduct of Segovia, located in Plaza del Azoguejo
Natural law is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason. As determined by nature, the law of nature is implied to be universal. Natural law refers to the use of reason to analyze human nature to deduce binding rules of moral behavior from nature's or God's creation of reality and mankind; the concept of natural law was documented in ancient Greek philosophy, including Aristotle, was referred to in Roman philosophy by Cicero. References to natural law are found in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible expounded upon in the Middle Ages by Christian philosophers such as Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas; the School of Salamanca made notable contributions during the Renaissance. Modern natural law theories were developed in the Age of Enlightenment, combining inspiration from Roman law with philosophies like social contract theory.
Key proponents were Alberico Gentili, Francisco Suárez, Richard Hooker, Thomas Hobbes, Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf, Matthew Hale, John Locke, Francis Hutcheson, Jean Jacques Burlamaqui, Emmerich de Vattel, Cesare Beccaria and Francesco Mario Pagano. It was used to challenge the divine right of kings, became an alternative justification for the establishment of a social contract, positive law, government—and thus legal rights—in the form of classical republicanism. Conversely, the concept of natural rights is used by others to challenge the legitimacy of all such establishments. Contemporarily, the concept of natural law is related to the concept of natural rights. Indeed, many philosophers and scholars use natural law synonymously with natural rights, or natural justice. While others distinguish between natural law and natural right; because of the intersection between natural law and natural rights, natural law has been claimed or attributed as a key component in the United States Declaration of Independence, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of France, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations General Assembly, as well as the European Convention on Human Rights of the European Union.
The use of natural law, in its various incarnations, has varied throughout history. There are a number of theories of natural law, that differ from each other with respect to the role that morality plays in determining the authority of legal norms; this article deals with its usages separately rather than attempt to unify them into a single theory. Those who see biblical support for the doctrine of natural law point to Abraham's interrogation of God on behalf of the iniquitous city of Sodom. Abraham dares to tell the Most High that his plan to destroy the city would violate God’s own justice: “That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; this Socratic reply became for writers the beginnings of natural rights theory. In this respect, natural law as described in the interaction between Abraham and God predates the Greek exposition of it by Plato and Aristotle. However, an earlier set of laws is attributed to the Seven Laws of Noah.
The seven Noahide laws as traditionally enumerated are the following: Not to worship idols. Not to curse God. To establish courts of justice. Not to commit murder. Not to commit adultery or sexual immorality. Not to steal. Not to eat flesh torn from a living animal. According to the Genesis flood narrative, a deluge covered the whole world, killing every surface-dwelling creature except Noah, his wife, his sons and their wives, the animals taken aboard Noah's Ark. According to this, all modern humans are descendants of Noah, thus the name Noahide Laws in reference to laws that apply to all of humanity. After the flood, God sealed a covenant with Noah with the following admonitions: Flesh of a living animal: "Only flesh with the life thereof, the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.” Murder and courts: "And your blood of your lives will I require. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man. Although Plato did not have an explicit theory of natural law, his concept of nature, according to John Wild, contains some of the elements found in many natural law theories.
According to Plato, we live in an orderly universe. The basis of this orderly universe or nature are the forms, most fundamentally the Form of the Good, which Plato describes as "the brightest region of Being"; the Form of the Good is the cause of all things, when it is seen it leads a person to act wisely. In the Symposium, the Good is identified with the Beautiful. In the Symposium, Plato describes how the experience of the Beautiful by Socrates enabled him to resist the temptations of wealth and sex. In the Republic, the ideal community is "a city which would be established in accordance with nature". Greek philosophy emphasized the distinction between "nature" on the one hand and "law", "custom", or "convention" on the other. What the law commanded would be expected to vary from place to place, bu
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of and a departure from Christian theology within the monastic schools at the earliest European universities; the rise of scholasticism was associated with the rise of the 12th and 13th century schools that developed into the earliest modern universities, including those in Italy, France and England. Scholasticism is not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, as it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions. Scholastic thought is known for rigorous conceptual analysis and the careful drawing of distinctions. In the classroom and in writing, it takes the form of explicit disputation; because of its emphasis on rigorous dialectical method, scholasticism was applied to many other fields of study.
As a program, scholasticism began as an attempt at harmonization on the part of medieval Christian thinkers, to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy that of Aristotle but of Neoplatonism. Some of the main figures of scholasticism include Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas's masterwork Summa Theologica is considered to be the pinnacle of scholastic and Christian philosophy. Important work in the scholastic tradition has been carried on well past Aquinas's time, for instance by Francisco Suárez and Luis de Molina, among Lutheran and Reformed thinkers; the historical legacy of scholasticism lay not in specific scientific discoveries, for these were not made, but laying the foundations for the development of natural science. The terms "scholastic" and "scholasticism" derive from the Latin word scholasticus, the Latinized form of the Greek σχολαστικός, an adjective derived from σχολή, "school".
Scholasticus means "of or pertaining to schools". The "scholastics" were "schoolmen"; the foundations of Christian scholasticism were laid by Boethius through his logical and theological essays, forerunners to scholasticism were Islamic Ilm al-Kalām "science of discourse", Jewish philosophy Jewish Kalam. The first significant renewal of learning in the West came with the Carolingian Renaissance of the Early Middle Ages. Charlemagne, advised by Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York, attracted the scholars of England and Ireland. By decree in AD 787, he established schools in every abbey in his empire; these schools, from which the name scholasticism is derived, became centers of medieval learning. During this period, knowledge of Ancient Greek had vanished in the West except in Ireland, where its teaching and use was dispersed in the monastic schools. Irish scholars had a considerable presence in the Frankish court, where they were renowned for their learning. Among them was Johannes Scotus Eriugena, one of the founders of scholasticism.
Eriugena was the most significant Irish intellectual of the early monastic period and an outstanding philosopher in terms of originality. He had considerable familiarity with the Greek language and translated many works into Latin, affording access to the Cappadocian Fathers and the Greek theological tradition; the other three founders of scholasticism were the 11th-century scholars Peter Abelard, Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury and Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury. This period saw the beginning of the'rediscovery' of many Greek works, lost to the Latin West; as early as the 10th century, scholars in Spain had begun to gather translated texts and, in the latter half of that century, began transmitting them to the rest of Europe. After a successful burst of Reconquista in the 12th century, Spain opened further for Christian scholars, as these Europeans encountered Islamic philosophy, they opened a wealth of Arab knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Scholars such as Adelard of Bath traveled to Spain and Sicily, translating works on astronomy and mathematics, including the first complete translation of Euclid's Elements into Latin.
At the same time, Anselm of Laon systematized the production of the gloss on Scripture, followed by the rise to prominence of dialectic in the work of Abelard. Peter Lombard produced a collection of Sentences, or opinions of the Church Fathers and other authorities The 13th and early 14th centuries are seen as the high period of scholasticism; the early 13th century witnessed the culmination of the recovery of Greek philosophy. Schools of translation grew up in Italy and Sicily, in the rest of Europe. Powerful Norman kings gathered men of knowledge from Italy and other areas into their courts as a sign of their prestige. William of Moerbeke's translations and editions of Greek philosophical texts in the middle half of the thirteenth century helped form a clearer picture of Greek philosophy of Aristotle, than was given by the Arabic versions on wh