The Dominican Independence War gave the Dominican Republic autonomy from Haiti on February 27, 1844. Before the war, the island of Hispaniola had been united under the Haitian government for a period of 22 years when the newly independent nation known as the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, was unified with Haiti in 1822; the criollo class within the country overthrew the Spanish crown in 1821 before unifying with Haiti a year later. In 1844, the members of La Trinitaria chose El Conde, the prominent “Gate of the Count” in the old city walls, as the rallying point for their insurrection against the Haitian government. On the morning of 27 February 1844, El Conde rang with the shots of the plotters, who had emerged from their secret meetings to challenge the Haitians, their efforts were successful, for the next ten years, Dominican military strongmen fought to preserve their country's independence from their Haitian neighbors. Under the command of Faustin Soulouque Haitian soldiers tried to gain back control of lost territory, but this effort was to no avail as the Dominicans would go on to decisively win every battle henceforth.
In March 1844, a 30,000-strong two-pronged attack by Haitians was repelled by an under-equipped Dominican army under the command of the wealthy rancher Gen. Pedro Santana. Four years it took a Dominican flotilla harassing Haitian coastal villages, land reinforcements in the south to force the determined Haitian emperor into a one-year truce. In the most thorough and intense encounter of all, Dominican irregulars armed with swords sent Haitian troops into flight on all three fronts in 1855. At the beginning of the 1800s, the colony of Santo Domingo, which had once been the headquarters of Spanish power in the New World, was in its worst decline. Spain during this time was embroiled in the Peninsular War in Europe, other various wars to maintain control of the Americas. With Spain's resources spread among its global interest, Santo Domingo and other Caribbean territories became neglected; this period is referred to as the España Boba era. The population of the Spanish colony stood at 80,000 with the vast majority being European descendants and free people of color.
For most of its history, Santo Domingo had an economy based on mining and cattle ranching. The Spanish colony's plantation economy never flourished, because of this black slave population had been lower than that of the neighboring Saint-Domingue, nearing a million slaves before the Haitian Revolution. At the time Haiti had been more economically and militarily powerful and had a population 8 to 10 times larger than the former Spanish colony, having been the richest colony in the western hemisphere before the Haitian Revolution. Dominican military officers agreed to merge the newly independent nation with Haiti, as they sought for political stability under the Haitian president Jean-Pierre Boyer, who belonged to Haiti's elite mulatto class and was seen as an ally at the time. However, due to the Haitian government's mismanagement, heavy military disputes, an economic crisis the Haitian government became unpopular. A conspiracy of Dominicans in Santo Domingo called La Trinitaria hastened the end of the Haitian occupation.
Late in 1821 the leader José Núñez de Cáceres proclaimed Santo Domingo's adhesion to the new “Republic of Gran Colombia”, created by Simón Bolívar, but the determination of the island elite to perpetuate their privileged status by maintaining intact all colonial-era institutions such as social hierarchy, land titles, slavery doomed this limited experiment in liberty to failure two months later. A group of Dominican politicians and military officers had expressed interest in uniting the entire island, while they sought for political stability and support under Haiti, which at the time was still seen as having a great deal of wealth and power. Haiti had been by far the richest colony in the western hemisphere and was known as the Pearl of the Antilles. Haiti's president, Jean-Pierre Boyer, conducted the third military campaign of Santo Domingo, this one was met with resistance due to the previous invasion experiences, because of Haiti's overpowering military strength at the time; the population of Haiti had a ratio of 8:1 compared to the Dominican population of 1822.
On February 9, 1822, Boyer formally entered the capital city, Santo Domingo, where he was met and received by Núñez who handed to him the keys of the Palace. Boyer proclaimed: "I have not come into this city as a conqueror but by the will of its inhabitants"; the island was thus united from "Cape Tiburon to Cape Samana in possession of one government." The Haitian government became unpopular throughout the country. The Dominican population grew impatient with Haiti's poor management and perceived incompetence, the heavy taxation, imposed on their side; the country was hit with a severe economic crisis after having been forced to pay a huge indemnity to France. A debt was accrued by Haiti. In 1838 Juan Pablo Duarte, an educated nationalist, founded a resistance movement called La Trinitaria along with Ramón Matías Mella and Francisco del Rosario Sánchez, it was so named because its original nine members. The cells went on to recruit as separate organizations, maintaining strict secrecy, with little or no direct contact among themselves, in order to minimize the possibility of detection by the Haitian authorities.
Many recruits came to the group, but it was discovered and forced to change its name to La Filantrópica. The Trinitarios won the loyal
Gabriel McClure, known professionally as Gigi McQueen and Jinx, is an American actress and author, who wrote the best selling Get Spooky series, Mr. Macabre Presents, Vicious Vile Venom, a 2016 Watty award recipient in the new voices category, her debut novel, SPOOK, book one of the Get Spooky Series, is a Readers' Favorite 5-star review recipient and averages a high 4-star rating on Goodreads. Many of her works can be read for free on Wattpad in their unedited form, have received positive reviews from book bloggers. In June 2019, she joined Wattpad's Stars program. Gigi was born in Goshen, but brought up in both Winona Lake and Southern California, she cites her writing influences as Chuck Palahniuk, Janet Evanovich, David Sedaris, Spencer Hoshino. Her short stories "Moving Up" and "Moving Down" were published under the pseudonym Gabe McClure in NaNoWriMo anthologies Believe Me Not: An Unreliable Anthology and It's About Time: 2nd Annual NanNo Los Angeles Short Story Anthology. In December 2018, the first three books in the Get Spooky series hit Amazon's Top 100 Best Sellers list.
Spook Ho Ho No Dearly Departed Haunt Dearly Deadly Vicious Vile Venom Mr. Macabre Presents The Everyday Lives of People Who Do Very Bad Things Untitled Peter Pan Retelling In addition to writing, Jinx has an extensive background as an actress. While performing in a production of Annie, she received one-on-one advice from Carol Burnett herself, she appeared in the first-ever stage production of Disney's Hercules as Hades. "Moving Up", published under Gabe McClure in Believe Me Not: An Unreliable Anthology "Moving Down", published under Gabe McClure in It's About Time: 2nd Annual NaNo Los Angeles Short Story Anthology Me vs The Mile Official website Wattpad profile Goodreads author page
Hans Paul Bernhard Gierke was a German anatomist, a native of Stettin. Gierke studied medicine in Berlin, Leipzig, Würzburg and Munich, graduating in Würzburg, where he obtained his doctorate in 1872. In 1874 he became prosector at Würzburg. In 1876 he was appointed professor of anatomy at the Imperial University of Tokyo. For health reasons he had to return to Germany. In 1881 he became an assistant in the Physiological Institute in Breslau and in 1882 attained the title of professor extraordinarius. In 1883 he visited the Zoological Station in Naples, his health deteriorated rapidly. Soon, he died in the psychiatric hospital in Schöneberg near Berlin, at the age of 39, he is best remembered for his research on staining methods in neurohistology and the localization of the respiratory center. The solitary tract in the brain stem is sometimes called the "Gierke respiratory bundle". Die Theile der Medulla oblongata, deren Verletzung die Athembewegungen hemmt, und das Athemcentrum. Archiv für die gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der Thiere 7, pp. 583–600, 1873 doi:10.1007/BF01613350 Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Elemente des centralen Nervensystems.
Breslauer ärztliche Zeitschrift 4, pp. 157. Neurologisches Centralblatt 2, pp. 361–369. Westermanns Monatshefte 54, pp. 202–219, 324-340, 1883 Ueber die Medicin in Japan in alten und neuen Zeiten. Breslauer ärztliche Zeitschrift pp. 64. Deutsches Archiv für Geschichte der Medicin und Medicinische Geographie 7, pp. 1–15, 1884 Ueber die Medicin in Japan in alten und neuen Zeiten. Jahres-Bericht der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Vaterländische Cultur 60, pp. 18–30, 1882/1883 Die Zoologische Station in Neapel. T. Fischer, 1884 Färberei zu mikroskopischen Zwecken. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie und für mikroskopische Technik 1, 62-100. Centralblatt für die medicinischen Wissenschaften 23, pp. 593–596, 1885 Staining Tissues in Microscopy. American Monthly Microscopical Journal 6, 13. Archiv für Mikroskopische Anatomie 25, 1, 441-554, 1885 doi:10.1007/BF02966381 26, 1, pp. 129–228 doi:10.1007/BF02954585