The Dominican peso is the currency of the Dominican Republic. Its symbol is "$", with "RD$" used; each peso is divided into 100 centavos. With exception of the American Dollar, it is the only currency, legal tender in the Dominican Republic for all monetary transactions, whether public or private; the first Dominican peso was introduced with the country's independence from Haiti in 1844. It was divided into 8 reales; the Dominican Republic decimalized in 1877. A second currency, the franco, did not replace the peso. However, in 1905, the peso was replaced by the U. S. dollar, at a rate of 5 pesos to the dollar. The peso oro was introduced in 1937 at par with the U. S. dollar, although the dollar continued to be used alongside the peso oro until 1947. Only one denomination of coin was issued by the Dominican Republic before decimalization; this was the 1⁄4 real, in both 1844 and 1848 in brass. Decimalization in 1877 brought about the introduction of three new coins, the 1, 2 1⁄2 and 5 centavos. 1⁄4 centavo coins were issued between 1882 and 1888.
In 1891 Dominican Republic entered in the Latin Monetary Union and changed its currency to the franco including coins of 5 and 10 centesimos struck in bronze and 50 centesimos, 1 and 5 francos struck in silver. After the franco was abandoned, silver coins were introduced in 1897 in denominations of 10 and 20 centavos, 1⁄2 and 1 peso; the designs of these coins were similar to those of the franco. Older Coins Coins were introduced in 1937 in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 centavos and 1⁄2 pesos with limited numbers of 1 peso coins first minted in 1939. All coins bore the national arms on the reverse while all except the 1 centavo bore a crowned allegorical Indian head on the obverse; the 1 centavo instead depicted the symbol of the ruling Dominican Party. The coins were all of identical weights and composition to U. S. coins of the era. Two denominations appeared on these coins, one in "centavos" or "pesos" and another in "gramos" to represent a pre-decimal silver weight system used in much of the region.
A two coin set of 1955 commemorative coins were minted for the 25th anniversary of Rafael Trujillo's reign. These consisted of a silver one peso, both showing him in profile. 50,000 of the silver one peso coins were produced in issued into circulation, but after Trujillo was assassinated in 1961 an estimated 32,550 were recalled and melted down. In 1963 the silver content in the 10, 25, 50, 1 peso coins was reduced from 0.900 pure to 0.650 pure. The 1963 issue distinctively commemorated the centennial of the republic and the crowned Indian head was added to the 1 centavo, replacing the palm. After 1963 the Peso Oro became a fiat currency and base metals replaced silver in the higher denominations, with the 10, 25 centavos and 1⁄2 pesos reintroduced in copper-nickel in 1967. 1 peso coins were struck as only commemorative in small numbers. In 1976 a new coin series was introduced featuring Juan Pablo Duarte, in 1983 another series was released featuring various other figures important to Dominican history, including the Mirabal sisters and formally dropping the outdated "gramos" denomination reference.
In 1989, the content of the coins was changed from copper-nickel to nickel-plated steel. In 1991, eleven sided circulating non commemorative 1 peso coins were reintroduced in copper-zinc, followed by bimetal 5 pesos in 1997, a bimetal 10 pesos and copper-nickel 25 pesos in 2005. Due to inflation, any coins below 1 peso are now found. RECENT COINS Paper money made up the bulk of circulating currency for the first peso. Provisional issues of 40 and 80 pesos were produced in 1848, followed by regular government notes for 1, 2 and 5 pesos in 1849, 10 and 50 peso notes in 1858; the Comisión de Hacienda issued 50 and 200 pesos in 1865, whilst the Junta de Crédito introduced notes for 10 and 20 centavos that year, followed by 5 and 40 centavos in 1866 and 1, 2, 5 and 10 pesos in 1867. In 1862, the Spanish issued notes for 1⁄2, 2, 5, 15 and 25 pesos in the name of the Intendencia de Santo Domingo; the last government notes were 1 peso notes issued in 1870. Two private banks issued paper money; the Banco Nacional de Santo Domingo issued notes between 1869 and 1889 in denominations of 25 and 50 centavos, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 100 pesos.
The Banco de la Compañía de Crédito de Puerto Plata issued notes from the 1880s until 1899 in denominations of 25 and 50 centavos, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 pesos. Note that the Banco Nacional de Santo Domingo issued notes in 1912 denominated in dollars; when the peso oro was first introduced as a local coinage in 1937, no paper money was made and US notes continued to circulate as the U. S. dollar was the national currency. Only in 1947 were the first peso oro notes issued by the Central Bank in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 500, 1000 oros, though the latter two denominations were used; these notes were printed by a private printing and engraving firm. Though US notes were always acceptable in exchange, they were withdrawn from circulation. In 1961, low value notes were issued in denominations of 10, 25 and 50 centavos to help compensate for the value of silver in coins surpassing face value and the resulting coin shortages. Following the demise of Trujillo all banknotes afterwards dropped references to the capital city Ciudad Trujillo which had reverted to its old name, Santo Domingo.
Congress on Research in Dance was a professional organization for dance historians in the United States and worldwide that merged in 2017 with the Society of Dance History Scholars to form the Dance Studies Association. An international non-profit learned society for dance researchers, artists and choreographers, CORD published the Dance Research Journal and sponsored annual conferences and awards for scholarship and contributions to the field; the journal and awards have been absorbed into the DSA. The society was founded in 1964 as the Committee on Research in Dance, based at New York University, it was formally incorporated as a 501 not-for-profit organization in 1969. The organization changed its name to Congress on Research in Dance in 1977. In 1991, it moved to the State University of New York College at Brockport. In 2007, the CORD National Office moved to the care of Prime Management Services based in Birmingham, Alabama. Membership includes performers, choreographers and dance academics from colleges and universities.
The Dance Research Journal is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly articles, book reviews, other reports of interest to the field of dance research, with its primary orientation being towards the historical and critical theory of dance. The journal was published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Congress on Research in Dance until the merger in 2017. Now it is on behalf of the Dance Studies Association; the journal was established in 1968. The journal is abstracted and indexed in Academic ASAP, Academic Search Elite, Academic Search Premier, Expanded Academic, Humanities Index, Index to Dance Periodicals, International Index to Performing Arts, ProQuest. 1996, Joann Kealiinohomoku 1997, Ann Hutchinson Guest 1998, Kapila Vatsyayan 2000, Ivor Guest 2001, Deborah Jowitt 2003, Sally Banes 2005, Marcia Siegel 2007, Robert Farris Thompson 2008, Joan Acocella 2009, none awarded 2010, Stephanie Jordan 2011, Mark Franko 2012, Sue Stinson 2013, Susan Manning 2014, Deidre Sklar 2015, Janice Ross 2016, Randy Martin, in memoriam 2017, Thomas F. DeFrantz 1995, Carl Wolz 1996, Gigi Oswald 1997, Selma Jeanne Cohen 1998, Vicki Risner 1999, Ernestine Stodelle 2000, David Vaughan 2001, Beate Gordon 2003, Jane Bonbright 2005, Katherine Dunham and Anna Halprin 2006, Elsie Ivancich Dunin and Allegra Fuller Snyder 2007, Susan Leigh Foster 2008, Brenda Dixon Gottschild 2009, none awarded 2010, Ann Dils 2011, Barbara Sellers-Young 2012, Cara Gargano 2013, Sally Ness 2014, Libby Smigel 2015 Elizabeth Aldrich 2016 Jacqueline Shea Murphy 2017, Ann Cooper Albright Timeline of music in the United States American Dance Guild Society of Dance History Scholars Kealiinohomoku, Joann W. and Mary Jane Warner, "Dance", pgs. 206 - 226, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Official website Dance Research Journal at Project MUSE
The Seven Sisters, part of the Holyoke Range and located within the Pioneer Valley region of Massachusetts, are a series of basalt ridgeline knobs between Mount Holyoke and Mount Hitchcock. The knobs offer scenic clifftop views interspersed with oak savanna woodlands; the highest "sister" stands 800 ft above the valley below. The terrain is rugged; the Seven Sisters are traversed by the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail and is part of the New England National Scenic Trail The Seven Sisters are the location of the Seven Sisters Trail Race every spring, a twelve-mile "out-and-back" run that leaves its runners bloody and exhausted. In response to a proposed suburban development on the Seven Sisters in the late 1990s, several non-profit groups and local governments worked together to block construction and acquire the ridgeline for the J. A. Skinner State Park. Coincidentally, the seven sisters are near two of the Seven Sisters Colleges. Metacomet Ridge Metacomet-Monadnock Trail Robert Frost Trail Adjacent summits The Metacomet-Monadnock Trail Guide.