Terrebonne is an off-island suburb of Montreal, in western Quebec, Canada. It is located on the north shores of the Rivière des Mille-Îles and of the Rivière des Prairies, North of Montreal and Laval; this city is divided in three sectors, namely La Plaine and Terrebonne. In the past, these sectors were distinct cities, but, on 22 August 2001, they merged under the name of Terrebonne. According to the 2011 Canadian Census Terrebonne has a population of 111,575, making it Montreal's fourth largest suburb; the town of Lachenaie, founded in 1670 by Lord Charles Aubert de Lachenaye, is the oldest of the three towns that were merged. Some natives were present on this territory at the time; the colonisation started in 1647 when Lachenaie was merged with the Repentigny Seigniory. Louis Lepage de Ste-Claire, priest and the son of René Lepage de Sainte-Claire, acquired the Seigniory of Terrebonne on 2 September 1720. Abbot Louis Lepage de Ste-Claire built the first church in 1734 and the first manor in 1735.
A few years Abbot Lepage equipped the town with both a saw mill and a flour mill. The town of La Plaine was founded in 1830 on fragments of other towns, namely Mascouche, Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines, Saint-Lin, Terrebonne. At that time, the lords of Terrebonne and Lachenaie built the road named "chemin de la Grande Ligne" to join the two towns, it is now called the boulevard Laurier. In 1877, the rail system was stimulated the economic growth; the village of Saint-Joachim was founded during that time, in 1920, to be renamed La Plaine. The first lord of Terrebonne was André Daulier-Deslandes, granted his title in 1673. Following the construction of the first wooden bridge in 1834, two main areas emerged; the commercial area was Terrebonne. In 1985, these two cities merged. At the time of the municipal merger in late August 2001, Lachenaie had over 20,000 residents, La Plaine had 17,000 residents, Terrebonne had 46,000 residents; this merger made Terrebonne the 10th largest city in Quebec. Ten years the city had around 106,322 citizens on 154.6 km2 of land, according to the 2011 Canadian Census.
Terrebonne is connected to Montreal's Central Station by commuter rail via the Terrebonne station of the Réseau de transport métropolitain Mascouche line. The city of Terrebonne is equipped with a bus network operated by the RTM, which enables residents to reach several metro stations both in Laval and Montreal, amongst many other locations; some examples include bus line 30, which brings inhabitants of Terrebonne to the Radisson metro station on Sherbrooke Street East, bus line 19, which reaches Montmorency metro station in Laval, bus line 25, whose terminal stop is at the Henri-Bourassa metro station. The Université de Montréal has a small campus located near the Pierre Le Gardeur Hospital in the Lachenaie sector of the city of Terrebonne. There are some courses given by the Université du Québec à Montréal in the Terrebonne sector, as well as the Centre universitaire de Lanaudière à Terrebonne affiliated with the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières located within the Cégep régional de Lanaudière à Terrebonne.
The Cégep régional de Lanaudière network has established a collegial institution, namely the Cégep régional de Lanaudière à Terrebonne, near Highway 640, in the Terrebonne sector of the city of Terrebonne. The city of Terrebonne counts several vocational education centers; the Centre de formation professionnelle des moulins is located next to the Cégep régional de Lanaudière à Terrebonne in the Terrebonne sector. French-language public schools in Terrebonne Ouest are operated by the Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Iles. Additionally, some schools within and serving the city of Terrebonne are operated by the French Commission scolaire des Affluents and the English Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board. Commission scolaire des Affluents secondary schools include: École secondaire Armand-Corbeil École secondaire de l’Odyssée École secondaire Des Rives École secondaire des Trois-SaisonsCSSMI primary schools: de l'Espace-Couleurs Jeunes du monde Marie-Soleil-TougasSome CSSMI sections are zoned to École primaire Le Carrefour in Lorraine.
The CSSMI secondary schools serving Terrebonne are: École secondaire du Harfang in Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines, École secondaire Hubert-Maisonneuve in Rosèmere and École secondaire Rive-Nord in Bois-des-Filion. Private Francophone secondary schools include: Collège Saint-SacrementAnglophone public schools serving Terrebonne include: McCaig Elementary School in Rosemère serves western Terrebonne Pinewood Elementary School in Mascouche serves a central portion Franklin Hill Elementary School in Repentigny serves an eastern portion Rosemere High School in Rosemere The pre-industrial complex of the Île-des-moulins was amongst the most important ones in the province of Quebec during the 19th century. Although several infrastructures have degraded, a total of five buildings remain; the fourth lord of Terrebonne, Abbot Louis Lepage, had ordered the construction of the first flour mill in 1721 as well as the first saw mill around 1725. In 1803, the bakery was established in the village; the actual saw and flour mills were built in 1846, respectively.
Four years following the construction of the flour mill, standing at the Île-des-moulins to this day, the Moulin neuf was built in 1850. In addition, around the same time in 1850, the seigniory office was established. In 1973, the Île-des-moulins was classified as a historic site of national interest by the Government of Quebec; the Moulin-Neuf dam allows for the flow regulation of the Rivi
The Aberdeen Pavilion is an exhibition hall in Ottawa, Canada. Overlooking the Rideau Canal, it is located in Ottawa's historic fairgrounds. For many years, the building was known as the "Cattle Castle", due to its use for the Central Canada Exhibition's agricultural exhibits and shows, some people still refer to it by this nickname today, it is the last surviving Canadian example of what was once a common form of Victorian exhibition hall, was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1983. It is one of the oldest surviving indoor ice hockey venues in the world, although it has not hosted a hockey game in many years, it is the oldest surviving venue in which the Stanley Cup was contested, having hosted Stanley Cup challenge matches in 1904 between the Ottawa Hockey Club and challengers. The pavilion was built in 1898 to serve as the central hall for the Central Canada Exhibition. Designed by Moses C. Edey, it was inspired by London's Crystal Palace, it was named after Governor General Lord Aberdeen.
The structure was built by the Dominion Bridge Company, took only two months and $75,000 to complete. The structure consists of a series of large steel arches holding up the roof; this allows for a column-free interior space of some 3,000 square metres. For many years, the main purpose of the structure was for agricultural shows, from this came its "Cattle Castle" nickname. In wartime, the building became an important military structure, it was the home of Strathcona's Horse. In the First World War, it was the mustering point for Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, it served as a general recruiting centre and the home to the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa and the 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards during the Second World War. In 1982, the building was designated a heritage structure under the Ontario Heritage Act, but it was showing its age and required significant restoration work that would have cost several million dollars. Given serious structural problems, the pavilion had been closed to the public for a number of years Many of the structure's windows were broken, the exterior paint was peeling, the words "Cattle Castle" had been ignominiously painted on the front of the once elegant structure.
City Council agreed to help finance the pavilion's restoration, but the federal and provincial governments refused to assist financially. In 1991, Ottawa City Council voted to demolish the building rather than pay the full restoration cost; the fate of the Aberdeen Pavilion became a major issue in the 1991 municipal election, in 1992, City Council reversed its earlier decision and approved a basic renovation plan that cost CA$5.3 million. The newly restored structure opened in 1994. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the building as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium; the pavilion was used for many years to display cattle for the Central Canada Exhibition, which has since been discontinued. The pavilion is used for special events. In December 2017, the pavilion was used for part of the festival around the NHL 100 Classic outdoor hockey game, including a display of the Stanley Cup, it is used for a farmer's market during the winter months and a Christmas market in December.
In 1902, the Ottawa Senators built a hockey arena inside the Pavilion. In 1904, the club played the full 1904 season and Stanley Cup challenges in the Pavilion. In 1918, the Ottawa Senators nearly moved to the Pavilion and investigated refurbishing it as an arena. Ted Dey was not willing to rent time to the Senators; this turned out to be a ploy to gain control of the hockey club. The City of Ottawa was unwilling to restore an ice rink inside the Pavilion, as bleachers had been built inside. Ice hockey in Paul. Win, Tie or Wrangle. Manotick, Ontario: Penumbra Press. ISBN 978-1-897323-46-5. Notes Ottawa.ca - Aberdeen Pavilion Information Website
Windsor Station (Montreal)
Windsor Station is a former railway station in Montreal, Canada. It used to be the city's Canadian Pacific Railway station, served as the headquarters of CPR from 1889 to 1996, it is bordered by Avenue des Canadiens-de-Montréal to the north, Peel Street to the east, Saint Antoine Street to the south and the Bell Centre to the west. Windsor Station was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1975, was designated a Heritage Railway Station in 1990, a provincial historic monument in 2009; the walls are gray limestone from a quarry in Montreal. Outside, the columns reach up to 7 feet wide. In 1887, the Canadian Pacific Railway began to build a railway station in Montreal, which would serve as its headquarters, three years after the completion of the Dalhousie Station in 1884; the Windsor Station project was entrusted to New York City architect Bruce Price, who chose a Romanesque Revival style for the building. Price had to submit four versions of his plans to satisfy the treasurer of CPR, before the project was accepted.
It was constructed at a cost of $300,000 CAD, the first trains departed February 4, 1889. It was known as the Windsor Street Station, named for the street on which it was located, Windsor Street, it was expanded for the first time from 1900 to 1903, again from 1910 to 1913 by Canadian architects. The third expansion, in 1916, included a fifteen-storey tower which altered Montreal's skyline; the project was entrusted to the firm of William Maxwell. Windsor Station formed an integral component of Dominion Square as a diffuser of passenger traffic and as a central terminus for other modes of transportation; the building skirted Windsor Osborne Street between Donegani. The building had four floors up to Osborne Street and five floors at street-level on Donegani Street because of the slope of the terrain. In July 1970, CPR announced its plans to demolish Windsor Station and build a 60-storey office building on the site; the building, going to cost C$250 million, was to be designed by the same architects as New York City's World Trade Center.
After several delays the project was abandoned. Via Rail was created in 1978 and took over the responsibility for operating intercity passenger trains of both Canadian National CN) and CPR. During Via's first months there was no operational change for CPR or CN trains, as they used their respective crews, routes and stations. However, by the summer of 1979, the integration process began, most of Via's former CP trains that used Windsor Station were consolidated at CN's Central Station, including CP's former transcontinental passenger services such as The Atlantic Limited and The Canadian, both of which were renamed to be bilingually appropriate. Via Dayliners operating between Windsor Station and St. Sacrement station in Quebec City via the CP route north of the St. Lawrence River continued to use Windsor Station until 1984. Amtrak's daily Montreal-New York City train continued to use Windsor Station until 1986. Both the dayliners and the Adirondack were switched to Central Station. Local services to Ottawa via Montebello and to Mont-Laurier, both of, transferred from CPR to Via, continued to use Windsor Station until they were cancelled in 1981.
After intercity passenger service was removed, Windsor Station continued to be a commuter rail terminal for the STCUM's Montréal/Dorion-Rigaud suburban train. In 1999, service to Blainville was added, in 2001, service to Delson. In 1993, construction began on the Molson Centre; the arena site was located west of Windsor Station on the trackage which served the station platforms, resulting in the historic station being severed from the rail network. The Molson Centre opened its doors on March 16, 1996, the new Lucien-L'Allier Station was opened at the western end of the arena structure to replace the now-closed suburban train terminal at Windsor Station; until 2001, the new train station was called Terminus Windsor, but this was changed to reduce confusion with the original station building and to indicate a link to the Lucien-L'Allier metro station, below the station building. It is still possible to walk through the Bell Centre to connect with Windsor Station and the Lucien L'Allier metro station.
Windsor Station, now Lucien-L'Allier Station, are at the eastern end of CPR's Westmount Subdivision. It served as CP's downtown west end train terminus, its counterpart downtown east end terminus was Place Viger. Windsor Station housed the headquarters of CPR and its parent company Canadian Pacific Limited until after a corporate restructuring in the mid-1990s, the railway abandoned or sold most of its trackage east of Montreal, it focused its activities in Western Canada. In 1996, CP moved its headquarters to Gulf Canada Square in Calgary. Since 1993, the structure is no longer connected to the rail network, it was sold by CP to Cadillac Fairview in 2009. Located in the station is the Canadian Railway Office of Arbitration; the rest of Windsor Station has been redeveloped into an office complex and houses some restaurants and cafés. The interior concourse, open to the public, can be rented for private and public events; the lower floor is part of
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
The Mohawk people are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America; the Mohawk were based in the valley of the Mohawk River in present-day upstate New York west of the Hudson River. As one of the five original members of the Iroquois League, the Mohawk were known as the Keepers of the Eastern Door. For hundreds of years, they guarded the Iroquois Confederation against invasion from that direction by tribes from the New England and lower New York areas, their current major settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York. In the Mohawk language, the people say; the Mohawk became wealthy traders as other nations in their confederacy needed their flint for tool making. Their Algonquian-speaking neighbors, the people of Muh-heck Haeek Ing, a name transliterated by the Dutch as Mahican or Mahican, referred to the people of Ka-nee-en Ka as Maw Unk Lin, meaning "bear people".
The Dutch heard and wrote this term as Mohawk, referred to the Mohawk as Egil or Maqua. The French colonists adapted these latter terms as Maqui, respectively, they referred to the people by the generic Iroquois, a French derivation of the Algonquian term for the Five Nations, meaning "the snake people". The Algonquians and Iroquois were traditional enemies. In the upper Hudson and Mohawk Valley regions, the Mohawk long had contact with the Algonquian-speaking Mahican people, who occupied territory along the Hudson River, as well as other Algonquian and Iroquoian tribes to the north around the Great Lakes; the Mohawk had extended their own influence into the St. Lawrence River Valley, which they maintained for hunting grounds, they are believed to have defeated the St. Lawrence Iroquoians in the 16th century, kept control of their territory. In addition to hunting and fishing, for centuries the Mohawk cultivated productive maize fields on the fertile floodplains along the Mohawk River, west of the Pine Bush.
In the seventeenth century the Mohawk encountered both the Dutch, who went up the Hudson River and established a trading post in 1614 at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, the French, who came south into their territory from New France. The Dutch were merchants and the French conducted fur trading. During this time the Mohawk fought with the Huron in the Beaver Wars for control of the fur trade with the Europeans, their Jesuit missionaries were active among First Nations and Native Americans, seeking converts to Catholicism. In 1614, the Dutch opened a trading post at New Netherland; the Dutch traded for furs with the local Mahican, who occupied the territory along the Hudson River. Following a raid in 1626 when the Mohawk resettled along the south side of the Mohawk River, in 1628, they mounted an attack against the Mahican, pushing them back to the area of present-day Connecticut; the People of Ka-nee-en Ka gained a near-monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch by prohibiting the nearby Algonquian-speaking tribes to the north or east to trade with them but did not control this.
European contact resulted in a devastating smallpox epidemic among the Mohawk in 1635. By 1642 they had regrouped from four into three villages, recorded by Catholic missionary priest Isaac Jogues in 1642 as Ossernenon and Tionontoguen, all along the south side of the Mohawk River from east to west; these were recorded by speakers of other languages with different spellings, historians have struggled to reconcile various accounts, as well as to align them with archeological studies of the areas. For instance, Johannes Megapolensis, a Dutch minister, recorded the spelling of the same three villages as Asserué, Thenondiogo. Late 20th-century archeological studies have determined that Ossernenon was located about 9 miles west of the current city of Auriesville. While the Dutch established settlements in present-day Schenectady and Schoharie, further west in the Mohawk Valley, merchants in Fort Nassau continued to control the fur trading. Schenectady was established as a farming settlement, where Dutch took over some of the former Mohawk maize fields in the floodplain along the river.
Through trading, the Mohawk and Dutch became allies of a kind. During their alliance, the Mohawks allowed Dutch Protestant missionary Johannes Megapolensis to come into their tribe and teach the Christian message, he operated from the Fort Nassau area about six years, writing a record in 1644 of his observations of the Mohawk, their language, their culture. While he noted their ritual of torture of captives, he recognized that their society had few other killings compared to the Netherlands of that period; the trading relations between the Mohawk and Dutch helped them maintain peace during the periods of Kieft's War and the Esopus Wars, when the Dutch fought localized battles with other tribes. In addition, Dutch trade partners equipped the Mohawk with guns to fight against other First Nations who were allied with the French, including the Ojibwe, Huron-Wendat, Algonquin. In 1
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 1,267,344 in 2018, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality. In 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada; the economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services and television, transportation and logistics, manufacturing, aerospace and wellness, tourism sectors. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada.
In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. Calgary has been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth-most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking. Calgary is classed as a Beta global city. Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Scotland. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden" used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm"; the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language, the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence.
The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis meaning "elbow", has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. In the Nakoda language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". In the Nehiyaw Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina language, the area is known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow". In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede and the city's settler heritage. There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis. In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town", however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.
The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi, îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3; as Mayor Naheed Nenshi describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water, they come here to fish. He was the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police; the NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, to protect the fur trade. Named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod; when the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre.
Over a century the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. Calgary was incorporated as a town in 1884, elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was the North-West Territories; the Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP. The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured, city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost; as a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. A transportation and distribution hub, Calgary became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.
By the late 19th century, the Hud