In ancient Rome, the domus was the type of house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican and Imperial eras. It was found in all the major cities throughout the Roman territories; the modern English word domestic comes from Latin domesticus, derived from the word domus. The word dom in modern Slavic languages means "home" and is a cognate of the Latin word, going back to Proto-Indo-European. Along with a domus in the city, many of the richest families of ancient Rome owned a separate country house known as a villa. Many chose to live or exclusively, in their villas; the elite classes of Roman society constructed their residences with elaborate marble decorations, inlaid marble paneling, door jambs and columns as well as expensive paintings and frescoes. Many poor and lower-middle-class Romans lived in crowded and rundown rental apartments, known as insulae; these multi-level apartment blocks were built as high and together as possible and held far less status and convenience than the private homes of the prosperous.
The homes of the early Etruscans were simple for the wealthy or ruling classes. They were small familiar huts constructed on the axial plan of a central hall with an open skylight, it is believed that the Temple of Vesta was, in form, copied from these early dwellings because the worship of Vesta began in individual homes. The huts were made of mud and wood with thatched roofs and a centre opening for the hearth's smoke to escape; this could have been the beginnings of the atrium, common in homes. As Rome became more and more prosperous from trade and conquest, the homes of the wealthy increased in both size and luxury, emulating both the Etruscan atrium house and Hellenistic peristyle house; the domus included multiple rooms, indoor courtyards and beautifully painted walls that were elaborately laid out. The vestibulum led into a large central hall: the atrium, the focal point of the domus and contained a statue of or an altar to the household gods. Leading off the atrium were cubicula, a dining room triclinium where guests could eat dinner whilst reclining on couches, a tablinum, the culina.
On the outside, without any internal connection to the atrium, were tabernae. In cities throughout the Roman Empire, wealthy homeowners lived in buildings with few exterior windows. Glass windows were not available: glass production was in its infancy, thus a wealthy Roman citizen lived in a large house separated into two parts, linked together through the tablinum or study or by a small passageway. To protect the family from intruders, it would not face the streets, only its entrance providing more room for living spaces and gardens behind. Surrounding the atrium were arranged the master's family’s main rooms: the small cubicula or bedrooms, the tablinum, which served as a living room or study, the triclinium, or dining-room. Roman homes were like Greek homes. Only two objects were present in the atrium of Caecilius in Pompeii: a small bronze box that stored precious family items and the lararium, a small shrine to the household gods, the Lares. In the master bedroom was a small wooden bed and couch which consisted of some slight padding.
As the domus developed, the tablinum took on a role similar to that of the study. In each of the other bedrooms there was just a bed; the triclinium had three couches surrounding a table. The triclinium was similar in size to the master bedroom; the study was used as a passageway. If the master of the house was a banker or merchant, the study was larger because of the greater need for materials. Roman houses lay on an axis, so that a visitor was provided with a view through the fauces and tablinum to the peristyle. Vestibulum The vestibulum was the main entrance hall of the Roman domus, it is seen only in grander structures. The vestibulum would run the length of these front Tabernae shops; this created security by keeping the main portion of the domus off the street. In homes that did not have spaces for let in front, either rooms or a closed area would still be separated by a separate vestibulum. Atrium The atrium was the most important part of the house, where guests and dependents were greeted.
The atrium was open in the centre, surrounded at least in part by high-ceilinged porticoes that contained only sparse furnishings to give the effect of a large space. In the centre was a square roof opening called the compluvium in which rainwater could come, draining inwards from the slanted tiled roof. Directly below the compluvium was the impluvium. Impluvium An impluvium was a drain pool, a shallow rectangular sunken portion of the Atrium to gather rainwater, which drained into an underground cistern; the impluvium was lined with marble, around, a floor of small mosaic. Fauces These were similar in design and function of the vestibulum but were found deeper into the domus. Separated by the length of another room, entry to a different portion of the residence was accessed by these passageways which would now be called halls or hallways. Tablinum Between the atrium and the peristyle was the tablinum, an office of sorts for the dominus, who would receive his clients for the morning salutatio.
The dominus was able to command the house visually from this vantage point as the he
John Luke Gallup is an American economist. Gallup got his PhD in 1994 at the University of Berkeley. From 1996 to 2000 he was a Research Fellow at the Center for International Development at Harvard University. From 2008 to 2009 he was Fulbright Scholar at the Vietnam University of Commerce in Hanoi, he worked with Andrew Mellinger on the issue of geography. Far-Flung Europe: What is the Economic Impact of Geography? European Union Committee of Regions for The Macroeconomic Situation of the Outermost Regions Conference, 2006; the Wage Labor Market and Inequality in Vietnam in the 1990s. In: Paul Glewwe, David Dollar and Nisha Agrawal. Economic Growth and Household Welfare: Policy Lessons from Vietnam. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, 2004. With Alejandro Gaviria and Eduardo Lora. Is Geography Destiny? Lessons from Latin America. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8213-5451-5 With Jeffrey D. Sachs; the Economic Burden of Malaria. In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64, pp. 85, 96, 2001.
With Jeffrey D. Sachs and Andrew Mellinger; the Geography of Poverty and Wealth. In: Scientific American 284, pp. 62–67, March 2001. With Jeffrey D. Sachs. Agriculture and Technology: Why are the Tropics Falling Behind? In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 82, pp. 731–37, 2000. Geography and Socioeconomic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Chapter 3 of Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, 1999–2000 Report. Washington, D. C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 2000. With Andrew Mellinger and Jeffrey D. Sachs. Climate, Coastal Proximity, Development. In: Gordon L. Clark, Maryann P. Feldman and Meric S. Gertler; the Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Pp. 169–94, 2000. Update to Formatting Regression Output. In: Stata Technical Bulletin 58, pp. 9–13, 2000. With Jeffrey D. Sachs and Andrew Mellinger. Geography and Economic Development. In: Boris Pleskovic and Joseph E. Stiglitz. World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1998. Washington, DC: The World Bank, pp. 127–78, 1999.
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5341, pp. 1211–212. With David Bloom. Environment and Population. Background paper for the Asian Development Bank's Emerging Asia: Changes and Challenges, 1997. Ethnicity and Earnings in Malaysia. HIID Development Discussion Paper No. 593, 1997. Theories of Migration. HIID Development Discussion Paper No.569, 1997 Migration in Malaysia: Heterogeneity and Persistence. Institutes of Economics and Sociology, Hanoi, 1996 Heterogeneity and Ethnicity: Internal Migration and Labor Markets in Malaysia. PhD thesis, Department of Economics, University of California at Berkeley, 1994. With Landis MacKellar. TM2: An Economic-Demographic Simulation Model. World Employment Program Working Paper, International Labor Office, 1993; the Effect of Cohort Size on Wages in Brazil. Population Association of America Meeting 1992, Toronto
MTV: TRL Christmas is a Christmas compilation album released by the record labels Atlantic and Lava. Released on October 30, 2001, it features singers who were promoted on the music television series Total Request Live; the album consists of sixteen songs, including covers of Christmas standards and carols, as well as original music. Music critics identified several musical genres, such as pop punk and bubblegum pop, throughout the album. Several tracks from MTV: TRL Christmas had been featured on the artists' previous projects. MTV: TRL Christmas received mixed-to-negative reviews from critics, though they chose specific performers and songs as highlights; the album's track listing was a source of criticism. The album reached number 162 on the Billboard 200 chart and number 13 on the Holiday Album Sales Billboard chart. "Santa Baby, performed by American singer Willa Ford, was released as the album's lead single and was promoted through an accompanying music video. Critical response to the single was mixed.
Recorded between October 2000 and November 2000, MTV: TRL Christmas is a Christmas compilation album containing sixteen songs. Executive producers for the album are Jason Flom, Gregg Nadel, Amy DeRousen, Kevin Mangini; the tracks are performed by singers, promoted on the music television series Total Request Live. It includes covers of Christmas carols, as well as original music; the Deseret News' Scott Iwasaki and Carma Wadley said the album does not contain "what you might consider traditional Christmas music". Music critics identified several musical genres throughout the album. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic wrote that a "series of punk-pop holiday tunes" is featured on the project. O. D.'s "Rock the Party", Smash Mouth's song "Better Do It Right", Canadian band Simple Plan's track "My Christmas List" as examples. Agreeing the album contains pop punk material, Entertainment Weekly's Chris Willman said it includes "vocal-group bubblegum", listing Christina Aguilera's version of "Angels We Have Heard on High" and LFO's song "Red Letter Day" as representatives of this sound.
In the opening track, "Santa Baby", Willa Ford asks Santa for extravagant presents, such as homes in New York City and Los Angeles, attractive male servants, men in swimming trunks. The chorus consists of Ford singing. Several critics identified the song as a parody or cover of Eartha Kitt's 1953 single "Santa Baby". For the second track "I Don't Wanna Spend One More Christmas Without You", NSYNC offers a pop interpretation of Christmas music. TLC's interpretation of "Sleigh Ride" contains elements of soul music and hip hop, while P. O. D.'s "Rock the Party" incorporates influences from industrial music. Jimmy Fallon provides a hard rock version of a Christmas song on the track "Snowball". Various music commentators noted that Sugar Ray recorded a faithful cover of The Beach Boys' 1963 single "Little Saint Nick"; the album closes with a more traditional Christmas sound of Trans-Siberian Orchestra's 2001 single "Christmas Canon". Several tracks from MTV: TRL Christmas had been featured on the artists' previous projects.
Weezer's version of "The Christmas Song" was included on their 2001 self-titled album and their Christmas album. Aguilera's interpretation of "Angels We Have Heard on High" was included on her 2000 record My Kind of Christmas, Blink-182 had released their single "I Won't Be Home for Christmas" in 1997. "Christmas Canon" was part of Trans-Siberian Orchestra's 1998 release The Christmas Attic. MTV: TRL Christmas was released on October 30, 2001, through Atlantic and Lava, as a CD and a cassette. To promote the album, a limited quantity of copies contained tickets for a free trip to be a part of the Total Request Live studio audience in New York City. Commentators noted the record was a way to publicize the new artists from Atlantic and Lava, such as Little-T and One Track Mike, Angela Via, Willa Ford."Santa Baby" was released as the lead single from MTV: TRL Christmas on December 4, 2001, was promoted with an accompanying music video. Critical response to the song was mixed. A writer from The New York Times referenced the track as "a high-gloss ode to Christmas materialism", Melinda Newman of Billboard described Ford's performance as "kittenish".
The Herald News' Annie Alleman called the song "sultry", praised the way it was paired with NSYNC's "I Don't Wanna Spend One More Christmas Without You". Other commentators were more negative about the single. Stephen Thomas Erlewine viewed it as "a disgusting materialistic anthem", criticizing the lyrics' reliance on commercialism and sexuality. Dan DeLuca of Knight Ridder panned the track as "shamelessly acquisitive", a writer for the Star Tribune said its emphasis on greed was inappropriate for the holiday season. Steve Morse of The Boston Globe described the single as "depressing" and interpreted Ford's vocals as "disco-bleating". Heather Phares, writing for AllMusic, criticized Ford for removing the fun and campy attitude from its inspiration, "Santa Baby". Music critics praised certain songs on MTV: TRL Christmas; the Houston Press' Craig Hlavaty praised the album for its inclusion of Sugar Ray, Blink-182, Smash Mouth, Simple Plan. Gary C. W. Chun of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin commended the album for its inclusion of "anti-Christmas songs", such as "I Won't Be Home for Christmas", original material by Smash Mouth, Little T and One Track Mike, Jimmy Fallon.
While more crit