Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Edge is a multi-format video game magazine published by Future plc in the United Kingdom, which publishes 13 issues of the magazine per year. The magazine was launched in October 1993 by Steve Jarratt, a long-time video games journalist who has launched several other magazines for Future; the artwork for the cover of the magazine's 100th issue was specially provided by Shigeru Miyamoto. The 200th issue was released in March 2009 with 200 different covers, each commemorating a single game. Only 200 magazines were printed with each cover, sufficient to more than satisfy Edge's circulation of 28,898. In October 2003, the then-editor of Edge, João Diniz-Sanches, left the magazine along with deputy editor David McCarthy and other staff writers. After the walkout, the editorship of Edge passed back to Tony Mott, editor prior to Diniz-Sanches; the only team member to remain was Margaret Robertson. In May 2007, Robertson stepped down as editor and was replaced by Tony Mott, taking over as editor for the third time.
Between 1995 and 2002, some of the content from the UK edition of Edge was published in the United States as Next Generation. In 2007, Future's US subsidiary, Future US began re-publishing selected recent Edge features on the Next Generation website. In July 2008, the whole site was rebranded under the Edge title, as, the senior of the two brands. In May 2014 it was reported that Future intended to close the websites of Edge and Video Games and their other videogame publications. Edge has been redesigned three times; the first redesign occurred in 1999. The first redesign altered the magazine's dimensions to be wider than the original shape; the latest design changes the magazine's physical dimensions for the second time, introduces a higher quality of paper stock than was used. Each issue includes a "Making-of" article on a particular game including an interview with one of the original developers. Issue 143 introduced the "Time Extend" series of retrospective articles. Like the "making-of" series, each focuses on a single game and, with the benefit of hindsight, gives an in-depth examination of its most interesting or innovative attributes."Codeshop" examines more technical subjects such as 3D modelling programs or physics middleware, while "Studio Profile" and "University Profile" are single-page summaries of particular developers or publishers, game-related courses at higher education institutions.
Although an overall list of contributors is printed in each issue's indicia, the magazine has not used bylines to credit individual writers to specific reviews and articles, instead only referring to the anonymous Edge as a whole. Since 2014, some contributed; the magazine's regular columnists have been credited throughout the magazine's run. The current columnists are Clint Hocking and Tadhg Kelly. In addition, several columnists appear toward the beginning of the magazine to talk about the game industry as a whole, rather than focusing on specific game design topics, they are Trigger Happy author Steven Poole, Leigh Alexander, Brian Howe, whose parody article section "You're Playing It Wrong" began with the new redesign. Previous columnists have included Paul Rose, Toshihiro Nagoshi of Sega's Amusement Vision, author Tim Guest, N'Gai Croal, game developer Jeff Minter. In addition, numerous columns were published anonymously under the pseudonym "RedEye", several Japanese writers contributed to a regular feature called "Something About Japan".
James Hutchinson's comic strip Crashlander was featured in Edge between issues 143 and 193. Edge scores games on a ten-point scale, from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 10, with five as ostensibly the average rating. For much of the magazine's run, the magazine's review policy stated that the scores broadly correspond to one of the following "sentiments": 1 – disastrous 2 – appalling 3 – flawed 4 – disappointing 5 – average 6 – competent 7 – distinguished 8 – excellent 9 – astounding 10 – revolutionary However, with issue 143 the scoring system was changed to a simple list of "10 = ten, 9 = nine..." and so on, a tongue-in-cheek reference to people who read too much into review scores. It was three years before Edge gave a game a rating of ten out of ten, to date the score has been given to twenty-one games: In contrast, only two titles have received a one-out-of-ten rating, Kabuki Warriors and FlatOut 3: Chaos & Destruction. In a December 2002 retro gaming special, Edge retrospectively awarded ten-out-of-ten ratings to two titles released before the magazine's launch: Elite Exile Edge awarded a 10/10 score in one of the regular retrospective reviews in the magazine's normal run: Super Mario Bros.
In Edge's 10th anniversary issue in 2003, GoldenEye 007 was included as one of the magazine's top ten shooters, along with a note that it was "the only other game" that should have received a ten out of ten rating. The game had been awarded a nine out of ten, with the magazine stating that "a ten was considered, but rejected". Resident Evil 4, whi
Cardozo Education Campus
Cardozo Education Campus Cardozo Senior High School and Central High School, is a combined middle and high school at 13th and Clifton Street in northwest Washington, D. C. United States, in the Columbia Heights neighborhood. Cardozo is operated by District of Columbia Public Schools; the school is named after clergyman and educator Francis Lewis Cardozo. The Advanced Grammar School for Boys was established in 1877 and combined with a similar school for girls in 1882 to form Washington High School, the first high school in the city. In 1890, the High School was split into three, with one high school opened in the current Peabody Elementary School building on Capitol Hill and another in Georgetown in the Curtis Building; as a result, the Washington High School became known as Central High School. In 1916, the school moved from O to Thirteenth and Clifton. Known locally as "the castle on the hill", Cardozo's iconic building was designed by architect William B. Ittner, a nationally renowned school building architect.
The building was dedicated February 15, 1917. Cardozo Senior High School was established in 1928. Located at Rhode Island Avenue and Ninth Street NW, it relocated to the Central High School building in 1950 and renamed. Cardozo was assigned for "colored" students in the segregated system and became one of three black high schools in DC; the U Street Metro station is named after this school, with "Cardozo" in the station's subtitle. An alternative, Urban Renewal-era name for the Columbia Heights neighborhood is Upper Cardozo, some of the public buildings in the area still bear this name; until the 1954 opening of the all-black Luther Jackson High School in Fairfax County, Virginia and several other DCPS schools, along with a school in Manassas, enrolled black secondary school students from the Fairfax County Public Schools as that district did not yet operate secondary schools for blacks. During the 1970s and 1980s, Cardozo High School's marching band was one of the best in Washington, DC, won several band competitions.
Due to their enormous popularity, the band was invited to participate in the Rose Parade in 1981. In December 2011, work began to renovate Cardozo from the inside-out. Everything from exterior facade's crumbling masonry and shoddy window panes to the interior's dark, dingy hallways and outdated classroom spaces were replaced or restored to their original glory. Technology was added to classrooms, wood floors throughout the building were refinished, the two courtyard spaces in the center of the school were turned into enclosed atrium spaces with the addition of glass skylights; the athletic facilities were improved and expanded as well, with a regulation-size gymnasium added onto the west side of the building. The swimming pool was restored. In all, the renovation cost $130 million and the school reopened for a new school year in August 2013. In addition to the physical changes to the building itself, the student body was increased with the addition of middle school students from the now-closed Shaw Middle School and the campus was renamed as Cardozo Education Campus.
The video for the Don't Copy That Floppy anti-software piracy campaign. The school appears in Wale's "Chillin" music video; the school's marching band appears in the parade at the end of the movie, D. C. Cab; the following elementary schools feed into Cardozo: Marie Reed Elementary School Cleveland Elementary School Garrison Elementary School Raymond Education Campus School Without Walls @ Francis-Stevens Seaton Elementary School Ross Elementary SchoolThe following middle schools feed into Cardozo: Raymond Education Campus School Without Walls at Francis-Stevens Official website
YTMND, an initialism for "You're the Man Now, Dog", is an online community centered on the creation of hosted memetic web pages featuring a juxtaposition of an image centered or tiled along with optional large zooming text and a looping sound file. Images and sound files used in YTMNDs are either created or edited by users. YTMND is a humor website, owing its tone and culture to the original YTMND and its early imitators. Other YTMNDs, are artistic or political. YTMND originated in 2001 from Max Goldberg's original website, "yourethemannowdog.com", which he registered along with "dustindiamond.com" after seeing a trailer for the movie Finding Forrester in which Sean Connery says the line "You're the man now, dog!". The website featured the text "YOURE THE MAN NOW DOG. COM" drawn out in 3D ASCII text with a sound loop from the Finding Forrester trailer of Sean Connery reciting the phrase "You're the man now, dog!". The advent of zoomed text on the website was seen in the following months, where the website featured a photograph of Sean Connery.
Goldberg's new creation inspired others to make similar sites with other movie and television quotations. At first, Goldberg maintained a list and mirror of these sites, but the list soon became exceptionally long. In 2004, Goldberg wrote a press release after winning a lawsuit filed by Dustin Diamond for the "fan page" at the aforementioned dustindiamond.com. He mentioned yourethemannowdog.com, as well as a new website, YTMND, that would be ready by April 10. The website opened that day after a rushed design process; the site caught on in popularity and became an Internet phenomenon when major weblogs and Internet forums began linking to the Picard Song YTMND. In November 2005, YTMND changed its layout and added new features, including a comment management system and new lists for the main page. A feature debuted soon after allowing users to donate money on behalf of a YTMND chosen by the user in exchange for its increased exposure through the main site. On September 24, 2006, YTMND changed to design.
The re-design added new features, such as the YTMND digest. On August 29, 2016, Max Goldberg announced that YTMND would soon be shutting down, citing ill health and the site's inability to fund its own hosting fees from ad revenue. Goldberg stated "Besides being a time capsule I don’t see a reason for it to continue to exist... It seems like the internet has moved on... And I’ve moved on too. I don’t have much interest in the site beyond it being good memories." Despite this, the site remains open as of March 2019. On May 12, 2018, the site stopped accepting new user signups as a result of Google shutting down version 1 of its ReCAPTCHA anti-spam mechanism. In January 2006, eBaum's World hosted and watermarked a Lindsay Lohan montage created by YTMND user SpliceVW without crediting either SpliceVW or YTMND. In response to their actions, users from YTMND joined users from other Internet communities and launched an attack on the forums on eBaum's World, using spam posting and denial-of-service attacks to crash them.
Goldberg denounced the ongoing attacks, stating that they had "really crossed the line" and were a "vulgar display of power". He stated that any YTMND member whose site promoted attacks would have his or her account deleted and that the conflict had placed both himself and his hosting company in a negative light. On January 10, eBaum's World alleged the attacks were a form of cyberterrorism, on January 11, Neil Bauman, the executive vice president of eBaum's World, publicly stated that arrests were being made in relation to the attacks. Goldberg and Bauman came to an agreement: Bauman removed the montage from his website, Goldberg removed references to "eBaum" from his. Though the conflict was resolved, both sites experienced DDoS attacks on the morning of January 12, 2006. On June 10, 2006, a cease and desist form was sent to Goldberg by lawyers of the Church of Scientology, claiming that several YTMND pages with Scientology-related content had infringed on Scientology copyrights. In response, Goldberg replied to the lawyer that the cease and desist form was "completely groundless" and he would not be deleting any Scientology-related sites.
Days a Scientology page section appeared on the front page along with a disclaimer on the bottom stating the following: "This website is in no way affiliated, sponsored or owned by the Church of Scientology, L. Ron Hubbard, SeaOrg, volcanoes or aliens of any sort. We are, sponsored by Citizens for the Release of Xenu, a not-for-sanity organization." According to Goldberg, there have not been any recent updates regarding the potential lawsuit. The YTMND character "Moon Man", a white supremacist rapper character based on source videos of the McDonald's advertising campaign Mac Tonight, garnered controversy shortly after its first remix in 2007. AT&T's text to speech program provided Moon Man's voice and was soon edited to block any racially derogatory epithets or swear words in an attempt to cull the number of remixes. McDonald's began removing existing Mac Tonight sculptures and animatronics from some of its restaurants in response to the widespread remixes, YouTube began automatically striking down many Moon Man-related videos from 2007 to the present.
Several videos were DMCA-claimed and taken down by McDonald's from 2007–2008. Multiple change.org petitions were filed demanding YouTube cease removing the videos, the most recent of which from May 2015 having reaching over 1200 signatures. YouTube has since stopped taking Moon Man videos down. On January 11, 2007, Goldberg revealed
A floppy disk known as a floppy, diskette, or disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles. Floppy disks are written by a floppy disk drive. Floppy disks as 8-inch media and in 5 1⁄4-inch and 3 1⁄2 inch sizes, were a ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange from the mid-1970s into the first years of the 21st century. By 2006 computers were manufactured with installed floppy disk drives; these formats are handled by older equipment. The prevalence of floppy disks in late-twentieth century culture was such that many electronic and software programs still use the floppy disks as save icons. While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses with legacy industrial computer equipment, they have been superseded by data storage methods with much greater capacity, such as USB flash drives, flash storage cards, portable external hard disk drives, optical discs, cloud storage and storage available through computer networks.
The first commercial floppy disks, developed in the late 1960s, were 8 inches in diameter. These disks and associated drives were produced and improved upon by IBM and other companies such as Memorex, Shugart Associates, Burroughs Corporation; the term "floppy disk" appeared in print as early as 1970, although IBM announced its first media as the "Type 1 Diskette" in 1973, the industry continued to use the terms "floppy disk" or "floppy". In 1976, Shugart Associates introduced the 5 1⁄4-inch FDD. By 1978 there were more than 10 manufacturers producing such FDDs. There were competing floppy disk formats, with hard- and soft-sector versions and encoding schemes such as FM, MFM, M2FM and GCR; the 5 1⁄4-inch format displaced the 8-inch one for most applications, the hard-sectored disk format disappeared. The most common capacity of the 5 1⁄4-inch format in DOS-based PCs was 360 KB, for the DSDD format using MFM encoding. In 1984 IBM introduced with its PC-AT model the 1.2 MB dual-sided 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk, but it never became popular.
IBM started using the 720 KB double-density 3 1⁄2-inch microfloppy disk on its Convertible laptop computer in 1986 and the 1.44 MB high-density version with the PS/2 line in 1987. These disk drives could be added to older PC models. In 1988 IBM introduced a drive for 2.88 MB "DSED" diskettes in its top-of-the-line PS/2 models, but this was a commercial failure. Throughout the early 1980s, limitations of the 5 1⁄4-inch format became clear. Designed to be more practical than the 8-inch format, it was itself too large. A number of solutions were developed, with drives at 2-, 2 1⁄2-, 3-, 3 1⁄4-, 3 1⁄2- and 4-inches offered by various companies, they all shared a number of advantages over the old format, including a rigid case with a sliding metal shutter over the head slot, which helped protect the delicate magnetic medium from dust and damage, a sliding write protection tab, far more convenient than the adhesive tabs used with earlier disks. The large market share of the well-established 5 1⁄4-inch format made it difficult for these diverse mutually-incompatible new formats to gain significant market share.
A variant on the Sony design, introduced in 1982 by a large number of manufacturers, was rapidly adopted. The term floppy disk persisted though style floppy disks have a rigid case around an internal floppy disk. By the end of the 1980s, 5 1⁄4-inch disks had been superseded by 3 1⁄2-inch disks. During this time, PCs came equipped with drives of both sizes. By the mid-1990s, 5 1⁄4-inch drives had disappeared, as the 3 1⁄2-inch disk became the predominant floppy disk; the advantages of the 3 1⁄2-inch disk were its higher capacity, its smaller size, its rigid case which provided better protection from dirt and other environmental risks. If a person touches the exposed disk surface of a 5 1⁄4-inch disk through the drive hole, fingerprints may foul the disk—and the disk drive head if the disk is subsequently loaded into a drive—and it is easily possible to damage a disk of this type by folding or creasing it rendering it at least unreadable; however due to its simpler construction the 5 1⁄4-inch disk unit price was lower throughout its history in the range of a third to a half that of a 3 1⁄2-inch disk.
Floppy disks became commonplace during the 1980s and 1990s in their use with personal computers to distribute software, transfer data, create backups. Before hard disks became affordable to the general population, floppy disks were used to store a computer's operating system. Most home computers from that period have an elementary OS and BASIC stored in ROM, with the option of loading a more advanced operating system from a floppy disk. By the early 1990s, the increasing software size meant large packages like Windows or Adobe Photoshop required a dozen disks or more. In 1996, there were an estimated five billion standard floppy disks in use. Distribution of larger packages was replaced by CD-ROMs, DVDs and online distribution. An
Tetris is a tile-matching puzzle video game designed and programmed by Soviet Russian game designer Alexey Pajitnov. The first playable version was completed on June 6, 1984, while he was working for the Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre of the Academy of Science of the Soviet Union in Moscow, he derived Pajitnov's favorite sport. The name is used in-game to refer to the play where four lines are cleared at once. Tetris was the first entertainment software to be exported from the Soviet Union to the United States, where it was published by Spectrum HoloByte for the Commodore 64 and IBM PC; the game is a popular use of tetrominoes, the four-element case of polyominoes, which have been used in popular puzzles since at least 1907. The game, or one of its many variants, is available for nearly every video game console and computer operating system, as well as on devices such as graphing calculators, mobile phones, portable media players, PDAs, Network music players, as an Easter egg on non-media products like oscilloscopes.
It has inspired Tetris serving dishes, it has been played on the sides of various buildings. While versions of Tetris were sold for a range of 1980s home computer platforms as well as arcades, it was the successful handheld version for the Game Boy, launched in 1989, that established the game as one of the most popular video games ever. Electronic Gaming Monthly's 100th issue had Tetris in first place as "Greatest Game of All Time". In 2007, it came in second place in IGN's "100 Greatest Video Games of All Time". In January 2010, it was announced that the games in the franchise had sold more than 170 million copies–approximately 70 million physical copies, over 100 million copies for cell phones–making it the best selling paid-downloaded game of all time. Tetriminos are game pieces shaped like tetrominoes, geometric shapes composed of four square blocks each. A random sequence of Tetriminos fall down the playing field; the objective of the game is to manipulate these Tetriminos, by moving each one sideways and/or rotating by quarter-turns, so that they form a solid horizontal line without gaps.
When such a line is formed, it disappears and any blocks above it fall down to fill the space. When a certain number of lines are cleared, the game enters a new level; as the game progresses, each level causes the Tetriminos to fall faster, the game ends when the stack of Tetriminos reaches the top of the playing field and no new Tetriminos are able to enter. Some games end after a finite number of levels or lines. All of the Tetriminos doubles. I, J, L are able to clear triples. Only the I Tetrimino has the capacity to clear four lines and this is referred to as a "tetris". Pajitnov's original version for the Electronika 60 computer used green brackets to represent blocks. Versions of Tetris on the original Game Boy/Game Boy Color and on most dedicated handheld games use monochrome or grayscale graphics, but most popular versions use a separate color for each distinct shape. Prior to The Tetris Company's standardization in the early 2000s, those colors varied from implementation to implementation.
The scoring formula for the majority of Tetris products is built on the idea that more difficult line clears should be awarded more points. For example, a single line clear in Tetris Zone is worth 100 points, clearing four lines at once is worth 800, while each subsequent back-to-back Tetris is worth 1,200. In conjunction, players can be awarded combos that exist in certain games which reward multiple line clears in quick succession; the exact conditions for triggering combos, the amount of importance assigned to them, vary from game to game. Nearly all Tetris games allow the player to press a button to increase the speed of the current piece's descent or cause the piece to drop and lock into place known as a "soft drop" and a "hard drop", respectively. While performing a soft drop, the player can stop the piece's increased speed by releasing the button before the piece settles into place; some games only allow hard drop. Many games award a number of points based on the height that the piece fell before locking, so using the hard drop awards more points.
Traditional versions of Tetris move the stacks of blocks down by a distance equal to the height of the cleared rows below them. Contrary to the laws of gravity, blocks may be left floating above gaps. Implementing a different algorithm that uses a flood fill to segment the playfield into connected regions will make each region fall individually, in parallel, until it touches the region at the bottom of the playfield; this opens up additional "chain-reaction" tactics involving blocks cascading to fill additional lines, which may be awarded as more valuable clears. Although not the first Tetris game to feature a new kind of Tetris, "easy spin" called "infinite spin" by critics, Tetris Worlds was the first game to fall under major criticisms for it. Easy spin refers to the property of a Tetrimino to stop f
The Klingons are a fictional species in the science fiction franchise Star Trek. Developed by screenwriter Gene L. Coon in 1967 for the original Star Trek series, Klingons were swarthy humanoids characterized by prideful ruthlessness and brutality. Klingons practiced authoritarianism, with a warrior caste relying on slave labor, they had characteristics of the Soviet Union. With a expanded budget for makeup and effects, the Klingons were redesigned for Star Trek: The Motion Picture, acquiring ridged foreheads. In subsequent television series and in films, the militaristic traits of the Klingons were bolstered by an increased sense of honor and strict warrior code similar to those of bushido. Klingons are recurring antagonists in the 1960s television series Star Trek, have appeared in all subsequent series, along with ten of the Star Trek feature films. Intended to be antagonists for the crew of the USS Enterprise, the Klingons became a close ally of humanity in Star Trek: The Next Generation.
In the 1990s series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Klingons join with the Romulans to fight the Dominion. Among the elements created for the revised Klingons was a complete Klingon language, developed by Marc Okrand from gibberish suggested by actor James Doohan. Spoken Klingon has entered popular culture to the extent that the works of William Shakespeare and parts of the Bible have been translated into it. A dictionary, a book of sayings, a cultural guide to the language have been published. According to the Guinness World Records, Klingon is the world's most popular fictional language as measured by number of speakers; the Klingons were created by screenwriter Gene L. Coon, first appeared in the Star Trek episode "Errand of Mercy", they were named after Lieutenant Wilbur Clingan, who served with Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry in the Los Angeles Police Department. In the original television series, Klingons were portrayed with bronze skin and facial hair suggestive of Asian people, possessed physical abilities similar to humans.
The swarthy look of Klingon males was created with the application of shoe polish and long, thin moustaches. The overall look of the aliens, played by white actors, suggested orientalism, at a time when memories of Japanese actions during World War II were still fresh; the production crew never came to an agreement on the name "Klingon". The Klingons took on the role of the Soviet Union with the fictional government, the United Federation of Planets playing the role of the United States; as such, they were portrayed as inferior to the crew of the Enterprise. While capable of honour, this depiction treated the Klingons as close to wild animals. Overall, they were shown without redeeming qualities—brutish and murderous. Klingons became the primary antagonists of the Enterprise crew, in part because the makeup necessary to make another alien race, the Romulans, was too time-consuming and costly. For the first two seasons, no Klingon ships were seen despite being mentioned; this was because of budget constraints.
When the episodes were remastered beginning in 2006, Klingon ships were digitally inserted into shots earlier than their original appearances. For Star Trek: The Motion Picture, the Klingons' appearance was radically changed. To give the aliens a more sophisticated and threatening demeanor, the Klingons were depicted with ridged foreheads and prominent teeth, a defined language and alphabet. Lee Cole, a production designer, used red gels and primitive shapes in the design of Klingon consoles and ship interiors, which took on a dark and moody atmosphere; the alphabet was designed with sharp edges harking to the Klingons' militaristic focus. Costume designer Robert Fletcher created new uniforms for the Klingons, reminiscent of feudal Japanese armor. Certain elements of Klingon culture, resembling Japanese culture with honor at the forefront, were first explored with the script for the planned two-part "Kitumba" episode for the unproduced 1978 Star Trek: Phase II series. Writer John Meredyth Lucas said, "I wanted something that we had never seen before on the series, that's a penetration deep into enemy space.
I started to think of. For the Romulans we had Romans, we've had different cultures modeled on those of ancient Earth, but I tried to think of what the Klingon society would be like; the Japanese came to mind, so that's what it was, with the Sacred Emperor, the Warlord and so on."While no Klingon characters were seen in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, their appearance as the central enemy in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock led to minor alterations. For the third generation of Klingons, the heavy, cragged head ridges of The Motion Picture were redesigned and made less pronounced. While Fletcher was happy with the original film uniforms, more had to be created as the old costumes had been lost, destroyed, or loaned out and altered irreparably. New costumes were fabricated. New Klingon weaponry was designed, including an energy weapon and a special knife known as a d'k tahg; the release of a new television series, Star Trek: The Next Generation, prompted a further rev