SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Leota, Mississippi

Leota is a ghost town located in Washington County, United States. The settlement, along with its river port Leota Landing, were at one time located directly on the Mississippi River. Both Leota and Leota Landing were established on the Leota Plantation, founded in 1825 by Isaac Worthington; the plantation was located a few miles north on the Mississippi River from the former county seat of Princeton. The plantation was named after a favorite fictional character. Leota was a leading river port between Memphis and Vicksburg, was a shipping point for cotton. Leota was incorporated in 1882; the settlement had a post office, a population of 50 in 1900. Little remains of the settlement, today covered by forest and a portion of the Mississippi River levee. Wilford Horace Smith - The first black lawyer to win a case before the Supreme Court of the United States

Stade Roland Garros

Stade Roland Garros is a complex of tennis courts located in Paris, that hosts the French Open, a tournament known as Roland-Garros. It is a Grand Slam championship tournament played annually around the end of May and the beginning of June, it is named for a pioneering French aviator. The facility was constructed in 1928 to host France's first defence of the Davis Cup; the 8.5-hectare complex contains twenty courts, including three large-capacity stadiums. The stadium is named after Roland Garros, a French pioneer aviator who completed the first solo flight across the Mediterranean Sea and World War I hero. Garros was killed in aerial combat in October 1918. France was an important power in tennis during the first half of the 20th century due to the dominance of Suzanne Lenglen during the 1910s and 1920s, les Quatre Mousquetaires —Jacques "Toto" Brugnon, Jean Borotra, Henri Cochet, René Lacoste —in the 1920s and 1930s. In 1927, France defeated the United States to win the Davis Cup, due to the Musketeers' efforts.

Roland Garros was constructed as a venue for France's successful defense the following year. France retained the Cup until 1933, again because of the Musketeers. A monument to France's six Cup championships stands at the center of Place des Mousquetaires, a circular courtyard near the venue's entrance. In October 1939, shortly after the outbreak of World War II, the facility was used as a detention centre where "indésirables"—mostly Hungarians, Italians and citizens suspected of being communists—were held pending imprisonment. Journalist and former communist Arthur Koestler reported that at the time of his detention, posters advertising the last match prior to the outbreak of war, between Cochet and Borotra, were still in place. While the Roland Garros surface is invariably characterized as "red clay", the courts are in fact surfaced with white limestone covered with a few millimeters of powdered red brick dust. Beneath the 3-inch layer of porous limestone is 6 inches of volcanic rock, followed by 3 feet of sand, all of which rests on a slab of concrete.

Crushed brick is pressed onto the limestone surface with rollers drenched in water. The process is repeated several times until a compact layer coats each court; the crushed brick is deep enough to allow footprints and ball marks, but shallow enough to avoid making the court spongy or slippery. In tournament situations workers smooth the surface before matches and between sets by dragging rectangular lengths of chain-link across it; the red brick dust is replenished as needed. The surface was a state-of-the art solution, in 1928, to the biggest problem with natural clay courts: poor drainage. At the time it was not unusual for clay surfaces to be unplayable for two to three days after short periods of precipitation; the limestone/crushed brick combination developed in Britain and looked similar to clay without clay's drainage issues, thus rendering natural clay obsolete as a tennis court surface. Since a multitude of other "fast-dry" and synthetic clay surfaces have been developed. Courts surfaced with these materials play much like natural clay surfaces and are collectively classified as "clay courts", despite the fact that few if any true clay courts have been built for a century.

The diversity in composition of various "clay" surfaces around the world explains the extraordinary variability in their playing characteristics. “All clay courts are different,” Venus Williams has said. “None play the same. Plays the best.” Court Philippe Chatrier was built in 1928 as Roland Garros's centerpiece and remains its principal venue, seating 15,225 spectators. The stadium was known as "Court Central" until 2001, when it was renamed for the long-time president of the Fédération Française de Tennis who helped restore tennis as a Summer Olympics sport in 1988; the four main spectator grandstands are named for les Quatre Mousquetaires—Brugnon, Borotra and Lacoste—in honor of their Davis Cup success, which prompted construction of the facility, the stadium. As a further tribute, the trophy awarded each year to the French Open men's singles champion is known as La Coupe des Mousquetaires. After the completion of the 2018 tournament, the stadium was demolished down to its foundations and rebuilt in time for the 2019 tournament.

A retractable roof is scheduled to be added in time for the 2020 tournament. Built in 1994 and designated "Court A", Court Suzanne Lenglen is the secondary stadium with a capacity of 10,068 spectators, its namesake, an international celebrity and the first true star of women's tennis, won 31 major tournaments, including six French Open titles and six Wimbledon championships, between 1914 and 1926. Known as La Divine and La Grand Dame of French tennis, she won two Olympic gold medals in Antwerp in 1920. A bronze bas relief of Lenglen by the Italian sculptor Vito Tongiani stands over the east tunnel-entrance to the stadium; the trophy awarded each year to the French Open women's singles champion is named La Coupe Suzanne Lenglen in her honor. The court has an underground irrigation system, t