William Henry Gates III is an American business magnate, author and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014. In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company. Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000, he transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics; this opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings. Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals and ranking against those with wealth, not able to be ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, held it from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos. In his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, he donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity.
In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955, he is the son of Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German and Scots-Irish, his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates' maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one older sister, a younger sister, Libby, he is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix. The family lived in the Sand Point area of Seattle in a home, once damaged by a rare tornado when Gates was seven years old. Early on in his life, Gates observed; when Gates was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.
The family encouraged competition. There was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing". At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school and wrote his first software program; when Gates was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer for the school's students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, was excused from math classes to pursue his interest, he wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine; when he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine." After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation, which banned four Lakeside students – Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, Kent Evans – for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran and machine language; the arrangement with CCC continued until 1970. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's student information system software to schedule students in classes, he modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting girls." He stated that "it
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
Bernardo de Gálvez, 1st Viscount of Galveston
Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Madrid, 1st Viscount of Galveston, 1st Count of Gálvez, OCIII was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Spanish Louisiana and Cuba, as Viceroy of New Spain. Gálvez aided France and the newly formed nation the United States of America in the international war against Britain, defeating the British at the Siege of Pensacola and conquering West Florida. Following Gálvez's successful campaign the whole of Florida was returned to Spain in the Treaty of Paris, he spent the last two years of his life as Viceroy of New Spain, succeeding his father Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo. The city of Galveston, was named after him. Gálvez is one of only eight people to have been awarded honorary United States citizenship. Bernardo de Gálvez was born in Macharaviaya, a mountain village in the province of Málaga, Spain, on 23 July 1746, he studied military sciences at the Academia de Ávila and at the age of 16 participated in the Spanish invasion of Portugal, which stalled after the Spanish had captured Almeida.
Following the conflict he was promoted to infantry lieutenant. He arrived in Mexico, part of New Spain, in 1769; as a captain, he fought the Apaches, with his Opata Indian allies. He received several of them serious. In 1770, he was promoted to commandant of arms of Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora, northern provinces of New Spain. In 1772, Gálvez returned to Spain in the company of José de Gálvez, he was sent to Pau, where he served with the Royal Cantabria regiment, an elite Franco-Spanish unit, for three years. There, he learned to speak French, he was transferred to Seville in 1775, he participated in Alejandro O'Reilly's disastrous expedition to Algiers. Gálvez himself was wounded in the line of duty when Spanish forces assaulted the fortress that guarded the city, he was made colonel in 1776. On 1 January 1777, Bernardo de Gálvez became the new governor of the French province of Louisiana, the vast territory that became the object of the Louisiana Purchase, it had been ceded by France to Spain in 1762, ostensibly as compensation for the loss of Florida to Britain, when Spain was urged late in the Seven Years' War to enter into battle on the French side.
In 1779, he was promoted to brigadier. In November 1777, Gálvez married Marie Félicité de Saint-Maxent d'Estrehan, the Creole daughter of Gilbert Antoine de Saint-Maxent and young widow of Jean-Baptiste d'Estrehan's son; this marriage to the daughter of a Frenchman and the Creole Elizabeth La Roche won Gálvez the favor of the local Creole population. They had three children, Miguel and Guadalupe. Gálvez practiced an anti-British policy as governor, taking measures against British smuggling and promoting trade with France, he damaged British interests in the region and kept it open for supplies to reach George Washington's Army. He founded Galvez Town in 1779, promoted the colonization of Nueva Iberia, established free trade with Cuba and Yucatán. Galvez Street in New Orleans is named for him. In December 1776, King Charles III of Spain decided that covert assistance to the United States would be strategically useful, but Spain did not enter into a formal alliance with the U. S. In 1777, José de Gálvez, newly appointed as minister of the Council of the Indies, sent his nephew, Bernardo de Gálvez, to New Orleans as governor of Luisiana with instructions to secure the friendship of the United States.
On 20 February 1777, the Spanish king's ministers in Madrid secretly instructed Gálvez to sell the Americans needed supplies. The British had blockaded the colonial ports of the Thirteen Colonies, the route from New Orleans up the Mississippi River was an effective alternative. Gálvez worked with Oliver Pollock, an American patriot, to ship gunpowder, uniforms and other supplies to the American rebels. Although Spain had not yet joined the American cause, when an American raiding expedition led by James Willing showed up in New Orleans with booty and several captured British ships taken as prizes, Gálvez refused to turn the Americans over to the British. In 1779, Spanish forces commanded by Gálvez seized the province of West Florida known as the Florida Parishes, from the British. Spain's motive was the chance both to recover territories lost to the British Florida, to remove the ongoing British threat. On 21 June 1779, Spain formally declared war on Great Britain. On 25 June, a letter from London, marked secret and confidential, went to General John Campbell at Pensacola from King George III and Lord George Germain.
Campbell was instructed that it was the object of greatest importance to organize an attack upon New Orleans. If Campbell thought it was possible to reduce the Spanish fort at New Orleans, he was ordered to make preparations immediately; these included securing from Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Parker as many fighting ships as the fleet at Jamaica could spare, gathering all forces in the province that could be assembled, recruiting as many loyal Indians as the Superintendent could provide, drawing on His Majesty's Treasury through the Lords Commissioners to pay expenses. As an unfortunate twist of fate for Campbell, upon which his whole career was decided, the secret communication fell into the hands of Gálvez. After reading the communication from King George III and Germain, Gálvez, Governor of Louisiana and secretly organized Louisiana and New Orleans for war. Gálvez carried out a masterful military campaign and defeated the British colonial forces at Fort Bute, Baton Rouge, an
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Charytín Goyco, better known in show business as Charytín, is a Dominican singer, television hostess and actress. Born in Santa Lucía, El Seibo, to a Dominican father, a Spaniard mother. At an early age, her mother took her sister to Spain after breaking up with her father, she returned to the Dominican Republic after nearly ten years of living abroad, when her parents reconciled. Charytín moved to Puerto Rico in the 1970s, where she met her husband, television actor and producer Elin Ortiz. During the 1970s, she began a weekly TV show on WAPA-TV, which aired every Sunday night until 1985. Charytín became an international superstar with her song Mosquita Muerta, named after a character she played on a comedy section of her show, becoming a chart topper in places like Mexico and Argentina. In 1974 she represented her country, the Dominican Republic in the third edition of the OTI Festival, held in Acapulco, México, in which she achieved for her country the fifth place with seven points. In 1979, she and Elin had their first son, now a singer and actor who has appeared on Lizzie McGuire and Heroes.
In 1983, Charytín made a movie in Spanish named Prohibido Amar en Nueva York with Mexican actor Julio Alemán.. Two of the songs on that movie's soundtrack, Tu Vida Es Un Suspenso Hasta El Final & Para Llegar, became another chart toppers for Charytín. In 1986, she and Iris Chacón acted together, alongside Dominican-Mexican actor Andrés García and Puerto Rican best selling singer, Yolandita Monge, on a soap opera named Escandalo; this telenovela was cut by half by the producers. In 1988, she moved to Miami with Elin and Shalim, in late 1989, she became pregnant again, giving birth in 1990 to twins, a boy and a girl born at Pavia Hospital in San Juan Puerto Rico. During the early 1990s, she dedicated herself to raise her twins, taking them along on the few tours she did and her several trips to Puerto Rico. Late in the 1990s, she returned to television. In 1999, she worked on several commercials promoting Palmolive dish washing products. In 2002 she began hosting a celebrity gossip show, Escándalo TV along Marisa del Portillo, Felipe Viel and Lilia Luciano for TeleFutura.
On April 19, 2003, Charytín won the Asociación de Cronistas de Espectáculos de Nueva York's Premio Extraordinario ACE por Distinción y Mérito at its 35th Annual ACE Awards presentation. She used to host a daily entertainment news show for Univisión Sister Station TeleFutura; this was a 2-hour gossip/entertainment show Escándalo TV In 2007, the Art Critics Association of the Dominican Republic recognized her work with a Lifetime Achievement Award. Today she has a new TV show "CHARYTÍN" on Mega TV from Monday to Friday. Charytín Bailemos El Bimbo Alexandra La Compositora La Dulce Charytín Mosquita Muerta Calor Charytín La Sencillez Canciones de la pelicula Prohibido Amar en Nueva York Se Acabo... Guitarras y Violines Verdades Desnudas De Regreso Al Pasado Por Ese Hombre... Sutil Recuerdos 7 Vidas List of television presenters List of people from the Dominican Republic Charytin on IMDb Photos
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? is an international television game show franchise of British origin, created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight. In its format owned and licensed by Sony Pictures Television, contestants tackle a series of multiple-choice questions to win large cash prizes, with the format being a twist on the game show genre – only one contestant plays at a time, similar to radio quizzes; the maximum cash prize offered in most versions of the format is one million of the local currency. The original British version debuted on 4 September 1998 on the ITV network and was aired until its final episode on 11 February 2014; the revival received positive reviews from critics and fans, as well as high viewing figures, leading ITV to renew the show for another series. Since its debut, international variants of the game show have been aired in around 160 countries worldwide; the format of the show was created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight, who had earlier created a number of the promotional games for Tarrant's morning show on Capital FM radio, such as the bong game.
Tentatively known as Cash Mountain, the show took its finalised title from a song written by Cole Porter for the 1956 film High Society, starring by Frank Sinatra and Celeste Holm. Since the original version launched, several individuals have claimed that they originated the format and that Celador had breached their copyright and took the production company to court, but each claim was settled out-of-court on an agreement/settlement. In March 2006, original producer Celador announced that it was seeking to sell the worldwide rights to Millionaire, together with the rest of its British programme library, as the first phase of a sell-off of the company's format and production divisions; the idea to transform the UK programme into a global franchise was conceived by British television producer Paul Smith. He laid out a series of rules that the international variants in the franchise were to follow: for example, all hosts were required to appear on-screen wearing Armani suits, as Tarrant did in the UK.
However, some of Smith's rules have been relaxed over the years as the franchise's history has progressed. Millionaire and all of Celador's other programmes were acquired by Dutch company 2waytraffic. Two years Sony Pictures Entertainment purchased 2waytraffic for £137.5 million. The format of the show is owned and licensed by Sony Pictures Television. S. version is distributed not by Sony but by the Walt Disney Company's in-home sales and content distribution firm, Disney–ABC Domestic Television. A group of contestants on each episode play a preliminary round called "Fastest Finger First". All are given a question by the host and four answers which must be placed within a particular order. If any contestants are visually impaired, the host reads the question and four choices all at once repeats the choices after the music for this round begins; the contestant who not only answers but in the fastest time, goes on to play the main game. In the event that no one gets the question right, another question is given.
This round is only used when a new contestant is being chosen to play the main round, can be played more than once in an episode amongst those remaining within the group seeking to play the main game. In celebrity editions, the round is not used. Once a contestant enters the main game, they are asked difficult general knowledge questions by the host; each features four possible answers. Doing so wins them a certain amount of money, with tackling much tougher questions increasing their prize fund. During their game, the player has a set of lifelines that they may use only once to help them with a question, as well as two "safety nets" – if a contestant gets a question wrong, but had reached a designated cash value during their game, they will leave with that amount as their prize. While the first few questions are easy, subsequent ones after them will prompt the host to ask if the answer they gave is their "final answer" – if it is it is locked in and cannot be changed. If a contestant feels unsure about an answer, does not wish to play on, they can walk away with the money they have won, to which the host will ask them to confirm this as their final decision.
During the British original, between 1998 and 2007, the show's format focused on fifteen questions. The safety nets in this format were set to £1,000 and £32,000 with the payout structure being as follows: For the first group of five questions: £100 -> £200 -> £300 -> £500 -> £1,000 For the second group of five questions: £2,000 -> £4,000 ->
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were