Highway 61 (film)
Highway 61 is a 1991 Canadian film directed by Bruce McDonald. The film is an unofficial sequel to his 1989 film Roadkill; the film stars Don McKellar as Pokey Jones, an orphaned barber in a small town near Thunder Bay, who dreams of becoming a jazz musician. One morning, Jones discovers a frozen corpse in his backyard, soon meets Jackie Bangs, a tough and mysterious roadie who claims the dead man is her brother. Jackie's real intention is to use the body, a vagrant unknown to anyone in town, to smuggle stolen drugs into the United States, she convinces Pokey to use his parents' car, which has not been driven in decades, to drive her to New Orleans to bury her brother. So Jackie and Pokey set out along Highway 61, coffin strapped to the top of the car, follow Bob Dylan's famous U. S. Highway 61 south through the heart of the United States, they are pursued by Mr. Skin, who believes he is Satan and wants to claim the body because the dead man sold Mr. Skin his soul. Peter Breck is fourth-billed as Mr. Watson, the "stage-mom" father of three girls: Mississippi and Louisiana.
The film includes cameo appearances by Tav Falco, Jello Biafra, Art Bergmann. The film's soundtrack album includes songs by Bourbon Tabernacle Choir, Rita Chiarelli, Nash the Slash, Acid Test and Tom Jones. Nash the Slash composed the film's instrumental score. In 2001, Playback named Highway 61 the 15th best Canadian film since 1986. McDonald won "Best Director" honours at both San Sebastián International Film Festival and Brussels International Festival of Fantasy Film, two of the top festivals in the world. Highway 61 on IMDb Highway 61 at Rotten Tomatoes
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Citytv is a Canadian television network owned by the Rogers Media subsidiary of Rogers Communications. The network consists of six owned-and-operated television stations located in the metropolitan areas of Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary and Vancouver, a cable-only service that serves the province of Saskatchewan, three independently owned affiliates serving smaller cities in Alberta and British Columbia; the Citytv brand's name originates from its flagship station, CITY-TV in Toronto, a station which became known for an intensely local format based on newscasts aimed at younger viewers, nightly movies, music and cultural programming. The Citytv brand first expanded with CHUM Limited's acquisition of former Global O&O CKVU-TV in Vancouver, followed by its purchase of Craig Media's stations and the re-branding of its A-Channel system in Central Canada as Citytv in August 2005. CHUM Limited was acquired by CTVglobemedia in 2007; the network grew through further affiliations with three Jim Pattison Group-owned stations, along with Rogers' acquisition of the cable-only Saskatchewan Communications Network and Montreal's CJNT-DT.
While patterned after the original station in Toronto, since the 2000s, since its acquisition by Rogers, Citytv has moved towards a series-based primetime schedule much like its competitors, albeit one still focused on younger demographics. The licence of the original Citytv station, granted the callsign of CITY-TV by the CRTC, was awarded in Toronto on November 25, 1971, began broadcasting for the first time using the "Citytv" brand on September 28, 1972, under the ownership of Channel Seventy-Nine Ltd. with its studios located at 99 Queen Street East near Church Street. The station was in debt by 1975. Multiple Access Ltd. purchased a 45% interest in the station, sold its stake to CHUM Limited three years later. CHUM Limited acquired the station outright in 1981. Broadcasting on UHF channel 79 during its first decade, the station moved to channel 57 in 1983, until moving to channel 44 with the digital transition. In 1987, the station moved its headquarters to 299 Queen Street West known as the Ryerson Press Building.
On September 8, 2009, CITY moved to its current location at Yonge-Dundas Square at 33 Dundas Street East. Citytv gained a second station in Vancouver when CHUM bought CKVU from Canwest Global Communications in 2001; the station became known as "Citytv Vancouver" on July 22, 2002. Prior to CHUM's acquisition of CKVU, some Citytv programming was syndicated to KVOS in nearby Bellingham, Washington. In 2004, CHUM bought parent of the A-Channel system in Manitoba and Alberta; the Craig-owned A-Channel stations were relaunched as Citytv on August 2, 2005. CHUM Limited announced plans to sell its broadcasting assets to CTV parent CTVglobemedia on July 12, 2006. CTVgm intended to retain CHUM's Citytv system while divesting CHUM's A-Channel stations and Alberta cable channel Access to get the CRTC to approve the acquisition. On the same day that the takeover was announced, Citytv cancelled its supper-hour, late-night and weekend newscasts at its local Vancouver, Edmonton and Winnipeg stations, laying off hundreds of news department staff.
In October 2006, Citytv launched a daily national newscast, CityNews International, produced in Toronto for broadcast on the western Canadian stations and on CHUM's Toronto news channel CP24. The Edmonton and Calgary stations began broadcasting a daily 30-minute magazine show, Your City, instead of a full-fledged newscast; the Vancouver news operation, which had operated for 30 years under various owners and station identities, was not maintained aside from Breakfast Television. In the same month, Citytv Toronto became the first television station in Canada to begin broadcasting its local newscasts in high definition; the following year on June 8, the CRTC approved the CTV takeover of CHUM. However, the CRTC made the deal conditional on CTV divesting itself of Citytv, because there were CTV owned-and-operated stations serving the same cities. Without the divestment, CTV would have exceeded the CRTC's concentration of media ownership limits. CTV announced on June 11, 2007, that it would retain the A-Channel stations, sell the Citytv stations to Rogers Communications for $375 million.
The transaction was approved by the CRTC on September 28 and was completed on October 31, 2007. On December 6, 2010, CityNews Tonight Toronto anchor and continuity announcer Mark Dailey died after a long battle with cancer; the Citytv system began to phase in a modified branding in October 2012, with a new logo consisting only of the name "City", some promotions using the verbal branding "City Television" instead of Citytv. The change marked the first major alteration to the Citytv brand since its introduction in 1972; the network adopted the name City on December 2012 during its New Year's Eve special. For the 2018-19 television season, the network reintroduced its original "Citytv" branding, its social media accounts; the Jim Pattison Group announced in July 2009 that its three television stations in western Canada affiliated with E!, would join Citytv starting on September 1, 2009. These stations do not ca
Childstar is a 2004 comedy film directed and written by Don McKellar. It was screened at several film festivals between September 2004 and July 2005. Taylor Brandon Burns, a conflicted young TV star from the U. S. runs away from the set - and his problems -. His reluctant limo-driver, Rick Schiller, a down-on-his-luck indie filmmaker, is enlisted to find Taylor before the childstar destroys himself; the region 1 DVD was released September 13, 2004. Childstar on IMDb Childstar at Rotten Tomatoes
David Paul Cronenberg is a Canadian filmmaker and actor. He is one of the principal originators of what is known as the body horror genre, with his films exploring visceral bodily transformation, infection and the intertwining of the psychological with the physical. In the first third of his career, he explored these themes through horror and science fiction films such as Scanners and Videodrome, although his work has since expanded beyond these genres. Cronenberg's films have polarized audiences alike; the Village Voice called him "the most audacious and challenging narrative director in the English-speaking world". His films have won numerous awards, for Crash, the Special Jury Prize at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, a unique award, distinct from the Jury Prize as it is not given annually, but only at the request of the official jury, who in this case gave the award "for originality, for daring and for audacity"; the award has not been given since. Born in Toronto, Cronenberg is the son of Esther, a musician, Milton Cronenberg, a writer and editor.
He was raised in a "middle-class progressive Jewish family". His father was born in Baltimore and his mother was born in Toronto, he wrote constantly. He attended high school at North Toronto Collegiate Institute. A keen interest in science botany and lepidopterology, led him to enter the Honours Science program at the University of Toronto in 1963, but he switched to Honours English Language and Literature in his first year. Cronenberg's fascination with the film Winter Kept Us Warm, by classmate David Secter, sparked his interest in film, he began frequenting film camera rental houses, learning the art of filmmaking, made two 16mm films. Inspired by the New York underground film scene, he founded the Toronto Film Co-op with Iain Ewing and Ivan Reitman. After taking a year off to travel in Europe, he returned to Canada in 1967 and graduated from University College at the top of his class. After two short sketch films and two short art-house features Cronenberg went into partnership with Ivan Reitman.
The Canadian government provided financing for his films throughout the 1970s. He alternated his signature "body horror" films such as Shivers with projects reflecting his interest in car racing and bike gangs. Rabid provided pornographic actress Marilyn Chambers with work in a different genre.. Rabid was a breakthrough with international distributors, his next two horror features gained stronger support. Cronenberg's films follow a definite progression: a movement from the social world to the inner life. In his early films, scientists modify human bodies. In his middle period, the chaos wrought by the scientist. In the middle period, the scientist himself is altered by his experiment; this trajectory culminates in Dead Ringers in which a twin pair of gynecologists spiral into codependency and drug addiction. His films tend more to the psychological contrasting subjective and objective realities. Cronenberg has cited William S. Vladimir Nabokov as influences; the best example of a film that straddles the line between his works of personal chaos and psychological confusion is Cronenberg's 1991 "adaptation" of Naked Lunch, his literary hero William S. Burroughs' most controversial book.
The novel was considered "unfilmable", Cronenberg acknowledged that a straight translation into film would "cost 400 million dollars and be banned in every country in the world". Instead—much like in his earlier film, Videodrome—he blurred the lines between what appeared to be reality and what appeared to be hallucinations brought on by the main character's drug addiction; some of the book's "moments" are presented in this manner within the film. Cronenberg stated that while writing the screenplay for Naked Lunch, he felt a moment of synergy with Burroughs' writing style, he felt the connection between his screenwriting style and Burroughs' prose style was so strong, that he jokingly remarked that should Burroughs pass on, "I'll just write his next book."Cronenberg has said that his films should be seen "from the point of view of the disease", that in Shivers, for example, he identifies with the characters after they become infected with the anarchic parasites. Disease and disaster, in Cronenberg's work, are less problems to be overcome than agents of personal transformation.
Of his characters' transformations, Cronenberg said, "But because of our necessity to impose our own structure of perception on things we look on ourselves as being stable. But, in fact, when I look at a person I see this maelstrom of organic and electron chaos. In Crash, people who have been injured in car crashes attempt to view their ordeal as "a fertilizing rather than a destructive event". In 2005, Cronenberg publicly disagreed with Paul Haggis' choice of the same name for the latter's Oscar-winning film Crash, arguing that it was "very disrespectful" to the "importan
Existenz is a 1999 science fiction body horror film produced and directed by the Canadian filmmaker David Cronenberg. It stars Jude Law. EXistenZ was his last original screenplay until Cosmopolis. In the near-future, biotechnological virtual reality game consoles known as "game pods" have replaced electronic ones; the pods present "UmbyCords" that attach to "bio-ports", connectors surgically inserted into players' spines. Two game companies, Antenna Research and Cortical Systematics, compete against each other. In addition, the Realists fight both companies to prevent the "deforming" of reality. Antenna Research's Allegra Geller, a world renowned game designer, is demonstrating her latest virtual reality game, eXistenZ, to a focus group. A Realist named Noel Dichter shoots Allegra in the shoulder with an organic pistol he smuggled past security; as Dichter is gunned down by the security team, security guard Ted Pikul rushes to Geller and escorts her outside. Geller discovers. Pikul reluctantly agrees to have a bio-port installed in his spine so they can test the integrity of the game together.
Allegra takes him to a gas station run by a black-marketeer named Gas, who deliberately installs a faulty bio-port. He reveals his intention to kill Geller for the bounty on her head. Pikul kills Gas, the two escape to a former ski lodge used by Kiri Vinokur, Geller's mentor. Vinokur and his assistant give Pikul a new bio-port. Geller and Pikul enter the game, meet with D'Arcy Nader, a video game shop owner, who provides them with new "micro pods", they enter a deeper layer of virtual reality. They assume new identities as workers in a game pod factory. Another worker in the factory, Yevgeny Nourish, claims to be their Realist contact. At a Chinese restaurant near the factory, Nourish recommends. Pikul eats the unappetizing special, constructs a pistol out of the inedible parts. In jest, he threatens Geller shoots the Chinese waiter; when the pair return to the game store, Hugo Carlaw informs them that Nourish is a double agent for Cortical Systematics, the waiter Pikul murdered was the actual contact.
At the factory, they find a diseased pod. Geller connects it to her bio-port as part of a plan to infect the other pods and sabotage the factory; when Geller becomes ill, Pikul cuts the UmbyCord, but she begins to bleed to death. Nourish appears with a flamethrower and blasts the diseased pod, which bursts into deadly spores. Geller and Pikul awaken back at the ski lodge, where they discover Allegra’s game pod is diseased. Allegra surmises, she inserts a disinfecting device into Pikul's bioport. Unexpectedly, Carlaw reappears as a Realist resistance fighter and escorts Geller and Pikul outside to witness the death of eXistenZ. Before Carlaw can kill Geller, he is shot in the back by Vinokur, a double agent for Cortical Systematics, he informs Geller. In revenge, she kills Vinokur. Pikul reveals that he himself is a Realist sent to kill her. Geller tells Pikul she had known his intentions since he pointed the gun at her in the Chinese restaurant, she remotely detonates the disinfecting device in his bioport, killing him.
Pikul and Geller are on stage together with the other members of the cast, wearing electronic virtual reality devices. Nourish explains that the story was all part of a virtual reality game he designed called transCendenZ, he tells his assistant Merle that he feels uneasy, because the anti-game plot elements may have originated from the thoughts of one of the testers. Pikul and Geller approach Nourish and accuse him of distorting reality, before shooting him and Merle to death; as Pikul and Geller leave, they aim their guns at the person who played the Chinese waiter, who first pleads for his life asks if they are still in the game. Pikul and Geller stand together in silence, not answering; the film's plot came about after Cronenberg conducted an interview with Salman Rushdie for Shift magazine in 1995. At the time, Rushdie was in hiding due to a Fatwa being put on his life by Muslim extremists due to his controversial book The Satanic Verses. Rushdie's dilemma gave Cronenberg an idea of "a Fatwa against a virtual-reality game designer".
Existenz was pitched to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, but they did not green-light the film due to its complex structure. Christopher Priest wrote the tie-in novel to accompany the movie Existenz, the theme of which has much in common with some of Priest's own novels. In 1999, a graphic novel credited to David Cronenberg and Sean Scoffield was published; the film received positive reviews, with a 71% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes. The site's summary stated of the film: "Gooey, grotesque fun." Film critic Roger Ebert gave the film three stars in his review of the film. Noting its release after fellow science-fiction film The Matrix, he compared the two, stating that while both have special effects, he stated that Cronenberg's film was stranger along with having his best effects involve "gooey, indescribable organic things". Conversely, James Berardinelli gave the film a two star rating in his review, he cites the disjointed feel of the film, calling it a "missed opportunity" that suffers from being released near The Matrix and Open Your Eyes, which he states did similar things that were accomplished better in those films.
49th Berlin International Film Festival Won, Silver Bear for outstanding artistic contribution David Cronenberg Nominated, Golden Bear: David CronenbergAmsterdam Fantastic
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M