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KÄ«lauea Iki

Kīlauea Iki is a pit crater, next to the main summit caldera of Kīlauea on the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Islands. Lava tubes associated with Kīlauea Iki are responsible for the vast ʻAilāʻau eruption, carbon 14 dated from circa 1445 and erupting continuously for 50 years, which blanketed much of what is now Puna District with 5.2 ± 0.8 km3 of basalt lava. In August 1959, a swarm of deep earthquakes was detected by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. In October it was indicated by seismographs; this formed a new lava shield, named Pu'u Pua'i. Some of the most impressive parts of the eruption were the lava fountains that flowed from Puʻu Puaʻi. By November 17, the fountain was reaching 60–80 meters tall with occasional bursts as high as 180 meters; the fountain grew to over 320 meters on November 18. On November 21, the lava lake was over a meter deep over the vent causing ripples across the surface of the lava lake causing lava on the shores to break like waves on a beach. At 7:25 p.m. local time on November 21, the fountain went from 210 meters tall to a few gas bubbles in less than 40 seconds.

Some of the fountains were extraordinarily high, reaching nearly 580 m, among the highest recorded. The first episode had 31 million cubic meters of lava flow into Kīlauea Iki with 1 million cubic meters draining back. During the following episodes, a total of 71 million cubic meters of lava was ejected during a month-long eruption that stopped on December 20, 1959. Only 8 million cubic meters of lava remained, 63 million cubic meters of lava drained back into Kīlauea magma reservoir; the lava drainback had a higher rate of flow than the eruptions. On December 15, the highest flow of lava was measured at 1.45 million cubic meters per hour. With every filling and draining of the lava lake, a'black ledge' was formed along the rim of the crater, now 15–60 meters wide and 15 meters tall. During lava drainbacks, a giant counter-clockwise whirlpool would form. Drivers may view Kīlauea Iki from either the trailhead parking lot. Guests can hike across Kīlauea Iki by descending from Byron Ledge; the trail crosses the floor of the crater.

After 50 years, the parts of the surface are still warm to the touch. Rainwater seeps into the cracks and makes contact with the hot rock below and steam is emitted from various surface cracks; the steam and some rocks are hot enough to cause serious burns. Summit Eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, in Kīlauea Iki Crater US Department of Defense film of the 1959 volcano eruption of Kilauea Iki Crater The short film "Volcano Eruptions" is available for free download at the Internet Archive

The Republic of Tea

The Republic of Tea is a owned American tea company based in Larkspur, California that makes and sells more than 300 varieties of teas throughout North America. The Republic of Tea is known for packaging its loose teas and tea bags in cylindrical tins, it was one of the first companies to offer varieties such as rooibos red tea, white tea, tea seed oil to American consumers. The company was founded in 1992 by entrepreneurs Mel Ziegler, Patricia Ziegler, Bill Rosenzweig; the Zieglers are known for co-founding Banana Republic and In 1994, they sold the company to Ron Rubin, under whom The Republic of Tea has grown into a nationally recognized brand. Rubin's son Todd Rubin joined the company in 2007 and succeeded his father as president in 2015. Ron Rubin serves as The Republic of Tea's Executive Chairman and Minister of Tea; the Republic of Tea designates its employees as "ministers," its customers as "citizens," and its retail outlets as "embassies." The Republic of Tea's products are distributed through speciality retailers including Whole Foods Market and Williams Sonoma.

They do not intend to expand to mass market retailers such as Walmart. The company prides itself on operating without any debt; the company supports sustainable agriculture. It sources several of its teas from biodynamic farms, a form of alternative agriculture similar to organic farming which treats soil fertility, plant growth, livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks, it produces Sonoma Teas, which are made from dried grape skins that would otherwise go to waste. Both Ron and Todd Rubin have said that they are not interested in selling The Republic of Tea, despite a potential valuation as high as $125 million. Ron Rubin says. Official website Official distributor for Switzerland


Miryalaguda is a city in Nalgonda district of the Indian state of Telangana. Government of India announced Miryalaguda to be developed under the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation scheme. Miryalaguda received an award for Urban reforms in AMRUT Scheme from Government of india, it is located about 44 kilometres from the district headquarters Nalgonda, 142 kilometres from the state capital Hyderabad Miryalaguda is located at 16.8667°N 79.5833°E / 16.8667. It has an average elevation of 105 metres. In the 2011 Census of India, Miryalaguda had a population of 104,918. Telugu is the language spoken by the majority in Miryalaguda. Regional festivals are Bathkamma and Bonalu are celebrated TSRTC operates buses from Miryalaguda to various destinations like Hyderabad, Suryapet, Khammam, Kodad, Piduguralla, Janpahad, Mattampally, Mellachervu, Bhongir, Bhadrachalam and Nagarjuna Sagar; the railway station is situated on the Nadikudi-Pagidipalli section in Guntur Division. The rail was an single line.

State highway 2 passes through Miryalaguda. It was electrified in 2018-19. Pagidipalli-Nadikudi was electrified in 2019; the electric trains started service on 1 September 2019. Miryalaguda List of cities in Telangana by area List of cities in Telangana by population List of Smart and Amrut Cities in Telangana List of cities in India by area

Royal Berkshire Hotel

The Royal Berkshire Hotel is a country house hotel within a noteworthy example of a late Queen Anne mansion called The Oaks and located at Ascot in the English county of Berkshire. The red-brick mansion was built in 1705 as the home of Sir Robert Walpole's daughter, Lady Mary, Charles Churchill, great nephew of the first Duke of Marlborough and relation of Sir Winston Churchill; the building was named The Oaks for many years after its construction, but became known as Little Paddocks at the start of the 20th century when it was owned by Colonel Sir James Horlick until his family decided to donate the grounds to serve as a school for the blind. The building stayed as a school until the late 1960s, the modern day tennis courts within the grounds are the final resting location of several of the facility's guide dogs. Modern use of the building as a hotel began in 1971, when the Hoffman family, experienced European hoteliers, renovated the property. In 2011, the property was purchased by Exclusive Hotels, via the group's sister brand EH Venues.

The Churchill family built the Royal Berkshire Hotel, Sunninghill in 1705 and one of the earliest residents was Charles Churchill and his wife Lady Mary Churchill, the daughter of the Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. Charles Churchill was the son of Lieutenant-General Charles Anne Oldfield. In his youth he became a Colonel, he resigned and became a Member of Parliament. He was associated with the Walpole family and in 1846 married Lady Mary Walpole the favourite daughter of Sir Robert Walpole; the pair were frequent visitors to Strawberry Hill House, the residence of Horace Walpole, Mary's half-brother. A painting, hanging in the Strawberry Hill house depicting the couple and their eldest son Charles Churchill is shown. Lady Mary became housekeeper at the nearby Windsor Castle and held this position for over twenty years. Lady Mary died in 1801 and her husband in 1812; the Sunninghill house appears to have been inherited by their eldest son Charles Churchill as there is a record of his wife and only daughter Mary living there in the early 1800s.

Charles Churchill was born in 1747. In 1769 he married Joanna Murray, the daughter of Sir Patrick Murray, 4th Baronet of Ochertyre; the couple had one daughter Mary Helen Churchill. Charles became a Colonel in the military forces and in 1784 obtained a post in Calcutta India as the Secretary of the Governor General, he died two years in 1786 at the age of only 39. His wife and daughter Mary who did not marry appear to have lived in the Sunninghill house together for some time. Mary inherited a substantial fortune from her grandfather in 1814, she left large sums of money to her relatives. Joanna her mother died in 1846 at the age of 94; the house was sold. The notice of sale, placed in the newspapers is shown; the house was bought by Colonel Robert Blane who appears to have called it “The Oaks”. Robert was born in 1809 in Winkfield, his father was William Blane. He entered the Army in 1831 and rose through the ranks. In 1845 he married Margaret Rose Ames; the couple had no children. He fought in many of the famous battles.

In recognition of his services he was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Bath, a Knight of the Legion of Honour and several other distinctions. Robert died in 1871; the 1881 Census shows that Sir Robert Sheffield 5th Baronet of Normanby and his wife and family were residents of the property. Soon after the House was bought by Hannah Entwisle, a widow. Hannah was born Hannah Loyd in 1817, her father was Edward Loyd, a banker. In 1834 she married William Entwisle; the couple lived in Rusholme House near Manchester, the seat of the Entwisle family. In 1865 William died at the age of 48. Hannah lived at “The Oaks” for about twenty five years until her death in 1907; the 1911 Census shows. He is still listed in the 1915 Kelly Directory of Berkshire. By 1920 Colonel Sir James Nockolls Horlick is shown to be the owner, he changed the name of the property to “Little Paddocks”. James Nockolls Horlick was born in 1886 in New York City, USA, his father was Sir James Horlick 1st Baronet who established the famous Horlicks malted milk company.

He was educated at Eton and Cambridge University where he played first grade cricket and joined the Coldstream Guards. In 1911 he married daughter of Colonel Cunliffe Martin; the couple had three children. He served in World War I and was presented with numerous awards including the Military Cross and an O. B. E. After the war he joined the Horlicks Company as a director and commuted between his Sunninghill property and Slough where the Horlicks factory was located at that time, he was the Member of Parliament for Gloucester between 1923 and 1929. James was a personal friend of members of the Greek Royal family. During the war he met King Alexander, the first cousin of Prince Philip and his wife Aspasia Manos; some years after King Alexander died his wife came in 1928 to visit them with her seven-year-old daughter Princess Alexandra. In years Alexandra wrote her memoirs in which she recalled their visits to the Horlick's Sunninghill house, she said: “They had a beautiful house “Little Paddocks”, not far from the royal race course and during the royal Ascot season in June they filled their house with dozens of their friends.

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German submarine U-40 (1938)

German submarine U-40 was a Type IXA U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine that operated during World War II. U-40 was built in Bremen by DeSchiMAG AG Weser as yard number 945, she was launched in November 1938 and commissioned in February 1939. U-40 conducted two war patrols during her career. Both of which were part of the 6th U-boat Flotilla. During her short time in the war, she sank no ships. U-40 was sunk on 13 October 1939 by a mine in the English Channel. U-40 was ordered by the Kriegsmarine on 29 July 1936, her kneel was laid down on 1 July 1937. U-40 was launched on 9 November 1938 and commissioned on 11 February 1939 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Werner von Schmidt; as one of the eight original German Type IX submarines designated IXA, U-40 had a displacement of 1,032 tonnes when at the surface and 1,153 tonnes while submerged. The U-boat had a total length of 76.50 m, a pressure hull length of 58.75 m, a beam of 6.51 m, a height of 9.40 m, a draught of 4.70 m. The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 metric horsepower for use while submerged.

She had two 1.92 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.7 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 65–78 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-40 was fitted with six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, a 3.7 cm SK C/30 as well as a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight. After being commissioned and deployed, U-40 was stationed in the German port city of Wilhelmshaven, which to be her home for the rest of her short career. U-40 left Wilhelmshaven on 19 August 1939. For nearly four weeks she operated off the coast of Gibraltar, before returning home on 18 September that same year. U-40 would once again leave Wilhelmshaven, this time under the command of Kapitänleutnant Wolfgang Barten, on 10 October 1939. During this patrol, she was to conduct joint operations off the coasts of Spain. On 13 October 1939, U-40 was sunk by a British mine at 50°41′6″N 00°15′1″E.

She was to operate as part of the first pack of U-boats in World War II. This shortcut was through the English Channel, festooned with many British naval mines. Choosing to make the voyage nearly three and a half hours after high tide, the mines were not at their lowest point; the boat struck one of these devices and sank to the sea floor. Nine crew members were able to exit through the aft escape hatch. Using escape equipment, they were able to reach the surface. Once there, five more died from exposure to the harsh elements of the English Channel. Nearly ten hours after the sinking, the remaining three men were rescued and taken prisoner by HMS Boreas. Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IXA boat U-40". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 7 December 2014. Hofmann, Markus. "U 40". Deutsche U-Boote 1935–1945 – Retrieved 7 December 2014