Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Constellations is a series of 23 small paintings on paper, initiated by Joan Miró in 1939 in Varengeville-sur-Mer and completed in 1941 between Mallorca and Mont-roig del Camp. The Fundació Joan Miró preserves a work of this series and The Morning Star, one of the most important pieces of the series; the painter gave to his wife and she donated to the Foundation. In August 1939, a month before the outbreak of the World War II, Miró, with his family escaped Paris and moved to Varengeville-sur-Mer, a small town in Normandy; this sentiment of escaping is reflected in this series' harmonic and poetic production. At Varengeville-sur-Mer he painted the top ten works in the series, called Constellations, beginning with The Dawn and The Scale of Evasion. After escaping from France, Miró continued the series of Constellations in Mallorca, creating a more complex group of ten more; the last three were created in 1941 in his ancestral home in Mont-roig del Camp. Whilst completing this series he began the first sketches of the Barcelona Series engravings, where he would repeat part of his imagery.
I felt a deep desire to flee. I shut myself deliberately; the night and the stars began to play a role in my painting. This series is characterized by the shapes of stars and women. Miró was making up his own mature language; the shapers are overlapping in different ways to create a specific colour space. This new idea was repeated in the artist's work. Luckily the series are dated; the backgrounds of the works are all painted in soft tones, the vast majority of works are full of intersecting black lines, with details painted in the primary colours. Miró used astral maps. Joan Punyet, grandson of the artist, said in an interview at TV3: The Constellations are a sublime break, they are the way to the power. Towards the universe, they are a door to escape from a circumstantial war, from a genocide, from the brutality of nonsense. The Constellations are like saying: my only salvation in this world tragedy is the spirit, the soul that leads me to heaven; that brings me to the sublime. It is as if Miró was a nocturnal bird able to escape from the earth, leaving the sky, traveling across the sky, the stars, to the constellations, to capture them all with one hand, draw back to earth them on a sheet of paper.
In 2002, American percussionist/composer Bobby Previte released the album The 23 Constellations of Joan Miró on Tzadik Records. Inspired by Miró's Constellations series, Previte composed a series of short pieces to parallel the small size of Miró's paintings. Privete's compositions for an ensemble of up to ten musicians was described by critics as "unconventionally light and dreamlike". Previte's compositions had their American performance debut in 2008 with an eight-piece ensemble conducted by Christian Muthspiel. Featuring readings of Miró's letters and diaries by David Patrick Kelly, the performance was reviewed in The New York Times positively, which noted that large projections of the paintings behind the musicians were helpful in underlining Previte's compositions: "Some of the gouaches feature a gridlike clutter of dots and dashes that seem to allude, if obliquely, to musical notation." The performance was broadcast live on WYNC, available as a podcast. Clavero, Jordi. J. Fundació Joan Miró.
Foundation's Guide. Barcelona: Polígrafa. ISBN 978-84-343-1242-5. Walter, Erben. Miró. Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8228-2358-3. Orozco, Miguel. La odisea de Miró y sus Constelaciones. Madrid: Visor. P. 397. ISBN 978-84-989-5675-7. Orozco, Miguel; the true story of Joan Miró and his Constellations
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
Lunar Bird is an abstract bronze sculpture by Joan Miró. It was modeled in 1945, enlarged in 1966, cast in 1967, it is in the Hirshhorn Sculpture Garden. List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 2 ""Past Masters: Joan Miró, 1893-1983" - Gallery Walk Guide, September 2005". Gallerywalk.org. Retrieved 2017-04-18. "Images of sculpture from The Hirshhorn Sculpture Gardens-page 5. Digital Imaging Project: Art historical images of European and North American architecture and sculpture from classical Greek to Post-modern. Scanned from slides taken on site by Mary Ann Sullivan, Bluffton College". Bluffton.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-18. "Lunar Bird - Washington, DC - Smithsonian Art Inventory Sculptures on". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 2017-04-18. "Lunar Bird makes your imagination soar - |". Dctourguideonline.com. 2016-07-08. Retrieved 2017-04-18
Personnage Gothique, Oiseau-Eclair
Personnage Gothique, Oiseau-Eclair is a bronze sculpture by Joan Miró. It was created in 1974, cast in 1977, it is in the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden, Washington, USA. List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 2 "National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden: Page Three", Bluffton
Head of a Catalan Peasant
Head of a Catalan Peasant is an emblematic sequence of oil paintings and pencil made by Joan Miró between 1924 and 1925. Miró began this series the same year; the series was made in Paris. For Joan Miró "a peasant" symbolized rural knowledge, reflected his Catalan identity; the Fundació Joan Miró of Barcelona keeps several preparatory drawings for this series. The work demonstrates. Joan Miró created this series in response to the prohibition of the Catalan language by Miguel Primo de Rivera, he was influenced by the rural environment of Baix Camp. In this series he further develops; the sequence followed by Miró has been interpreted several times as a progressive simplification of the same scene. Christopher Green, in turn, says that this is not a linear trend toward simplification, but rather a dilemma, an internal discussion between the artist which creates the filled pictorial space; the series shares the synthetic representation of the figure of a Catalan peasant, by a repetition of symbols such as the triangular head, the beard and red hat, all combined in one pole figure.
In this group of oil paintings, Miró outlines the figure of a farmer several times, working with neutral background blue or yellow. As said Margit Rowell, Joan Miró explained his intentions with this work: I escaped into the absolute. I wanted my spots to seem open to the magnetic appeal of the void. I was interested in the void, in perfect emptiness. I put it into my pale and scumbled grounds, my linear gestures on top were the signs of my dream progression; this first version of the Catalan Peasant was painted in 1924 and is now part of the permanent collection of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C, it became part of the collection as a gift of the Collectors Committee of the institution. The work is signed at lower right: Miró / 1924; the back of the work is signed Joan Miró,Tête de Paysan Catalan, 1924. Is the most unknown of the series, which belongs to a private collector, but has been seen in several exhibitions: This work demonstrates the process of synthesis that Miró began using in his compositions in his trip to France in the early 20s, after coming into contact with the Surrealists and Dadaists.
Miró began to create his own sign language. In this version of the series, you can see the farmer's body with a hat on an intense blue background; the version preserved in Edinburgh is the third of four Catalan Peasants. You can understand this painting as a selfportrait of Miró; the work, conducted in 1925, was made at a time when Miró was moving away from Cubism. The work had been part of private collection of Roland Penrose; the work is preserved in the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. It was acquired along with the help of the Art Fund, the Friends of the Tate Gallery and the Knapping Fund 1999; this version is kept in Stockholm. It joined the museum with the registration number MOM 445, in the legacy of Gerard Bonnier in 1989, he had been owned by Jacques Viot, Galerie Pierre, Private Samling, Marcel Mabille and Svensk-Fransk Konstgalleriet. This version is one of the synthetic series, dominated by a blue a bit more intense than in the rest of the works. You can see a black cross, surmounted by a small hat.
The space is decorated with a pair of stars, one white and one black. Clavero, Jordi. J. Fundació Joan Miró. Foundation's Guide. Barcelona: Polígrafa. ISBN 978-84-343-1242-5. European paintings: an illustrated catalogue. National Gallery of Art. 1985. ISBN 978-0-89468-089-2. Retrieved 5 October 2011. Kramer, Hilton. "Modern Art at the National Gallery." The New Criterion 7, no. 8: 3. 1989 Joan Miró. Joan Miró: Campesino catalán con guitarra, 1924: 1 de octubre, 1997-11 de enero, 1998, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza. Retrieved 5 October 2011. Dupin, Jacques. Miró. New York, 1962: 162, 166. 1962
Joan Miró i Ferrà was a Spanish painter and ceramicist born in Barcelona. A museum dedicated to his work, the Fundació Joan Miró, was established in his native city of Barcelona in 1975, another, the Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró, was established in his adoptive city of Palma de Mallorca in 1981. Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, a manifestation of Catalan pride. In numerous interviews dating from the 1930s onwards, Miró expressed contempt for conventional painting methods as a way of supporting bourgeois society, declared an "assassination of painting" in favour of upsetting the visual elements of established painting. Born into a family of a goldsmith and a watchmaker, Miró grew up in the Barri Gòtic neighborhood of Barcelona; the Miró surname indicates Jewish roots. His father was Miquel Miró Adzerias and his mother was Dolors Ferrà, he began drawing classes at the age of seven at a private school at Carrer del Regomir 13, a medieval mansion.
To the dismay of his father, he enrolled at the fine art academy at La Llotja in 1907. He studied at the Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc and he had his first solo show in 1918 at the Galeries Dalmau, where his work was ridiculed and defaced. Inspired by Fauve and Cubist exhibitions in Barcelona and abroad, Miró was drawn towards the arts community, gathering in Montparnasse and in 1920 moved to Paris, but continued to spend his summers in Catalonia. Miró went to business school as well as art school, he began his working career as a clerk when he was a teenager, although he abandoned the business world for art after suffering a nervous breakdown. His early art, like that of the influenced Fauves and Cubists, was inspired by Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cézanne; the resemblance of Miró's work to that of the intermediate generation of the avant-garde has led scholars to dub this period his Catalan Fauvist period. A few years after Miró's 1918 Barcelona solo exhibition, he settled in Paris where he finished a number of paintings that he had begun on his parents’ summer home and farm in Mont-roig del Camp.
One such painting, The Farm, showed a transition to a more individual style of painting and certain nationalistic qualities. Ernest Hemingway, who purchased the piece, compared the artistic accomplishment to James Joyce's Ulysses and described it by saying, "It has in it all that you feel about Spain when you are there and all that you feel when you are away and cannot go there. No one else has been able to paint these two opposing things." Miró annually returned to Mont-roig and developed a symbolism and nationalism that would stick with him throughout his career. Two of Miró's first works classified as Surrealist, Catalan Landscape and The Tilled Field, employ the symbolic language, to dominate the art of the next decade. Josep Dalmau arranged Miró's first Parisian solo exhibition, at Galerie la Licorne in 1921. In 1924, Miró joined the Surrealist group; the symbolic and poetic nature of Miró's work, as well as the dualities and contradictions inherent to it, fit well within the context of dream-like automatism espoused by the group.
Much of Miró's work lost the cluttered chaotic lack of focus that had defined his work thus far, he experimented with collage and the process of painting within his work so as to reject the framing that traditional painting provided. This antagonistic attitude towards painting manifested itself when Miró referred to his work in 1924 ambiguously as "x" in a letter to poet friend Michel Leiris; the paintings that came out of this period were dubbed Miró's dream paintings. Miró did not abandon subject matter, though. Despite the Surrealist automatic techniques that he employed extensively in the 1920s, sketches show that his work was the result of a methodical process. Miró's work dipped into non-objectivity, maintaining a symbolic, schematic language; this was most prominent in the repeated Head of a Catalan Peasant series of 1924 to 1925. In 1926, he collaborated with Max Ernst on designs for ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev. With Miró's help, Ernst pioneered the technique of grattage, in which one trowels pigment onto a canvas scrapes it away.
Miró returned to a more representational form of painting with The Dutch Interiors of 1928. Crafted after works by Hendrik Martenszoon Sorgh and Jan Steen seen as postcard reproductions, the paintings reveal the influence of a trip to Holland taken by the artist; these paintings share more in common with Tilled Field or Harlequin's Carnival than with the minimalistic dream paintings produced a few years earlier. Miró married Pilar Juncosa in Palma on 12 October 1929, their daughter, María Dolores Miró, was born on 17 July 1930. In 1931, Pierre Matisse opened an art gallery in New York City; the Pierre Matisse Gallery became an influential part of the Modern art movement in America. From the outset Matisse represented Joan Miró and introduced his work to the United States market by exhibiting Miró's work in New York; until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Miró habitually returned to Spain in the summers. Once the war began, he was unable to return home. Unlike many of his surrealist contemporaries, Miró had preferred to stay away from explicitly political commentary in his work.
Though a sense of nationalism pervaded his earliest surreal landscapes and Head of a Catalan Peasant, it was not until Spain's Republican government commissioned him to paint the mural, The Reaper, for the Spanis