Mentioned in dispatches
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described. In some countries, a service member's name must be mentioned in dispatches as a condition for receiving certain decorations. Service men and women of the British Empire or the Commonwealth who are mentioned in despatches are not awarded a medal for their action, but receive a certificate and wear an oak leaf device on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal. A smaller version of the oak leaf device is attached to the ribbon. Prior to 2014 only one device could be worn on a ribbon, irrespective of the number of times the recipient was mentioned in despatches. Where no campaign medal is awarded, the oak leaf is worn directly on the coat after any medal ribbons. In the British Armed Forces, the despatch is published in the London Gazette. Before 1914 nothing was worn in uniform to signify a mention in despatches, although sometimes a gallantry medal was awarded.
For 1914–1918 and up to 10 August 1920, the device consisted of a spray of oak leaves in bronze worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Those who did not receive the Victory Medal wore the device on the British War Medal. Established in 1919, it was retrospective to August 1914, it was not a common honour with, for example, only twenty-five members of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment in the First World War mentioned in despatches. In all, 141,082 mentions were recorded in the London Gazette between 1914 and 1920. From 1920 to 1993, the device consisted of a single bronze oak leaf, worn on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal, including the War Medal for a mention during the Second World War; the Canadian Armed Forces still use the bronze oak leaf device. Since 1993 a number of changes have been made in respect of United Kingdom armed forces: For awards made from September 1993, the oak leaf has been in silver; the criteria were made more specific, it now being defined as an operational gallantry award for acts of bravery during active operations.
From 2003, in addition to British campaign medals, the MiD device can be worn on United Nations, NATO and EU medals. In a change introduced in 2014, up to three MiD devices may be worn on a single campaign medal and ribbon bar for those with multiple mentions, backdated to 1962. Prior to this change if the serviceman was mentioned in despatches more than once, only a single such device was worn. Prior to 1979, a mention in despatches was one of three awards that could be made posthumously, the others being the Victoria Cross and George Cross; the 1979 reform allowed. Soldiers can be mentioned multiple times; the British First World War Victoria Cross recipient John Vereker Field Marshal Viscount Gort, was mentioned in despatches nine times, as was the Canadian general Sir Arthur Currie. The Australian general Gordon Bennett was mentioned in despatches a total of eight times during the First World War, as was Field Marshal Sir John Dill. Below are illustrations of the MiD device being worn on a variety of campaign medal ribbons: Australian service personnel are no longer eligible to be mentioned in dispatches.
Since 15 January 1991, when the Australian Honours System was established, the MiD has been replaced by the Australian decorations: the Commendation for Gallantry and the Commendation for Distinguished Service. The equivalents of the MiD for acts of bravery by civilians and by soldiers not engaged with the enemy have been reformed; the reformed and comprehensive system is now as follows: The Commendation for Gallantry is now the fourth level decoration for gallantry. The Commendation for Brave Conduct recognises acts of bravery carried by soldiers not directly fighting the enemy and by civilians in war or peace; the Commendation for Distinguished Service, a third level distinguished service decoration, recognises distinguished general service, for exemplary performance in fields such as training and administration. A mention in dispatches – in French, Citation à l'ordre du jour – gives recognition from a senior commander for acts of brave or meritorious service in the field; the Mention in dispatches is among the list of awards presented by the Governor General of Canada.
Mention in dispatches has been used since 1947, in order to recognize distinguished and meritorious service in operational areas and acts of gallantry which are not of a sufficiently high order to warrant the grant of gallantry awards. Eligible personnel include all Army and Air Force personnel including personnel of the Reserve Forces, Territorial Army and other lawfully constituted armed forces, members of the Nursing Service and civilians working under or with the armed forces. Personnel can be mentioned in dispatches posthumously and multiple awards are possible. A recipient of a mention in a dispatch is entitled to wear an emblem, in the form of a lotus leaf on the ribbon of the relevant campaign medal, they are issued with an official certificate from the Ministry of Defence. Under the current Pakistani military honours system, the Imtiazi Sanad is conferred upon any member of the Pakistani Armed Forces, mentioned in dispatches for an act of gallantry that does not qualify for a formal gallantry award.
In 1920 the Minister of Defence of the Union of South Africa was empowered to award a multiple-leaved bronze oak leaf emblem to all servicemen and servicewomen mentioned in dispatches during the First World War for valuable services in action. The emblem, regarded as a decoration, was worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Only one emblem was
Battle of Beersheba (1917)
The Battle of Beersheba was fought on 31 October 1917, when the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force attacked and captured the Yildirim Army Group garrison at Beersheba, beginning the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine campaign of World War I. Infantry from the 60th and the 74th Divisions of the XX Corps from the southwest conducted limited attacks in the morning the Anzac Mounted Division launched a series of attacks against the strong defences which dominated the eastern side of Beersheba, resulting in their capture during the late afternoon. Shortly afterwards, the Australian Mounted Division's 4th and 12th Light Horse Regiments conducted a mounted infantry charge with bayonets in their hands, their only weapon for mounted attack, as their rifles were slung across their backs. Part of the two regiments dismounted to attack entrenchments on Tel es Saba defending Beersheba while the remainder of the light horsemen continued their charge into the town, capturing the place and part of the garrison as it was withdrawing.
German General Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein was commander of the three divisions of the Fourth Army. He further strengthened his defensive line stretching from Gaza to Beersheba after the EEF defeats at the first and second battles of Gaza in March and April 1917, received reinforcements of two divisions. Meanwhile, Lieutenant General Philip Chetwode began the Stalemate in Southern Palestine, defending the same entrenched lines held at the end of the second battle, he initiated regular mounted reconnaissance into the open eastern flank of the Gaza to Beersheba line towards Beersheba. In June, the Ottoman Fourth Army was reorganized when the new Yildirim Army Group was established, commanded by German General Erich von Falkenhayn. At about the same time, British General Edmund Allenby replaced General Archibald Murray as commander of the EEF. Allenby reorganized the EEF to give him direct command of three corps, in the process deactivating Chetwode's Eastern Force and placing him in command of one of the two infantry corps.
At the same time, Chauvel's Desert Column was renamed the Desert Mounted Corps. The stalemate continued through the summer in difficult conditions on the northern edge of the Negev Desert, while EEF reinforcements began to strengthen the divisions which had suffered more than 10,000 casualties during the two battles for Gaza; the primary functions of the EEF and the Ottoman Army during this time were to man the front lines and patrol the open eastern flank, although both sides conducted training of all units. The XXI Corps maintained the defences in the Gaza sector of the line by mid-October, while the battle of Passchendaele continued on the Western Front. Meanwhile, Allenby was preparing for the manoeuvre warfare attacks on the Ottoman defensive line, beginning with Beersheba, for the subsequent advance to Jerusalem, he was nearing completion with the arrival of the last reinforcements. Beersheba was defended by lines of trenches supported by isolated redoubts on earthworks and hills, which covered all approaches to the town.
The Ottoman garrison was encircled by the two infantry and two mounted divisions, as they and their supporting artillery launched their attacks. The 60th Division's preliminary attack and capture of the redoubt on Hill 1070 led to the bombardment of the main Ottoman trench line. A joint attack by the 60th and 74th Divisions captured all their objectives. Meanwhile, the Anzac Mounted Division cut the road to the northeast of Beersheba, from Beersheba to Hebron and continuing to Jerusalem. Continuous fighting against the main redoubt and defenses on Tel el Saba which dominated the eastern approaches to the town resulted in its capture in the afternoon. During this fighting, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade had been sent to reinforce the Anzac Mounted Division, while the 5th Mounted Brigade remained in corps reserve armed with swords. With all brigades of both mounted divisions committed to the battle, the only brigade available was the 4th Light Horse Brigade, ordered to capture Beersheba; these swordless mounted infantrymen galloped over the plain, riding towards the town and a redoubt supported by entrenchments on a mound of Tel es Saba south-east of Beersheba.
The 4th Light Horse Regiment on the right jumped trenches before turning to make a dismounted attack on the Ottoman infantry in the trenches, gun pits, redoubts. Most of the 12th Light Horse Regiment on the left rode on across the face of the main redoubt to find a gap in the Ottoman defenses, crossing the railway line into Beersheba to complete the first step of an offensive which culminated in the EEF capturing Jerusalem six weeks later. After their second defeat at Gaza in April, General Archibald Murray sacked the commander of Eastern Force, Lieutenant General Charles Dobell. Lieutenant General Philip Chetwode was promoted to command Eastern Force, while Harry Chauvel was promoted to Lieutenant General with command of the Desert Column. Major General Edward Chaytor was promoted from the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, to command the Anzac Mounted Division replacing Chauvel. With the arrival of General Edmund Allenby in June, Murray was relieved of command of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, sent back to England.
Although the strategic priorities of Enver Pasha and the Ottoman general staff, were to push the EEF back to the Suez Canal and retake Baghdad and Persia, the EEF was fortunate that the victorious Ottoman forces, were not in a position in April 1917, to launch a large-scale counterattack after their second victo
Order of the Nile
The Order of the Nile was established in 1915 and served as one of the Kingdom of Egypt’s principal orders until the monarchy was abolished in 1953. It was reconstituted as the Republic of Egypt’s highest state honor; the Order was established in 1915 by Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt for award to persons who had rendered useful service to the country. It ranked beneath the Order of Ismail and was awarded to British officers and officials serving in Egypt, as well as distinguished Egyptian citizens; the order comprised five classes: Grand Cordon: Badge worn from a sash over the right shoulder, with a star on the left chest. Grand Officer: Badge worn around the neck, with a smaller star on the left chest. Commander: Badge worn around the neck. Officer: Badge worn on the left chest from a ribbon bearing a rosette. Knight: Badge worn on the left chest from a plain ribbon. After Egypt became a republic in 1953 the Order of the Nile was reconstituted to serve as Egypt's highest state honor, it now consists of: The Collar of the Nile, worn by the President of the Republic and may be granted to other Heads of State.
The Order of the Nile, awarded for exceptional services to the nation. It has a single Grand Cordon class, with the badge of the order worn from a sash and the star of the order worn on the left chest. Although the five class structure of the original 1915 order was mentioned when the order was restructured in 1953, the four more junior grades are no longer awarded. Brigadier Peter Acland, 1936 Judge Sir Maurice Amos Maharaja Jagatjit Singh Bahadur of Kapurthala, 1924 Rear Admiral Richard Bevan, 1919 Field Marshall Lord Birdwood Lieutenant General Louis Bols Howard Carter, British archaeologist and Egyptologist, 1926 Major Aubrey Faulkner Major Harry Gardner, 1922 Lieutenant colonel Alexander Kearsey Harold Knox-Shaw, British astronomer Lancelot Lowther, 6th Earl of Lonsdale, 1920 Naguib Pasha Mahfouz and gynecologist, 1919 Lieutenant Colonel Cecil L'Estrange Malone Dr Hubert William Milligan, Royal Army Medical Corps, March 1917 Earl Mountbatten of Burma, 1922 Charles Paget, 6th Marquess of Anglesey, 1915 John Percival, Egyptian Civil Service General Sir William Peyton, 1916 General Hussein Refki Pasha Rear Admiral Eric Gascoigne Robinson Captain George Francis Scott Elliot Lieutenant Colonel Sir Norman Seddon-Brown, 1927 Dr. Hassan Omar Shaheen - Professor of ENT Kasr El-Aini Hospital, Cairo.
Circa 1920 Major-General Sir Charlton Watson Spinks, last Sirdar of Egypt, 1931 Dr. Oskar Stross, Austrian Consul General Mervyn Whitfield, Political Branch, Public Security, Alexandria, 1917 General Sir Reginald Wingate, 1915 Judge Youssef Zulficar Pasha President Jimmy Carter, President of the United States Emperor Akihito of Japan Emperor Amha Selassie of Ethiopia His Holiness Dr Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, Islamic leader Dalida and actress Mohamed ElBaradei, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency Queen Elizabeth II, November 1975 Hassaballah El Kafrawy, Egyptian former Minister of Development, Housing, New Communities, Public Utilities and Land Reclamation King Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, 1989 Yuri Gagarin, Soviet cosmonaut Pierre Gemayel, founder of the Lebanese Phalange Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia King Idris of Libya Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Turkish academic and former Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Émile Lahoud, President of Lebanon, 2000 Makarios III, former President of Cyprus Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa Adly Mansour, acting President of Egypt from the 2013 revolution until the swearing in of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi King Mohammed VI of Morocco Muhammad Naguib, First President of Egypt Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan Antonín Novotný, President of Czechoslovakia Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said of Oman, 1976 Ziaur Rahman, President of Bangladesh Heinrich Rau, East German politician, 1961 King Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, 1954 King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia William E. Simon, U.
S. Secretary of the Treasury Suharto, President of Indonesia Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, former Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt, August 2012 Marshal Josip Broz Tito, President of Yugoslavia, December 1955 Walter Ulbricht, President of East Germany, 1965 George Vasiliou, former President of Cyprus Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub, Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery Professor Ahmed Zewail, Egyptian-American scientist Media related to Orders of Egypt at Wikimedia Commons
Toowoomba Grammar School
Toowoomba Grammar School is an independent, non-denominational and boarding grammar school for boys, in East Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Australia. Toowoomba Grammar has a non-selective enrolment policy and caters for 1,150 students from Prep to Year 12, including 300 boarders from Years 5 to 12; some of the Toowoomba Grammar School buildings are listed on the Queensland Heritage Register. The school was founded in 1875 as a consequence of the Grammar Schools Act of 1860 passed by Queensland's first parliament; the original building was designed by Willoughby Powell. The foundation stone was laid on 5 August 1875. A bottle was placed in a cavity in the stone containing two local newspapers, coins of the realm and a parchment commemorating the event and listing the names of the foundation trustees: James Taylor, Member of the Queensland Legislative Council S. G. Stephens G. H. Davenport John Frederick McDougall, Member of the Queensland Legislative Council William Graham, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Darling Downs Edward Wilmot Pechey, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Aubigny G. W. Elliott, P.
M.the architect and contractor: Willoughby Powell John Garget and the aldermen of Toowoomba: Robert Aland John Garget James Campbell Daniel Donavon Henry Spiro Malcolm Geddes Richard Godsall R. J. Barry J. ReuterThe building was completed in 1876, it was opened on Thursday 1 February 1877. The school has been a member of the Great Public Schools' Association Inc since 1920, it is affiliated with the Australian Boarding Schools Association, the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia, the Junior School Heads Association of Australia, Independent Schools Queensland. The school uses the Queensland Curriculum throughout its education with the school broken down into several categories: Junior School Transition Senior School Senior Students from Junior and Transition have set subjects, decided upon by the class teacher whilst students who are in Year 8 move between classes and are exposed to various subject selections the school offers. Once a student gets into Year 9 they can select three of their eight subjects and in Year 11 they are allowed to choose four of their subjects as well as selecting their strands in their selected core subjects.
Students are encouraged to have their half colours by the time they complete Year 10, they are required for prefectship applications. The Junior Representative Committee is available for any boys in Years 8/9 to join who meet with the headmaster once a term to represent and discuss issues in relation to the school's day-to-day operation, they put on small events such as sports days from the younger boys in the Senior School Community. The Senior Committee is composed of boys who were members of the Junior Committee who are now in Years 10/11, they meet with the Headmaster once a term as well as representing a portion of their particular house. Students may be asked to represent a particular activity at the school and provide feedback on the opinion and operation of this activity; these students provide a liaison between the School Prefects. They hold larger events for the entire school community such as the Annual Grammar's Got Talent Talent Competition; the School has used a prefects system similar to that used in British Public Schools since its early years.
The school maintains various leadership groups within each house. Boys have the opportunity to be members of the School's Spirit Squad, a group of boys involved in maintaining the student body's morale and spirit for the school, they lead the school in many war cries as well as other events such as organising the Prefects' Assemblies throughout the year. The School had incorporated a system of nine houses. In the schools original formation these were separate boarding and day houses with the Junior School utilising the Senior School houses soon after its formation in 1997; these houses have since amalgamated and some removed. For consistency and to promote House Spirit, the Junior School maintains the same five houses as the Senior School. Taylor House Taylor House was named in honour of the Hon. James Taylor, the first Chairman of the Board of Trustess at the School. In the first colonial parliament, he represented the Western Downs in the Legislative Council and later as Mayor of Toowoomba, he was well known for his contributions to the Benevolent Society and the hospital, as well as being the first president of the School of Arts and his promotion of the foundation of the Darling Downs Agriculture Society.
As well as Active Development of the Clifford Park Race Way. Prior to 1992, Taylor House was the Boarding House for the Year Nine Students at the school, in 2004 combined with Gibson House to form a combined Day/Boarding house; this boarding house is the smallest of the six on campus with plans for a new boarding house to be situated on the Parents and Friends' Oval, the boarding house be renovated into the new "Engineering and Vocational Training Centre". The House's Colour is Black. Boyce House Boyce House takes its name from an old boy of the school, Mr Leslie Atherton George Boyce. Mr Boyce entered the school in 1911 as a Scholar of the State. In 1915 he entered the AIF and served in France to be wounded in 1917 and hence awarded the Military Cross for "conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when in command of his platoon during an attack". On ret
Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration
The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD, was established in 1899 as recognition for long and meritorious service as a part-time commissioned officer in any of the organized military forces of the British Colonies and Protectorates. It superseded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies in all these territories, but not in the Indian Empire. In 1930, the decoration, along with the Volunteer Officers' Decoration and the Territorial Decoration, were superseded by the Efficiency Decoration in an effort to standardise recognition across the British Empire. In 1892, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration was instituted as an award for long and meritorious service by officers of the United Kingdom's Volunteer Force. In 1894, the grant of the decoration was extended by Royal Warrant to commissioned officers of volunteer forces throughout the British Empire, defined as being India, the Dominion of Canada, the Crown Colonies and the Crown Dependencies.
A separate new decoration was instituted, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies. The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration was established by Queen Victoria's Royal Warrant on 18 May 1899; this decoration could be awarded to part-time commissioned officers in recognition of long and meritorious service in any of the organized military forces of the Dominion of Canada and the British Colonies and Protectorates, whether designated as militia or volunteers or otherwise. The decoration superseded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies in all these territories, but not in the Indian Empire, where the Indian Volunteer Forces Officers' Decoration would subsequently be instituted; the use of the post-nominal letters VD by recipients of this decoration was approved by Royal Warrant on 9 May 1925. The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration could be awarded for twenty years of service as a part-time commissioned officer in any of the Colonial Auxiliary Forces.
Qualifying service could be had by serving in the forces of more than one Protectorate. Service in the Militia and Volunteer Forces of the United Kingdom was reckonable, so long as at least half of all qualifying service was rendered in the forces of the Colonies or Protectorates. Service on the West Coast of Africa counted as double time, while half the time served in the ranks prior to being commissioned was reckonable. Service on the permanent staff was not reckonable. In the order of wear prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration takes precedence after the Volunteer Long Service Medal for India and the Colonies and before the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal; the same ribbon was used for all three awards, except during the period from 1921 to 1927, when the decoration was suspended from a wider green ribbon. Preceded by the Volunteer Long Service Medal for India and the Colonies. Succeeded by the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal.
The decoration is an oval skeletal design and was struck in silver, with parts of the obverse in silver-gilt. The oval is 1 7⁄16 inches high and 1 1⁄4 inches wide and is suspended by a thin silver wire suspension bar, attached to a small ring at the top on the reverse. ObverseThe obverse is an oval silver band, inscribed "COLONIAL AUXILIARY FORCES" and with the Royal Cypher of the reigning monarch in skeletal form and in silver-gilt in the centre; the oval is surmounted by a silver-gilt Imperial Crown. Five versions of the decoration are known; the centre of the decoration's original version of 1899 has the Royal Cypher "VRI" of Queen Victoria, for "Victoria Regina Imperatrix". The King Edward VII version, with his Royal Cypher "ERI VII" for "Edwardvs Rex Imperator VII", was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1901; the first King George V version, with his Royal Cypher "GRI" for "Georgivs Rex Imperator" as illustrated at the top of the page, was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1910.
A second King George V version exists, with his Royal Cypher "GRI V" for "Georgivs Rex Imperator V", with the Roman numeral "V" below the cypher "GRI". On this and the third King George V version the crown has two cut-out sections at the top; the third King George V version, of which a miniature is illustrated, has the Roman numeral "V" to the right of the cypher "GRI". ReverseThe reverse is plain; the recipient's name was engraved at either the top on the back of the crown or around the circumference of the decoration. RibbonThe ribbon, as described in the regulations accompanying the original Royal Warrant of Queen Victoria, is the same as that of the Volunteer Long Service Medal, dark green and 1 1⁄4 inches wide, suspended from a silver bar-brooch decorated with an oak leaf pattern. In an amendment to the rules and ordinances pertaining to the decoration, published in the Royal Warrant of King George V on 9 June 1921, the ribbon was described as green and 1 1⁄2 inches wide; this wider ribbon and brooch was revoked by the Royal Warrant of King George V on 22 June 1927.
The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration, along with the Volunteer Officers' Decoration and the Territorial Decoration, were superseded by the Efficiency Decoration on 23 September 1930, as one decoration to reward long and meritorious service of part-time officers of the Territorial Army in Great Britain and of the Auxiliary Military Forces of the Empire and the Protectorates, to recognize the Imperial character of such service
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty. They were motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and by opposition to Western colonialism and the Christian missionary activity, associated with it, it was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness, known in English as the Boxers, for many of their members had been practitioners of Chinese martial arts referred to in the west as Chinese Boxing. The uprising took place against a background that included severe drought and disruption caused by the growth of foreign spheres of influence; the original cause of the uprising was the particular jurisdictional status of European legations in Peking, which were not subject to Chinese authorities: robber gangs were formed in the out-buildings of the German legation, spreading outrage in the Chinese locals. As a result, opposition to Western colonialism and Christian missionary activity took place.
After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of an armed invasion by allied American, Austro-Hungarian, French, Italian and Russian forces to lift the siege, the hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were detained for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers. Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing; the supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu claimed he acted to protect the besieged foreigners.
Many officials refused the imperial order to fight against foreigners in their Mutual Protection of Southeast China, because Qing had lost the First Sino-Japanese War five years before. The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, arrived at Peking on August 14, relieving the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers; the Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved. The Empress Dowager sponsored a set of institutional and fiscal changes in a failed attempt to save the dynasty.
The Righteous and Harmonious Fists arose in the inland sections of the northern coastal province of Shandong, long known for social unrest, religious sects, martial societies. American Christian missionaries were the first to refer to the well-trained, athletic young men as "Boxers", because of the martial arts and weapons training they practiced, their primary practice was a type of spiritual possession which involved the whirling of swords, violent prostrations, chanting incantations to deities. The opportunities to fight back Western encroachment and colonization were attractive to unemployed village men, many of whom were teenagers; the tradition of possession and invulnerability went back several hundred years but took on special meaning against the powerful new weapons of the West. The Boxers, armed with rifles and swords, claimed supernatural invulnerability towards blows of cannon, rifle shots, knife attacks. Furthermore, the Boxer groups popularly claimed that millions of soldiers of Heaven would descend to assist them in purifying China of foreign oppression.
These beliefs are characteristic of millenarian movements of nativist resistance the characteristic magical belief, shared by the Ghost Dancers of North America and the Kartelite Cults of Africa, that the believer could be rendered invulnerable to bullets. In 1895, in spite of ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxian, a Manchu, prefect of Caozhou and would become provincial governor, used the Big Swords Society in fighting bandits; the Big Swords, emboldened by this official support attacked their local Catholic village rivals, who turned to the Church for protection. The Big Swords responded by burning them. "The line between Christians and bandits", remarks one recent historian, "became indistinct." As a result of diplomatic pressure in the capital, Yuxian executed several Big Sword leaders, but did not punish anyone else. More martial secret societies started emerging after this; the early years saw a variety of village activities, not a broad movement with a united purpose. Martial folk religious societies such as the Baguadao prepared the way for the Boxers.
Like the Red Boxing school or the Plum Flower Boxers, the Boxers of Shandong were more concerned with traditional social and moral values, such as filial piety, than with foreign influences. One leader, Zhu Hongdeng (Red Lantern Zh
George Mackay (Australian politician)
George Hugh Alexander Mackay was an Australian politician and Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives. Mackay was born at Copperfield, near Clermont in Queensland, to Scottish-born carpenter Hugh Mackay and Jane, née Baird, he attended the state schools at Clermont and Bundaberg before becoming an apprentice printer at the Peak Downs Telegram in 1887. In 1894 he was promoted to foreman printer, became managing editor, he married Edith Ann Heard on 23 September 1896 at the Wesleyan Church in Clermont, after which he joined his sister Barbara in the local bookshop and newsagency. He was elected to Clermont Toun Council in 1882 and served as mayor 1900-02. Mackay moved to Lismore in New South Wales in 1902 before leasing a dairy farm at McLean's Ridge. Shortly afterwards, in 1905, the family moved back to Queensland, settling at Gympie, where Mackay opened an auctioneering and real estate business in partnership with Ray King. In 1911 he was elected to Gympie City Council. Mackay was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Queensland in 1912 as a Liberal member, representing the seat of Gympie.
He in 1917 won the federal seat of Lilley as a Nationalist. In the House of Representatives he was known as a competent public speaker with a penchant for quoting figures, he stated that he had "no time for extremists or muddlers", was known to dislike the Country Party. In 1931, the Nationalist Party became the United Australia Party, on 11 February 1932 Mackay was elected Speaker. In March 1934 he announced his retirement, stating that "one may remain in parliament too long". After his retirement, Mackay was interested in bowls, he was president of the Gympie Bowling Club 1936-39, he was a devout Presbyterian and Freemason, in 1952 wrote A summary of the history of the Gympie Presbyterian Church. He received a state funeral, he was survived by a son. Brown, Elaine. "Mackay, George Hugh Alexander". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 22 June 2008