A movie theater, cinema, or cinema hall known as a picture house or the pictures, is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films for entertainment. Most, but not all, theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a ticket; some movie theaters, are operated by non-profit organizations or societies that charge members a membership fee to view films. The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers. Since the 1970s, subwoofers have been used for low-pitched sounds. In the 2010s, most movie theaters are equipped for digital cinema projection, removing the need to create and transport a physical film print on a heavy reel. A great variety of films are shown at cinemas, ranging from animated films to blockbusters to documentaries; the smallest movie theaters have a single viewing room with a single screen.
In the 2010s, most movie theaters have multiple screens. The largest theater complexes, which are called multiplexes—a design developed in the US in the 1960s—have up to thirty screens; the audience members sit on padded seats, which in most theaters are set on a sloped floor, with the highest part at the rear of the theater. Movie theaters sell soft drinks and candy, some theaters sell hot fast food. In some jurisdictions, movie theaters can be licensed to sell alcoholic drinks. A movie theater may be referred to as a movie theatre, movie house, film house, film theater or picture house. In the US, theater has long been the preferred spelling, while in the UK, Australia and elsewhere it is theatre. However, some US theaters opt to use the British spelling in their own names, a practice supported by the National Association of Theatre Owners, while apart from North America most English-speaking countries use the term cinema, alternatively spelled and pronounced kinema; the latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives "cinematic" and "kinematic" derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινήματος —"movement", "motion".
In the countries where those terms are used, the word "theatre" is reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen and the big screen. Specific to North American term is the movies, while specific terms in the UK are the pictures, the flicks and for the facility itself the flea pit. A screening room is a small theater a private one, such as for the use of those involved in the production of motion pictures or in a large private residence; the etymology of the term "movie theater" involves the term "movie", a "shortened form of moving picture in the cinematographic sense", first used in 1896 and "theater", which originated in the "...late 14c. "open air place in ancient times for viewing spectacles and plays". The term "theater" comes from the Old French word "theatre", from the 12th century and "...directly from Latin theatrum'play-house, theater. The use of the word "theatre" to mean a "building where plays are shown" dates from the 1570s in the English language.
The earliest precursors to movies were magic lantern shows. Magic lanterns used a glass lens, a shutter and a powerful lamp to project images from glass slides onto a white wall or screen; these slides were hand-painted. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s, limelight in the 1820s and the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s increased the brightness of the images; the magic lantern could project rudimentary moving images, achieved by the use of various types of mechanical slides. Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. Still photographs were used on after the widespread availability of photography technologies after the mid-19th century.
Magic lantern shows were given at fairs or as part of magic shows. A magic lantern show at the 1851 World's Fair caused a sensation among the audience; the next significant step towards movies was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828, when Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "persistence of vision". Roget showed that when a series of still images are shown in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement, an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a high rate of speed. The French Lumière brothers' first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. From 1894 to the late 1920s, movie theaters showed silent films, which were films with no synchronized recorded sound or dialogue.
Sagamore of the Wabash
The Sagamore of the Wabash is an honorary award created by the U. S. state of Indiana during the term of Governor Ralph F. Gates, who served from 1945 to 1949. A tri-state meeting was to be held in Louisville with officials from Indiana and Kentucky. Aides to Gates learned that the governor of Kentucky was preparing "Kentucky Colonel" certificates for Gates and Senator Robert A. Taft, representing Ohio; the Indiana delegation decided to create an appropriate award to present in return. The term sagamore was the term used by Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribes of the northeastern United States for the tribal chiefs; the Wabash is major tributary of the Ohio River. Each governor since Gates has presented the certificates in his own way; until 2006, the award was the highest honor which the Governor of Indiana bestows, a personal tribute given to those who rendered distinguished service to the state or to the governor. Among those who have received Sagamores have been astronauts, ambassadors, musicians and citizens who have contributed to Hoosier heritage.
The Sagamore award has been conferred upon both women. There is no official record of the total number presented; some individuals have received the award more than once. Robert Charles Vollmer received the award in 2017; the Sagamore of the Wabash Award does not have an official list of the number of Sagamore of the Wabash awards presented, but below is a partial list of notable recipients and the year they received the award: John Gregg, 1989, 1996, 2002 and 2003 Mir Masoom Ali, 2002 by Gov. Frank O'Bannon. Dorothy Runk Mennen, 2003 Thomas McDermott, Jr. 2005. Jischke, 2007 by Governor Mitch Daniels. On March 3, 2006, Governor Mitch Daniels designated another state honor, named the Sachem Award, he determined. It is Indiana's highest honor, a plaque listing recipients is posted on the first floor of the Indiana Statehouse. 2005: John Wooden, former Purdue University basketball player and college coach 2006: Theodore Hesburgh, former president of the University of Notre Dame 2007: Jane Blaffer Owen, in recognition of her philanthropic efforts in historic preservation and the arts 2008: Bill Gaither and Gloria Gaither, musicians 2009: Donald C.
Danielson, New Castle business and civic leader 2010: Carl Erskine, former Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers baseball player 2011: William A. Cook, entrepreneur and historic preservationist, co-founded the medical equipment manufacturer Cook Group 2012: Ian M. Rolland, former chairman and CEO of Lincoln National Corp. 2013: Don Wolf, former President and CEO of Do-It Best Corporation based in Fort Wayne, IN 2014: Nathan P. Fink, former President of Hagerman Construction Corporation based in Fort Wayne, IN 2015: Amos Brown, a radio broadcaster, a fierce defender and leader in the African-American community of Indianapolis 2017: Eva Mozes Kor, Holocaust survivor and founder of CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center When a Sagamore of the Wabash is given to a recipient it is accompanied by other artifacts. It's uncertain if the contents of the award vary by recipient; the gallery below shows the contents of a specific award given on January 9, 2005. Great Floridians Kentucky Colonel Nebraska Admiral Rhode Island Commodore
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Ebble and Bourne. The city is 20 miles from Southampton and 30 miles from Bath. Salisbury is near the edge of Salisbury Plain. Salisbury Cathedral was north of the city at Old Sarum. Following the cathedral's relocation, a settlement grew up around it which received a city charter in 1227 as New Sarum, which continued to be its official name until 2009 when Salisbury City Council was established. Salisbury railway station is an interchange between the West of England Main Line and the Wessex Main Line. Stonehenge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is 8 miles northwest of Salisbury; the name Salisbury, first recorded around the year 900 as Searoburg, is a partial translation of the Roman Celtic name Sorviodūnum. The Brittonic suffix -dūnon, meaning "fortress", was replaced by its Old English equivalent -burg; the first part of the name is of obscure origin. The form "Sarum" is a Latinization of a medieval abbreviation for Middle English Sarisberie.
The two names for the city and Sarum, are humorously alluded to in a 1928 limerick from Punch: The ambiguous pronunciation was used in the following limerick: Salisbury appeared in the Welsh Chronicle of the Britons as Caer-Caradog, Caer-Gradawc and Caer-Wallawg. Cair-Caratauc, one of the 28 British cities listed in the History of the Britons, has been identified with Salisbury; the hilltop at Old Sarum lies near the Neolithic sites of Stonehenge and Avebury and shows some signs of early settlement. It commanded a salient between the River Bourne and the Hampshire Avon, near a crossroads of several early trade-routes. During the Iron Age, sometime between 600 and 300 BC, a hillfort was constructed around it; the Romans left it in the hands of an allied tribe. At the time of the Saxon invasions, Old Sarum fell to King Cynric of Wessex in 552. Preferring settlements in bottomland, such as nearby Wilton, the Saxons ignored Old Sarum until the Viking invasions led King Alfred to restore its fortifications.
Along with Wilton, however, it was abandoned by its residents to be sacked and burned by the Dano-Norwegian king Sweyn Forkbeard in 1003. It subsequently became the site of Wilton's mint. Following the Norman invasion of 1066, a motte-and-bailey castle was constructed by 1070; the castle was held directly by the Norman kings. In 1075 the Council of London established Herman as the first bishop of Salisbury, uniting his former sees of Sherborne and Ramsbury into a single diocese which covered the counties of Dorset and Berkshire. In 1055, Herman had planned to move his seat to Malmesbury. Herman and his successor, Saint Osmund, began the construction of the first Salisbury cathedral, though neither lived to see its completion in 1092. Osmund served as Lord Chancellor of England; the cathedral was consecrated on 5 April 1092 but suffered extensive damage in a storm, traditionally said to have occurred only five days later. Bishop Roger was a close ally of Henry I: he served as viceroy during the king's absence in Normandy and directed, along with his extended family, the royal administration and exchequer.
He refurbished and expanded Old Sarum's cathedral in the 1110s and began work on a royal palace during the 1130s, prior to his arrest by Henry's successor, Stephen. After this arrest, the castle at Old Sarum was allowed to fall into disrepair, but the sheriff and castellan continued to administer the area under the king's authority. Bishop Hubert Walter was instrumental in the negotiations with Saladin during the Third Crusade, but he spent little time in his diocese prior to his elevation to archbishop of Canterbury; the brothers Herbert and Richard Poore succeeded him and began planning the relocation of the cathedral into the valley immediately. Their plans were approved by King Richard I but delayed: Herbert was first forced into exile in Normandy in the 1190s by the hostility of his archbishop Walter and again to Scotland in the 1210s owing to royal hostility following the papal interdiction against King John; the secular authorities were incensed, according to tradition, owing to some of the clerics debauching the castellan's female relations.
In the end, the clerics were refused permission to reenter the city walls following their rogations and processions. This caused Peter of Blois to describe the church as "a captive within the walls of the citadel like the ark of God in the profane house of Baal", he advocated Let us descend into the plain! There are rich fields and fertile valleys abounding in the fruits of the earth and watered by the living stream. There is a seat for the Virgin Patroness of our church, his successor and brother Richard Poore moved the cathedral to a new town on his estate at Veteres Sarisberias in 1220. The site was at "Myrifield", a meadow near the confluence of the River Nadder and the Hampshire Avon, it was first known as "New Sarum" or New Saresbyri. The town was laid out on a grid. Work on the new cathedral building, the present Salisbury Cathedral, began in 1221
Governor of Indiana
The Governor of Indiana is the chief executive of the state of Indiana. The governor is elected to a four-year term, responsible for overseeing the day-to-day management of the functions of many agencies of the Indiana state government; the governor shares power with other statewide executive officers, who manage other state government agencies. The governor works out of the Indiana Statehouse and holds official functions at the Indiana Governor's Residence in the state capital of Indianapolis; the 51st, current, governor is Republican Eric Holcomb, who took office on January 9, 2017. The position of governor has developed over the course of two centuries, it has become more powerful since the mid-20th century after decades of struggle with the Indiana General Assembly and Indiana Supreme Court to establish the executive branch of the government as an equal third branch of the state government. Although gubernatorial powers were again expanded by constitutional amendments during the 1970s, Indiana governors remain less powerful than their counterparts in most other states.
The governor's powers are established in Article V of the Constitution of Indiana. Constitutionally, the governor has limited executive authority to manage the government of the state; the governor works in concert with the state legislature and the state supreme court to govern the state. The governor has the power to veto legislation passed by the General Assembly. If vetoed, a bill is returned to the General Assembly for reconsideration. Unlike other states, most of which require a two-thirds supermajority to override a veto, the Indiana General Assembly may override the veto with an absolute majority vote in both chambers. One of the governor's most important political powers is the ability to call a special session of the General Assembly. During a two-year period, the assembly can meet on its own for no more than 91 days, this prevents them from passing all the legislation they intend to; this can give the governor considerable influence in the body which will compromise on issues with him or her in exchange for a special legislative session.
Among his other powers, the governor can call out the state defense force or the Indiana National Guard in times of emergency or disaster. The governor is charged with the enforcement of all the state's laws and the Indiana Code through the Indiana State Police; the governor has the ability to grant a pardon or commutation of sentence of any person convicted of a crime in the state, except in cases of treason or impeachment. In addition to constitutional powers, governors have a considerable degree of statutory authority. Most of the authority exercised by governors on a daily basis is derived from statute, giving the General Assembly a great degree of power to expand or contract the governor's authority; the party in control of the General Assembly would reassign control of agencies from the governor or to the governor based his party affiliation, the party affiliation of the cabinet heads, which at times has left the governor with no direct control over state agencies. The governor can influence the state court system through the appointment of judges.
In Indiana, when vacancies occur on the Supreme Court, Tax Court, circuit courts, the Judicial Nominating Commission interviews candidates and sends a list of three candidates for each vacancy to the governor, who chooses one. Justices of the peace and superior courts judges are elected in Indiana; the authority to make such appointments gives the governor considerable sway in setting the makeup of the judiciary. The annual salary of the governor of Indiana is US$111,688. Additionally, he receives $6,000 annually for discretionary spending and expenses. To become governor of Indiana, a candidate must be a citizen of the United States and must have been a resident of the state in which they are running for the period of five consecutive years before the election; the candidate must be at least 30 years old when sworn into office. The governor may not hold any other state or federal office during his term and must resign from any such position before being eligible to be sworn in as governor. Before taking the office, the candidate must swear an oath of office administered by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Indiana, promising to uphold the Constitution and laws of the state.
The governor serves a four-year term beginning on the date. He remains governor; the governor's term can be shorter if he resigns, becomes incapacitated or impeached. There is no limit. To be eligible to run for a third term, the governor would have to sit out for one election period. If the governor becomes incapacitated the Lieutenant Governor of Indiana becomes acting governor until his recovery. Only two governors have become incapacitated during their terms, current precedent is that the governor's office is to notify the lieutenant governor, who will make the decision to become acting governor by notifying the General Assembly by letter; the governor can resume his powers and duties by sending a letter to the General Ass
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment. Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which are shared as a means of entertainment, cultural preservation or instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot and narrative point of view; the term "storytelling" can refer in a narrow sense to oral storytelling and in a looser sense to techniques used in other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story. Storytelling predates writing; the earliest forms of storytelling were oral combined with gestures and expressions. In addition to being part of religious rituals, some archaeologists believe rock art may have served as a form of storytelling for many ancient cultures; the Australian aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was told using a combination of oral narrative, rock art and dance, which bring understanding and meaning of human existence through remembrance and enactment of stories.
People have used the carved trunks of living trees and ephemeral media to record stories in pictures or with writing. Complex forms of tattooing may represent stories, with information about genealogy and social status. With the advent of writing and the use of stable, portable media, stories were recorded and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, painted, printed or inked onto wood or bamboo and other bones, clay tablets, palm-leaf books, bark cloth, silk and other textiles, recorded on film and stored electronically in digital form. Oral stories continue to be created, improvisationally by impromptu storytellers, as well as committed to memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the world. Modern storytelling has a broad purview. In addition to its traditional forms, it has extended itself to representing history, personal narrative, political commentary and evolving cultural norms.
Contemporary storytelling is widely used to address educational objectives. New forms of media are creating new ways for people to record and consume stories. Tools for asynchronous group communication can provide an environment for individuals to reframe or recast individual stories into group stories. Games and other digital platforms, such as those used in interactive fiction or interactive storytelling, may be used to position the user as a character within a bigger world. Documentaries, including interactive web documentaries, employ storytelling narrative techniques to communicate information about their topic. Self-revelatory stories, created for their cathartic and therapeutic effect, are growing in their use and application, as in Psychodrama, Drama Therapy and Playback Theatre. Storytelling is used as a means by which to precipitate psychological and social change in the practice of transformative arts. Oral traditions of storytelling are found in several civilisations. Storytelling was used to explain natural phenomena, bards told stories of creation and developed a pantheon of gods and myths.
Oral stories passed from one generation to the next and storytellers were regarded as healers, spiritual guides, cultural secrets keepers and entertainers. Oral storytelling came in various forms including songs, poetry and dance. Albert Bates Lord examined oral narratives from field transcripts of Yugoslav oral bards collected by Milman Parry in the 1930s, the texts of epics such as the Odyssey and Beowulf. Lord found that a large part of the stories consisted of text, improvised during the telling process. Lord identified two types of story vocabulary; the first he called "formulas": "rosy-fingered dawn", "the wine-dark sea" and other specific set phrases had long been known of in Homer and other oral epics. Lord, discovered that across many story traditions 90% of an oral epic is assembled from lines which are repeated verbatim or which use one-for-one word substitutions. In other words, oral stories are built out of set phrases which have been stockpiled from a lifetime of hearing and telling stories.
The other type of story vocabulary is a set sequence of story actions that structure a tale. Just as the teller of tales proceeds line-by-line using formulas, so he proceeds from event-to-event using themes. One near-universal theme is repetition, as evidenced in Western folklore with the "rule of three": Three brothers set out, three attempts are made, three riddles are asked. A theme can be as simple as a specific set sequence describing the arming of a hero, starting with shirt and trousers and ending with headdress and weapons. A theme can be large enough to be a plot component. For example: a hero proposes a journey to a dangerous place / he disguises himself / his disguise fools everybody / except for a common person of little account / who recognizes him / the commoner becomes the hero's ally, showing unexpected resources of skill or initiative. A theme does not belong to a specific story, but may be found with minor variation in many different stories. Themes may be no more than handy prefabricated parts for constructing a tale, or they may represent universal truths – ritual-based, religious truths, as James Frazer saw in The Golden Bough, or archetypal, psychological truths, as Joseph Campbell describes in The Hero With a Thousand Faces.
The story was described by Reynolds
United States Auto Club
The United States Auto Club is one of the sanctioning bodies of auto racing in the United States. From 1956 to 1979, USAC sanctioned the United States National Championship, from 1956 to 1997 the organization sanctioned the Indianapolis 500. Today, USAC serves as the sanctioning body for a number of racing series, including the Silver Crown Series, National Sprint Cars, National Midgets, Speed2 Midget Series.25 Midget Series, Stadium Super Trucks, TORC: The Off-Road Championship, Pirelli World Challenge. When the American Automobile Association withdrew from auto racing after the 1955 season, citing the Le Mans disaster and the death of Bill Vukovich at Indianapolis as contributing factors, both the SCCA and NASCAR were mentioned as its potential successor. USAC was formed by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony Hulman, it became the arbiter of rules, car design, other matters for what it termed championship auto racing, the highest level of USAC racing. For a while there was a separate series of specifications for championship cars designed to be run on dirt, rather than paved, tracks.
USAC's long history as an open-wheel racing sanctioning body continues today with the Silver Crown Series, National Sprint Car Series, National Midget Series, Ignite Ethanol Fuel Series, Quarter Midgets, TORC Series. NASCAR drivers including Jeff Gordon, Tony Stewart, Ryan Newman, Kasey Kahne honed their skills and captured championships while competing in various USAC series; the "triple crown" is earned in USAC racing. Only two drivers, Tony Stewart and J. J. Yeley, have achieved the triple crown in a single season. Four other drivers, Pancho Carter, Dave Darland, Jerry Coons Jr. and Tracy Hines have claimed each of the three championships at least once in their careers. In 2012 Mike Curb and Cary Agajanian became the only car owners to win the triple crown by winning all three championships in the same year. USAC had awarded a national championship until A. J. Foyt won his seventh title in 1979, it has announced that it will begin awarding a national championship starting in 2010. A driver's finishes in their 25 best races are counted toward the championship and the 2010 winner received $40,000.
Points are accumulated in the three national series: sprints and silver crown. Bryan Clauson of Noblesville, Indiana claimed the inaugural championship, topping runner-up Levi Jones by 14 points; this is now the Mike Curb "Super Licence" National Championship Award. USAC national drivers champions 2010 – Bryan Clauson. Killed were: Ray Marquette, USAC's vice-president of public affairs and a former sportswriter for The Indianapolis Star Frank Delroy, chairman of USAC technical committee Shim Malone, starter for USAC races and head of its midget racer division Judy Phillips, graphic artist and publication director of USAC's newsletter Stan Worley, chief registrar Ross Teeguarden, assistant technical chairman Don Peabody, head of the sprint division Dr. Bruce White, assistant staff doctor Don Mullendore and pilot of the plane; the effect on USAC, for open-wheel racing in the United States, was devastating since it followed the death of Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony Hulman. The plane crash came at a time when Indy car owners and drivers were demanding changes from USAC.
Aside from the Indianapolis 500, USAC events were not well attended, the owners felt that USAC poorly negotiated television rights. The owners wanted increases in payouts at Indy. Though some think the plane crash was used as an opportunistic way to force change in the sport, it was an unfortunate coincidence; the seed of dissent had been growing for several years before the accident, claims the crash was an immediate cause for the 1979 CART/USAC "split" are considered for the most part unfounded. Unpopular were the attempts of USAC to keep the aging Offenhauser engine competitive with the newer, much more expensive, Cosworth DFV engine using boost-limiting "pop off valves" and limiting the amount of fuel that could be used. Most car owners banded together to form Championship Auto Racing Teams in 1978, with the first race to be run in 1979. USAC tried unsuccessfully to ban all CART owners from the 1979 Indianapolis 500 losing in court before the race began. Both the USAC and CART ran race schedules in 1979.
Indianapolis Motor Speedway president John Cooper was instrumental in forming a joint body of CART and USAC with the creation of the Championship Racing League in March 1980. However, in mid 1980, Cooper forced USAC to renounce their agreement with the CRL if they wanted to keep officiating the Indy 500. After USAC's attempt at a 500-mile races at Pocono Raceway –, boycotted by the CART teams, forcing USAC to fill the field with silver crown cars – USAC and CART settled into a peaceful co-existence, with USAC continuing to sanction the Indianapolis 500, CART including the race in its schedule. Beginning in 1971, all dirt races were split from the National Championship. From 1971 to 1980, the series was named National Dirt Car Championship renamed Silv