Second Australian Imperial Force
The Second Australian Imperial Force was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II. Under the Defence Act, neither the part-time Militia nor the full-time Permanent Military Force could serve outside Australia or its territories unless they volunteered to do so; the Second AIF fought against Nazi Germany, Vichy France and Japan. After the war, Australia's wartime military structures were demobilised and the 2nd AIF was disbanded, although a small cadre of its personnel became part of the Interim Army, established in 1947, from which the Australian Regular Army was formed in 1948. At the outset of World War II, there was controversy over whether Australia should concentrate on forming an expeditionary force for overseas service to fight Germany in Europe or a home defence force to fight Japan. Prime Minister Robert Menzies decided to do both, although the experience of the Great War indicated that Australia did not have the resources to do either. On 15 September 1939, Menzies announced the formation of the Second AIF, an expeditionary force of 20,000, to consist of one infantry division and any auxiliary units that the Australian Army could fit into it.
On 15 November 1939, Menzies announced the reintroduction of conscription for home defence service effective 1 January 1940. Unmarried men turning 21 in the year ending 30 June 1940 would be drafted into the Militia; because of this, the AIF could not accept personnel. Although the AIF had priority for scarce personnel and equipment over the Militia, many Militia commanders were reluctant to release any to the AIF. Although the government had hoped that half of the new force would be drawn from the Militia, it was soon clear that this would not be achieved; the public was torn between the dangers presented by Japan. After an initial rush, enlistments tapered off. For these reasons, the Second AIF possessed only the 6th Division, for nearly a year; the fall of France shocked both the people into action. A huge surge of enlistments—48,496 in June 1940—provided enough personnel to fill not only the formed 7th Division, but to form the 8th and 9th Divisions as well, the government ordered units to the United Kingdom to assist in its defence.
Lieutenant General Thomas Blamey was given command of the Second AIF on 13 October 1939 and retained it throughout the war. As such, he was answerable directly to the Minister of Defence, rather than to the Military Board, he was given a charter based on that given to Major General William Throsby Bridges in 1914. Part of his charter required the Second AIF to be kept together, but a series of political and military crises resulted in the divisions fighting together, with individual divisions and battalions deployed in different sectors or different theatres; this resulted in conflicts with British commanders the Commander-in-Chief Middle East, General Sir Claude Auchinleck, most notably over the relief of Tobruk. The 6th and 7th Divisions departed for the Far East in January 1942, followed by the 9th Division in February 1943; the last AIF units, three forestry companies, returned via the United States in late 1943. All units of the Second AIF were thereafter deployed to the South West Pacific theatre, although some individuals remained in other theatres on exchange or liaison duty, such as Vernon Sturdee, head of the Australian Military Mission in Washington, D.
C. from 1942 to 1944. A controversial decision of the Menzies government was that senior commands in Blamey's 6th Division would be restricted to Militia officers; this upset many PMF officers. However, when the 7th Division was formed in May 1940, a regular officer, Lieutenant General John Lavarack was appointed to command it. Blamey appointed two regulars, Major Generals Vernon Sturdee and Henry Wynter to command the 8th and 9th Divisions, but Wynter became ill and Sturdee was appointed Chief of the General Staff following the death of General Sir Brudenell White in the 1940 Canberra air disaster; the commands went to two CMF soldiers, Major Generals Gordon Bennett and Leslie Morshead. The Second AIF's main strength consisted of a Corps Headquarters and five divisions: 6th Division 7th Division 8th Division 9th Division 1st Armoured DivisionDivisions numbered 1st to 5th were Militia divisions, raised during the inter-war years and perpetuated the numerical designations of the First AIF units that had fought during the First World War.
In addition, the 10th through 12th and the 2nd and 3rd Armoured Divisions were Militia formations. There were three brigades in each division. Brigades were numbered from 16 onwards. There were at first four infantry battalions per brigade but this was soon reduced to three. Units of the Second AIF prefixed their numbers with a'2/' to distinguish themselves from Militia units. Where such a unit did not exist in the First AIF or the Militia, the'2/' was not used, but it was adopted as identifying a unit of the Second AIF. After the war with Japan began, large numbers of experienced AIF officers were posted to Militia units; as a consequence, units in which more than 75% of their personnel were AIF volunteers were permitted to call themselves AIF units. By November 1944, 20 of the Militia's 33 infantry battalions were entitled to call themselves AIF. At this time the Army was 423,000 strong, of whom 25,000 were women, 307,000 were members of the AIF. In the South West Pacific, the Army found that its force structure was unbalanced, with a preponderance of operational units and a grave shortage of logistical units.
The Army was faced with government requests t
Sir George Russell Drysdale, AC known as "Tass Drysdale", was an Australian artist. He won the prestigious Wynne Prize for Sofala in 1947, represented Australia at the Venice Biennale in 1954, he was influenced by abstract and surrealist art, "created a new vision of the Australian scene as revolutionary and influential as that of Tom Roberts". George Russell Drysdale was born in Bognor Regis, England, to an Anglo-Australian pastoralist family, which settled in Melbourne, Australia in 1923. Drysdale was educated at Geelong Grammar School, he had poor eyesight all his life, was blind in his left eye from age 17 due to a detached retina. Drysdale worked on his uncle's estate in Queensland, as a jackaroo in Victoria. A chance encounter in 1932 with artist and critic Daryl Lindsay awakened him to the possibility of a career as an artist. Supported by a fellow artist, Drysdale studied with the modernist artist and teacher George Bell in Melbourne from 1935 to 1938, he made several trips to Europe. By the time of his return from the third of these trips in June 1939 Drysdale was recognised within Australia as an important emerging talent, but had yet to find a personal vision.
His decision to leave Melbourne for Albury and Sydney in 1940 was instrumental in his discovery of his lifelong subject matter, the Australian outback and its inhabitants. Important was the influence of fellow artist Peter Purves Smith in guiding him towards his characteristic mature style with its use of desolate landscapes inhabited by sparse figures under ominous skies. Drysdale's 1942 solo exhibition in Sydney was a critical success, established him as one of the leading Sydney modernists of the time, together with William Dobell, Elaine Haxton, Donald Friend. In 1944, The Sydney Morning Herald sent him into far western New South Wales "to illustrate the effects of the then-devastating drought". With his series of paintings of drought-ravaged western New South Wales and a series based on the derelict gold-mining town of Hill End, his reputation continued to grow during the 1940s. Sofala, a painting of the nearby town of Sofala, won the Wynne Prize for landscape in 1947, his 1948 work, The cricketers has been described by the National Gallery of Australia as "one of the most original and haunting images in all Australian art."
His 1950 exhibition at London's Leicester Galleries, at the invitation of Sir Kenneth Clark, was a significant milestone in the history of Australian art. Until this time, Australian art had been regarded as a provincial sub-species of British art; the exhibition initiated the international recognition of Australian art that came to include Dobell, Sidney Nolan, Arthur Boyd, Clifton Pugh, others who came to national and international prominence in the 1950s. Drysdale's reputation continued to grow throughout the 1950s and 1960s as he explored remote Australia and its inhabitants. In 1954, together with Nolan and Dobell, he was chosen to represent Australia at the Venice Biennale, in 1960, at Bouddi near Gosford, New South Wales. In 1960, he was the first Australian artist to be given a retrospective by the Art Gallery of New South Wales. In 1962 he co-wrote a travel book, Journey Among Men, with Jock Marshall, they dedicated it to their wives, "who were good enough to stay at home". In 1963 the Reserve Bank of Australia led by H. C.
Coombs, appointed him to a small committee supervising the note designs for the new Australian decimal currency. In 1969, Drysdale was knighted for his services to art, in 1980, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia, his years saw a marked falling off in the quantity of his output, which had never been large. Drysdale died in Sydney on 29 June 1981. At his request, Sir Russell's cremated remains were placed in the shade of a tree by the church in the burial ground beside historic St Paul's Anglican Church, Kincumber, he was married twice, had a son, a daughter, Lynne. Tim took his own life in 1962, aged twenty one, the following year, Drysdale's wife Bon committed suicide. In 1964 Drysdale married an old friend. Soon after Tim's suicide, Drysdale made the acquaintance of the composer Peter Sculthorpe, who had lost his father; the two spent a working holiday together in a house on the Tamar River in Tasmania, became lifelong friends. Sculthorpe came to regard Drysdale as a role model, admiring the way he reworked familiar material in new ways.
He said: "In years he was accused of painting the same picture over and over again. But his answer was that he was no different to a Renaissance artist, striving again and again to paint the perfect Madonna-and-Child. Since I've never had a problem about the idea of reusing and reworking my material. Like Tass, I've come to look on my whole output as one emerging work", he dedicated works to the memory of Bonnie Drysdale. Drysdale's second wife Maisie was the sister-in-law of the Canadian novelist Robertson Davies, with whom Peter Sculthorpe discussed collaborating on an opera based on the Australian adventures of the Irish actor Gustavus Vaughan Brooke. Australian art scholar and gallery director Ron Radford argues that, towards the end of World War II, Drysdale triggered "'a general redd
Antonio Dattilo Rubbo
Antonio Salvatore Dattilo Rubbo Napoli 21 June 1870 –Sydney 1 June 1955) was an Italian-born artist and art teacher active in Australia from 1897. Rubbo, or Dattilo-Rubbo, was born in Naples in 1870, spent his early childhood in the Neapolitan municipality of Frattamaggiore, he studied painting under Domenico Morelli and Filippo Palizzi before emigrating to Australia, arriving in Sydney in 1897. From 1898 Rubbo taught in Sydney schools including St. Joseph's College, Hunters Hill, The Scots College and Newington College. Dattilo Rubbo was not a great artist - "muddy genre portraits of wrinkled old Tuscan peasants were his strong suit," according to critic Robert Hughes - but he was an inspiring art teacher, responsible for introducing a whole generation of Australian painters to modernism through his art school and his classes at the Royal Art Society of New South Wales. In contrast to nearly all other art teachers in Australia at the time, he was not a reactionary, encouraged his students to experiment with styles as radically different from his own as post-impressionism and cubism.
He was a flamboyant character. Other students included Norah Simpson, Frank Hinder, Grace Cossington Smith, Donald Friend, Roy De Maistre, war artist Roy Hodgkinson, Archibald Prize winner Arthur Murch, social realist Roy Dalgarno, Tom Bass, more. In 1924 he helped to found Manly Art Gallery and Historical Collection which holds over one hundred and thirty of his works. Art of Australia
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Margaret Hannah Olley was an Australian painter. She was the subject of more than ninety solo exhibitions. Margaret Olley was born in New South Wales, she was the eldest of three children of Joseph Grace. She attended Somerville House in Brisbane during her high school years and was so focused on art that she dropped one French class in order to take another art lesson with teacher and artist Caroline Barker. In 1941, Margaret commenced classes at Brisbane Central Technical College and moved to Sydney in 1943 to enroll in an Art Diploma course at East Sydney Technical College where she graduated with A-class honours in 1945, her work concentrated on still life. In 1997 a major retrospective of her work was organised by the Art Gallery of New South Wales, she received the inaugural Mosman Art Prize in 1947. On 13 July 2006 she donated more works to the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Olley was twice the subject of an Archibald Prize winning painting, she was the subject of paintings by many of her artist friends, including Russell Drysdale and Danelle Bergstrom.
On 10 June 1991, in the Queen's Birthday Honours list, Olley was made an Officer of the Order of Australia "for service as an artist and to the promotion of art". On 12 June 2006, she was awarded Australia's highest civilian honour, the Companion of the Order, "for service as one of Australia's most distinguished artists, for support and philanthropy to the visual and performing arts, for encouragement of young and emerging artists". In 2006, Olley was awarded the degree Doctor of Fine Arts honoris causa by the University of Newcastle. Of the last paintings that Olley did before her death, 27 were exhibited at Sotheby's Australia in Woollahra in an exhibition entitled The Inner Sanctum of Margaret Olley that opened on 2 March 2012. Olley had put the final touches on the show the day before she died and Philip Bacon, who had exhibited her work for decades, had prepared a catalogue to show her that weekend; the opening night was attended by about 350 people among whom were the Governor-General of Australia, Quentin Bryce, who gave an address, in which she said that Olley's work was just like the artist, "filled with optimism".
Other attendees at the opening included Penelope Wensley, the Governor of Queensland, Edmund Capon, Ben Quilty and Barry Humphries. Olley died at her home in Paddington in July 2011, aged 88, she never had no children. Her Paddington home sold for over three million dollars in July 2014. After Olley's death, the Art Gallery of New South Wales used funds donated by its Collection Circle to purchase Nasturtiums, a painting by E. Phillips Fox as a memorial to her, her ideas about art were explored in conversations held between 19 October 2009 and 22 September 2010 with author Barry Pearce, whose book based on them was published in the year of her death. Part of Olley's Paddington house, well known for its items that the painter collected and used as subject matter for her art, described as "her lifelong installation", has been recreated at the Tweed River Art Gallery, an area not far from where the artist was born; the architect of the Tweed's new Margaret Olley Centre, Bud Brannigan, said that it would be faithful to Olley's house, "in all of its glory".
There is a comprehensive photographic record of her studio and work, shot on the morning she died, by artist photographer Greg Weight. This suite of prints, has been donated to the Tweed River Art Gallery. A documentary by Catherine Hunter, Margaret Olley — A Life in Paint follows Olley as she completes her last – and many believe her finest – works, those painted in the 18 months leading up to her death; the critically acclaimed film interprets Olley's style and artistic evolution through the reflections of her peers, including former National Gallery of Australia director Betty Churcher, curator Barry Pearce and Ben Quilty, whose portrait of Olley won the 2011 Archibald Prize. Margaret Olley paintings at google.com Phillip Bacon Galleries, Margaret Olley: Biographical notes Margaret Olley: Biography Margaret Olley at the Art Gallery of New South Wales Margaret Olley Australian Government Cultural and Recreational Portal Tyranny of the tape recorder by Brenda Niall ABR of Margaret Olley: Far from a Still Life by Meg Stewart Margaret Olley & Donald Friend, 21 January – 19 March 2006 S H Ervin Gallery Margaret Olley review by Grafico Topico's Sue Smith Obituary of Margaret Olley, The Daily Telegraph, 31 July 2011 Design and Art Australia Online Biographical Record