Donald James Cram was an American chemist who shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity." They were the founders of the field of host–guest chemistry. Cram was born and raised in Chester, Vermont, to a Scottish immigrant father, a German immigrant mother, his father died. He grew up on Aid to Dependent Children, learned to work at an early age, doing jobs such as picking fruit, tossing newspapers, painting houses, while bartering for piano lessons. By the time he turned eighteen, he had worked at least eighteen different jobs. Cram attended the Winwood High School in Long Island, N. Y. From 1938 to 1941, he attended Rollins College, in Winter Park, Florida on a national honorary scholarship, where he worked as an assistant in the chemistry department, was active in theater, chapel choir, Lambda Chi Alpha, Phi Society, Zeta Alpha Epsilon, it was at Rollins.
In 1941, he graduated from Rollins College with a B. S. in Chemistry. In 1942, he graduated from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln with a M. S. in organic chemistry, with Norman O. Cromwell serving as his thesis adviser, his subject was "Amino ketones, mechanism studies of the reactions of heterocyclic secondary amines with -bromo-, -unsaturated ketones."In 1947, Cram graduated from Harvard University with a Ph. D. in organic chemistry, with Louis Fieser, serving as the adviser on his dissertation on "Syntheses and reactions of 2--3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones" From 1942-1945, Cram worked in chemical research at Merck & Co laboratories, doing penicillin research with mentor Max Tishler. Postdoctoral work was as an American Chemical Society postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, with John D. Roberts. Cram was the originator of Cram's rule, which provides a model for predicting the outcome of nucleophilic attack of carbonyl compounds, he published over 350 research papers and eight books on organic chemistry, taught graduate and post-doctoral students from 21 different countries.
Cram expanded upon Charles Pedersen's ground-breaking synthesis of crown ethers, two-dimensional organic compounds that are able to recognize and selectively combine with the ions of certain metal elements. He synthesized molecules that took this chemistry into three dimensions, creating an array of differently shaped molecules that could interact selectively with other chemicals because of their complementary three-dimensional structures. Cram's work represented a large step toward the synthesis of functional laboratory-made mimics of enzymes and other natural molecules whose special chemical behavior is due to their characteristic structure, he did work in stereochemistry and Cram's rule of asymmetric induction is named after him. Cram was named an assistant professor at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1947, a professor in 1955, he served there until his retirement in 1987. He was a popular teacher, having instructed some 8,000 undergraduates in his career and guided the academic output of 200 graduate students.
He entertained his classes by singing folk songs. He showed a self-deprecating style, saying at one time: An investigator starts research in a new field with faith, a foggy idea, a few wild experiments; the interplay of negative and positive results guides the work. By the time the research is completed, he or she knows how it should have been started and conducted. Technical Reports: "Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Second Progress Report, 1 May 1975 -- 30 April 1976", UCLA, United States Department of Energy. "Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Fourth Progress Report, 1 May 1977 -- 30 April 1978", UCLA, United States Department of Energy. "Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Sixth Progress Report, 1 May 1979-30 April 1980", UCLA, United States Department of Energy. "Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Ninth Progress Report, 1 May 1980 -- 30 April 1983", UCLA, United States Department of Energy. Books: Cram, Donald J.. Container Molecules and their Guests.
Great Britain: Royal Society of Chemistry. Pp. 223 pp. ISBN 978-0-85404-507-5. Cram, Donald J.. From Design to Discovery. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. Pp. 146pp. Cram, Jane M.. The Essence of Organic Chemistry. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. Pp. 456pp. Hendrickson, James B.. Organic Chemistry. Reading, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 1279pp. 3rd ed. Richards, John. Elements of organic chemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 444pp. LCCN 66024479. Cram, Donald J.. Fundamentals of Carbanion Chemistry. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 289pp. Cram, Donald J.. Organic Chemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 846pp. 2nd ed. Cram, Donald J.. Organic Chemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 712pp. 1st ed. NAS Award in Chemical Sciences Saul Winstein Endowed Chair in Organic Chemistry National Medal of Science, 1993 International Academy of Science, member Glenn T. Seaborg Medal, 1989 ACS Southern California Tolman Award, 1984 ACS Chicago Section Willard Gibbs Award, 1985 ACS Cope Award for Distinguished Achievement in Organic Chemistry, 1974 Amer
Enrique Sanz de Santamaría is a Colombian-American sports executive. He was appointed as General Secretary of CONCACAF in July 2012, he has been related to the football world at a personal level since childhood and for the past 15 years at a professional level. Responsible for business development activities on different roles within the CONCACAF region at Traffic Sports USA, a leading soccer marketing company in Latin America, he consolidated and managed relationships with FIFA and CONCACAF representatives and Federations for over a decade. Overseeing a team of 50 people in marketing, human resources and operations, Sanz de Santamaría emerged as a well-rounded professional within the world of sports and, more the football field. After a nourishing time at his current position as Vice President of Traffic Sports USA, where he was heading the region since 2005, he has accepted the challenge of stepping into the CONCACAF organization as its General Secretary. During his time with Traffic Sports USA, he became part of the team who laid the foundation of NASL in the U.
S. He worked in a team that founded various football clubs and was crucial in the development of players in the region. Prior to his latest position, Sanz de Santamaría was founder and CEO of Media Sports Marketing, a football marketing agency, Vice President of Interforever Sports, a premier soccer marketing company in the CONCACAF region. Interforever had sold television rights to competitions such as the Caribbean Cup. Sanz de Santamaría has a B. S. degree in Marketing and Advertising from the University of Politécnico Grancolombiano and a master's degree in Sports Event Marketing and Management from New York University in 1999. Since he has furthered his studies with training courses and professional seminars that have complemented his expertise in the field. In wake of the FIFA corruption scandal the Executive Committee of CONCACAF has placed General Secretary Enrique Sanz on a leave of absence beginning May 28, 2015, he was dismissed from his position in August 2015. Sanz de Santamaria was banned by FIFA Ethics Committee.
Gunard Hjertstedt, better known by pen name Day Keene, was an American novelist, short story writer and radio and television scriptwriter. Keene wrote over 50 novels and was the head writer for radio soap operas Little Orphan Annie and Kitty Keene, Inc. Several of his novels were adapted into movies, including Joy House and Chautauqua, released as The Trouble with Girls. Framed in Guilt, 1949 Farewell to Passion, 1951 My Flesh Is Sweet, 1951 Love Me and Die, 1951 To Kiss or Kill, 1951 Hunt the Killer, 1952 About Doctor Ferrel, 1952 Home Is the Sailor, 1952 If the Coffin Fits, 1952 Naked Fury, 1952 Wake Up to Murder, 1952 Mrs. Homicide, 1953 Strange Witness, 1953 The Big Kiss-Off, 1954 There Was A Crooked Man, 1954 Death House Doll, 1954 His Father's Wife, 1954 Homicidal Lady, 1954 Joy House, 1954 Notorious, 1954 Sleep with the Devil, 1954 Who Has Wilma Lathrop?, 1955 The Dangling Carrot, 1955 Murder on the Side, 1956 Bring Him Back Dead, 1956 It's a Sin to Kill, 1958 Passage to Samoa, 1958 Dead Dolls Don't Talk, 1959 Dead in Bed, 1959 Moran's Woman, 1959 Miami 59, 1959 So Dead My Lovely, 1959 Take a Step to Murder, 1959 Too Black for Heaven, 1959 Too Hot to Hold, 1959 The Brimstone Bed, 1960 Chautauqua, 1960 Payola, 1960 World Without Women, 1960 Seed of Doubt, 1961 Bye, Baby Bunting, 1963 LA 46, 1964 Carnival of Death, 1965 Chicago 11, 1966 Acapulco Gpo, 1967 Southern Daughter, 1967 Live Again, Love Again, 1970 Wild Girl, 1970 Guns Along the Brazos, 1973 This is Murder, Mr. Herbert, Other Stories, 1948 League of the Grateful Dead and Other Stories, 2010
Charles Peter Layard, F. R. S. D. D. was Dean of Bristol from 1800 until his death. Layard was educated at St John's College, Cambridge He was ordained deacon on 21 December 1771, he was the Minister at the Oxenden Chapel, a daughter church of St Martin-in-the-Fields before holding incumbencies in Wootton Bassett and Kewstoke. Layard married Elizabeth Ward with issue including: Brownlow Villiers Layard, the eldest son, an army officer who became a cleric. Charlotte Susanna Elizabeth, married, as his second wife, Albemarle Bertie, 9th Earl of Lindsey and was mother of Lady Charlotte Guest. Henry Peter John Layard, of the Ceylon civil service, father of Austen Henry Layard
Nervous Conditions is a novel by Zimbabwean author Tsitsi Dangarembga, first published in the United Kingdom in 1988. It was the first book published by a black woman from Zimbabwe in English, it was one of the BBC's top 100 books that changed the world in 2018 and it won the Commonwealth Writers Prize in 1989. The semi-autobiographical novel focuses on the story of a Shona family in post-colonial Rhodesia during the 1960s. Nervous Conditions is the first of a proposed trilogy, with The Book of Not as the second novel in the series; the novel illustrates the dynamic themes of race and gender during the post-colonial conditions of present-day Zimbabwe. The title is taken from the introduction by Jean-Paul Sartre to Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth. Tambu is the main character of the novel; the novel opens up with the news that Tambu’s older brother, had just died. Tambu is not upset about this because Nhamo studied at a missionary school away from home with his uncle Babamukuru and his family.
The only thing Tambu desires is to attend school, but her family is poor and do not have enough money to pay her school fees. Tambu’s uncle and his family came to visit the homestead; because of Babamakuru's success, he is worshiped. During the visit, Babamukuru suggests that Tambu should take Nhamo's place and attend the missionary school by his house. Upon arriving, she soon becomes close to her cousin Nyasha and focuses on her studies. During term break, everyone returns to visit the family back in the homestead. Tambu does not want to go back. Towards the end of the term, there is an exam administered at Tambu’s school; this exam is to test the students and offer them an opportunity to study at a well known missionary school. Tambu is offered a scholarship to attend this well known school. In the new school Tambu is introduced to many cultural changes; as always she is focused on her studies. She remains cautious of her daily situations and nervous of the conditions that surround her. Tambu: Jeremiah and Mainini's daughter.
Tambu is the novel's main narrator of the story. Her desire for an education and to improve herself seem strong enough to overcome just about anything, she is hard on herself, always strives to do her best and make the correct decisions. Nyasha: Tambu's first cousin and Maiguru's daughter, her desire to be independent gets her into a lot of trouble, including numerous arguments with her father. Her time in England showed her a different life, she is having trouble assimilating back into Rhodesian society, suffering from some kind of eating disorder. Babamukuru: Tambu's uncle, the head of her family, he has a daughter, Nyasha. His actual name is never mentioned in the novel. Tambu always calls him "Babamukuru", which means "father's older brother". A well-educated man, he is the dean of the missionary school; as head of the family, he feels responsible for the rest of his extended family. By contrast, he shows subservience to the people. Maiguru: Nyasha's mother. Maiguru is a well-educated woman, forced to be reliant on her husband, Babamukuru.
She is frustrated because while she has the potential to provide for herself, she is prevented from doing so by patriarchial forces. Chido: Babamukuru and Maiguru's son; because Chido is Babamukuru's son, he received a good education, but he succumbed to the customs of the white colonists. Jeremiah: Babamukuru's brother and Tambu's father. Jeremiah received little education and is able to provide for his family, he acts grateful to Babamukuru for the education. Lucia: Mainini's sister. Lucia stays unknown during the course of the novel, she is believed to have had many affairs with wealthy men. She is a independent woman, is determined to educate herself and not fall into the normal roles of women in her society. Mainini: Tambu's mother. After Nhamo's death, when Tambu goes to the mission, she becomes resentful of Babamukuru for taking another one of her children to his school. Nhamo: Tambu's brother; as the eldest son in the family, Nhamo is chosen to go to the mission school. After being at the school, he feels he is superior to the rest of his family, takes no part in their daily tasks.
He starts going home from the mission less and less until his death. Gender Gender is one major theme expressed in the novel; the Rhodesian female characters are oppressed on the basis of gender, this is a driving force behind many of the story arcs in the novel. Colonialism Colonialism is another major theme in the novel - it is another driving force behind many of the plot points, including the fixation on education and Nyasha's internal struggles with race and colonialism. Additionally, Tambu's trajectory starting with her early education and ending with her acceptance at the nun's school reveals the colonial nature of that scholarship, since the African students were not treated the same as the white Western students. Nervous Conditions has received positive reviews, making it a prominent African and Zimbabwean literary work; the Africa Book Club recommends Nervous Conditions, claiming Dangarembga’s work to be, "a thought-provoking novel that packs a huge number of complicated ideas into a simple and engaging story."
Nervous Conditions was awarded the Commonwealth Writers' Prize in 19
Jason McRoy was an English professional mountain bike racer. McRoy was the first British rider to join an American professional mountain bike team – Specialized/2 Calorie Quest – and was a UK National downhill champion. Despite being born with a hole in his heart, enduring a childhood beset by illness, McRoy developed an early love of cycling. Following childhood success in BMX racing – curtailed by a serious injury to his knee, a consequent period off his bike to recuperate – McRoy first tried downhill mountain bike racing at age 17. In his first race, despite still being registered as a Junior, his time was sufficiently quick for him to take third place overall. McRoy rose to international prominence after taking second place in the prestigious Mammoth Kamikaze race in 1993, the first year that the event was held to the'Eliminator' format, it was following this success. He was killed in a motorcycle accident on the A628 Woodhead Pass between Manchester and Sheffield, England. There is a memorial up on this road where flowers and banners have been placed.