Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Ivar Johansson (wrestler)
For the politician see Ivar Johansson Ivar Valentin Johansson was a Swedish wrestler who competed at the 1928, 1932 and 1936 Summer Olympics. In 1932 he won the gold medal in freestyle middleweight events. Four years he won the gold medal in the Greco-Roman middleweight competition. At the 1932 Olympics Johansson first competed as a freestyle middleweight. Despite being a favorite, he lost his first bout to Kyösti Luukko, yet he won his all other bouts by fall, while Luukko finished second. Two days he was scheduled to compete as a Greco-Roman welterweight. For this purpose he shed five kilograms of bodyweight by fasting and sweating in a sauna, yet easily won all four bouts; the same year he was awarded the Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal. Johansson never competed at the world championships. At the European championships he won nine titles in 1931–1939, six in Greco-Roman and three int freestyle wrestling. Johansson grew up in a rural area near Norrköping, where he built his strength by manual labor at a farm.
He moved to Norrköping city to work as a police officer and as a wrestling coach. The annual wrestling award "Ivars Guldsko" was established in Sweden in his honor after his death
Hadar is a village in Ethiopia on the southern edge of the Afar Triangle. The village is known for the nearby archaeological digs which have yielded some of the most well-known hominin fossils, including "Lucy." According to Jon Kalb, early maps show caravan routes passing within 10 or 15 kilometers of Hadar, though not through it. The British explorer L. M. Nesbitt passed 15 kilometers west of Hadar in 1928; the Afar Regional State is located in the local rift valley. While the area can vary in altitude, most of the rift valley is flat land; the location with the lowest known altitude in the area saw one of the highest temperatures recorded. The highest peak in the region rises to only 2063m above sea level; the climate in the Afar Region is dry throughout the year. The lowest recorded temperatures were around 25°C during the rainy season from September to March, but can reach as high as 48°C during the drier seasons; as this region is lowlands, it is affected by drought and low air circulation.
The Awash River, which runs through the area, creates a small belt of drought-resistant vegetation. However, it is made up of salt deposits and desert. Native regional wildlife includes the zebra, ostrich, wild fox, African wild ass. Hadar is located in Qadaqar woreda, part of Administrative Zone 1 of the Afar Region; the Central Statistical Agency has not published an estimate for its 2018 population data, but according to its 2007 census, Administrative Zone 1 had a total population of 410,790 people, with a female population of 186,134 and a male population of 224,656. Its urban population was estimated to be 82,886, while its rural population was estimated to be 327,904; as of 1995, Ethiopia is defined as a "Federal Democratic Republic," and employs a parliamentary legislative system. Hadar is a locality within the Afar Regional State. Hadar, Ethiopia falls under the authority of the Afar Regional State government; the Afar Regional State government consists of legislative and judicial branches.
The highest state authority is the state council. The first paleo-geological explorations of the Hadar area were conducted by Maurice Taieb, he found Hadar in December 1970 by following the Ledi River, which originates in the highlands north of Bati to empty into the Awash River. Taieb recovered a number of fossils in the area, led a party back to Hadar in May 1972. In October 1973, 16 individuals with the International Afar Research Expedition arrived at Hadar and camped there for two months, during which time the first hominin fossil was found; the IARE party examined a series of sedimentary layers called the Hadar Formation, dated to the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene epochs. Archaeologist Donald Johanson, a member of the 1973 expedition to Hadar, returned the next year and discovered the fossil hominin "Lucy" in late fall of 1974, he spotted a right proximal ulna in a gully, followed by an occipital bone, a femur, some ribs, a pelvis, a lower jaw. Within two weeks, nearly 40 % of the hominoid skeleton was cataloged.
Lucy is the most famous fossil to have been found at Hadar. Lucy is among the oldest hominin fossils discovered and was given the taxonomic classification Australopithecus afarensis. In 1975, Johanson made another discovery at a nearby site in Hadar: 216 specimens from 17 individuals, most related and varying in age, called AL 333. About thirty years in nearby Dikika, another Australopithecus afarensis fossil skeleton was found in a separate outcrop of the Hadar Formation across the Awash River from Hadar; the skeleton is of a three-year-old girl named "Selam," which means peace in Amharic Ethiopian languages. Photo gallery from a University of Washington archaeological field season
Yves Coppens is a French anthropologist and co-discoverer of the fossil known as "Lucy". A graduate from the University of Rennes, he has studied ancient hominids and has had multiple published works on this topic, has produced a film. On Saturday, 18 October 2014, Professor Coppens was named an Ordinary Member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences by Pope Francis. Coppens is one of the co-discoverers of Lucy along with Maurice Taieb. However, Richard Dawkins makes the following observation in The Ancestor's Tale: "Incidentally, I don't know what to make of the fact that in his native France, Yves Coppens is cited as the discoverer of Lucy as the'father' of Lucy. In the English-speaking world, this important discovery is universally attributed to Donald Johanson"; this confusion is. Donald Johanson, who lead the 1974 expedition, was the one; the "Rift Valley theory", proposed and supported by the Dutch primatologist Adriaan Kortlandt, became better known when it was espoused and renamed by Coppens as the "East Side Story".
However, this paradigm has been challenged by the discovery of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Sahelanthropus tchadensis by Michel Brunet's team in Toumaï in Chad (2,500 km to west Rift Valley The main-belt asteroid 172850 Coppens was named in his honour. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 21 March 2008. Yves Coppens chaired the commission which wrote the French Charter for the Environment of 2004. A Species Odyssey Lexnews Magazine interview with Yves Coppens
Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, it was written by John Lennon and credited to the Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership. Lennon's son Julian inspired the song with a nursery school drawing that he called "Lucy – in the sky with diamonds". Shortly before the album's release, speculation arose that the first letter of each of the title nouns intentionally spelled "LSD", the acronym used for the hallucinogenic drug Lysergic acid diethylamide; as a result, the song was the subject of a BBC radio ban. Lennon denied that he had intended it as a drug song, although he got the inspiration from an LSD trip, he attributed the song's fantastical imagery to his reading of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland books. The Beatles recorded "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" in March 1967. Adding to the song's ethereal qualities, the musical arrangement includes a Lowrey organ part treated with studio effects, drone provided by an Indian tambura.
The song has been recognised as a key work in the psychedelic genre. Among its many cover versions, a 1974 recording by Elton John, with a guest appearance by Lennon, was a number 1 hit in the US and Canada. John Lennon said that his inspiration for the song came when his three-year-old son Julian showed him a nursery school drawing that he called "Lucy – in the Sky with Diamonds", depicting his classmate Lucy O'Donnell. Julian recalled: "I don't know why I called it that or why it stood out from all my other drawings, but I had an affection for Lucy at that age. I used to show Dad everything I'd built or painted at school, this one sparked off the idea." Ringo Starr witnessed the moment and said that Julian first uttered the song's title on returning home from nursery school. Lennon said, "I thought that beautiful. I wrote a song about it."According to Lennon, the lyrics were derived from the literary style of Lewis Carroll's novel Alice in Wonderland. Lennon had read and admired Carroll's works, the title of Julian's drawing reminded him of the "Which Dreamed It?"
Chapter of Through the Looking Glass, in which Alice floats in a "boat beneath a sunny sky". Lennon recalled in a 1980 interview: It was Alice in the boat, she is buying an egg and it turns into Humpty-Dumpty. The woman serving in the shop turns into a sheep and the next minute they are rowing in a rowing boat somewhere and I was visualizing that. Paul McCartney remembered of the song's composition, "We did the whole thing like an Alice in Wonderland idea, being in a boat on the river... Every so it broke off and you saw Lucy in the sky with diamonds all over the sky; this Lucy was God, the Big Figure, the White Rabbit." He recalled helping Lennon finish the song at Lennon's Kenwood home claiming he contributed the "newspaper taxis" and "cellophane flowers" lyrics. Lennon's 1968 interview with Rolling Stone magazine confirmed McCartney's contribution. Most of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" is in simple triple metre. In the original mono mix of the song, the song modulates between musical keys, using the key of G# major for verses, A major for the pre-chorus, F# major for the chorus.
The original stereo mix of the song speeds the song up. It is sung by Lennon over an complicated underlying arrangement which features a tambura, played by George Harrison, lead electric guitar put through a Leslie speaker, played by Harrison, a counter melody on Lowrey organ played by McCartney and taped with a special organ stop sounding "not unlike a celeste". Session tapes from the initial 1 March 1967 recording of this song reveal Lennon sang the line "Cellophane flowers of yellow and green" as a broken phrase, but McCartney suggested that he sing it more fluidly to improve the song; the recording of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" began with rehearsals in Studio 2 at Abbey Road on 28 February 1967. The instrumental backing was finished the following evening. On the first take, track one of the four-track tape contained acoustic guitar and piano, track two McCartney's Lowrey organ, track three Ringo Starr's drums, track four a guide vocal by Lennon during the verses. Take eight replaced the guide vocal with Harrison's tamboura.
The four tracks of this take were mixed together and recorded on the first track of a second four-track tape. On 2 March, Lennon's double-tracked vocals, accompanied by McCartney on the choruses, were recorded to tracks two and three. McCartney's bass and Harrison's lead guitar occupied track four; the lead guitar part varies between sections of the song: over the bridges, Harrison duplicates Lennon's melody and intonation in the style of a sarangi accompanying an Indian khyal vocalist. Eleven mono mixes of the song were made at the 2 March session, but they were rejected in favour of the final mono mix created on 3 March. A stereo mix was made on 7 April. Outtakes from the recording sessions have been released; the Beatles' Anthology 2, released in 1996, contained a composite remix, with ingredients from takes six and eight, while the first take of the song was featured on the two-disc and six-disc versions of the 50th-anniversary edition of Sgt. Pepper in 2017; the six-disc collection included take five and the last of the eleven mono mixes made on 2 March 1967.
Rumours of the connection between the title of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and the initialism "LSD" began circulating shortly after the release of the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band LP in June 1