Donald Ervin Knuth is an American computer scientist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize of computer science, he is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming. He contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, the Computer Modern family of typefaces; as a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. Knuth opposes granting software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation.
Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning. His father had two jobs: running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, received academic accolades there because of the ingenious ways that he thought of solving problems. For example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create. Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found 4,500 words, winning the contest; as prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat. In 1956, Knuth received a scholarship to the Case Institute of Technology in Ohio, he joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity. While studying physics at the Case Institute of Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, one of the early mainframes. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school, because he believed he could do it better.
In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team win their games. He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News reported on. Knuth was one of the founding editors of Case Institute's Engineering and Science Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in 1959, he switched from physics to mathematics, in 1960 he received his bachelor of science degree being given a master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who considered his work exceptionally outstanding. In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser, he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an assistant professor, he accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming.
He planned to publish this as a single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes, seven, to cover the subject, he published the first volume in 1968. Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division situated on the Princeton University campus, performing mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security Agency. Knuth left this position to join the Stanford University faculty in 1969, where he is now Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus. Knuth is a writer, as well as a computer scientist. Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms". In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a new field with no real identity, and the standard of available publications was not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite wrong.... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story, badly told."
By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published. Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science 2nd ed. which originated with an expansion of the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has been published. Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a good programmer... You should send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing." Knuth is the author of Surreal Numbers, a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing creative research. In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek, Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger. Knuth is an occasional contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics. Knuth has delved into recreational mathematics.
He contributed articles to the Journal of Recreational Mathematics beginning in the 1960s, was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's Mathematics on
Vladimír Havlík is a Czech action artist and pedagogue. Havlík was educated at Palacký University under the tutelage of Prof. Alena Nádvorníková, at Jan Evangelista Purkyně University. Art historian Pavlína Morganová has described Havlík's key role in the early days of Czechoslovakian action art: According to Czech curator and art historian Tomáš Pospiszyl, In 2015, on being awarded the annual Umělec má cenu prize in Olomouc, where he lives, Havlík reflected that he is always interested in "experiencing actions again" in the same places where he had practiced action art under the Czech communist regime during the 1980s. Moreover, nowadays he enjoys doing so in collaboration with younger artists such as Barborou Klímovou. Havlík, V. Actions and Interventions 1978–1988. Havlík, Artyčok.tv, 1983–2008. Havlík, Němý film, Artyčok.tv, 2013
The valley of Lurín is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. Known for its archaeological temple of Pachacamac, the Pachacamac Island or "La Ballena", countryside areas, fincas, rural restaurants and beaches, it is one of the three valleys of the city of Lima, it borders on the north with the districts of Pachacamac, Villa María del Triunfo, Villa el Salvador, to the east with the Pachacamac District, to the south with Punta Hermosa, to the west with the Pacific Ocean. It was created on January 2, 1857, since it has been an agricultural district as it is located in the center of the Lurín River valley, it has a few beaches which receive tourists during the summer months principally from the city of Lima which it is being incorporated into. Important Peruvian social clubs are located in this district one of the two most popular football clubs in Peru: Alianza Lima and Universitario de Deportes; this southern suburb of Lima benefits from industrial activities along the Panamericana highway like Unique -Yanbal factory and an industrial park "Las Praderas" where important companies like Owens Illinois operate.
Administrative divisions of Peru Cono Sur Lima Metropolitan Area