Donation of Pepin
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome. In 751, king of the Lombards, conquered what remained of the exarchate of Ravenna, the last vestige of the Roman Empire in northern Italy. In 752, Aistulf demanded the submission of a tribute of one gold solidus, per capita. Pope Stephen II and a Roman envoy, John the Silentiary, tried by negotiations and bribes to convince Aistulf to back down; when this failed, Stephen sent envoys to Pepin the Short, king of the Franks, with a letter requesting his support and the provision of a Frankish escort so that Stephen could go to Pepin to confer. At the time, the Franks were on good terms with the Lombards. In 753, John the Silentiary returned to Rome with an imperial order that Pope Stephen accompany him to meet Aistulf in the Lombard capital of Pavia; the pope duly received a safe-conduct from the Lombards. With the Frankish envoys who had by arrived, the pope and the imperial envoy set out for Pavia on 14 October 753.
The Roman magnates did not accompany them past the border. At Pavia, Aistulf denied the requests of Stephen and John to return the conquered exarchate to the empire, but he did not prevent Stephen from continuing with the Frankish envoys to the court of Pepin. John the Silentiary did not accompany them; this was the first time. Pope Stephen met Pepin the Short at Quierzy-sur-Oise in 753; the Pope was first met by Pepin's eleven-year-old son, who conveyed him to his father at Ponthion. At Quierzy the Frankish nobles gave their consent to a campaign in Lombardy. Roman Catholic tradition asserts that it was and there that Pepin executed in writing a promise to convey to the Papacy certain territories that were going to be wrested from the Lombards. No original document has been preserved, but 8th century sources quote from it and the Fragmentum Fantuzzianum relied on it. On 28 July 754 Pope Stephen anointed Pepin, as well as his two sons Charles and Carloman, at Saint-Denis in a memorable ceremony, recalled in coronation rites of French kings until the end of the ancien régime in 1792.
In return, in 756, Pepin and his Frankish army forced the Lombard king to surrender his conquests, Pepin conferred upon the pope the territories belonging to Ravenna cities such as Forlì with their hinterlands, laying the deeds and keys to the cities upon the tomb of Saint Peter, according to traditional accounts. The gift included Lombard conquests in the Romagna and in the Duchy of Spoleto and Benevento, the Pentapolis in the Marche; the Donations made the Pope for the first time as a temporal ruler. This strip of territory extended diagonally across Italy from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic. Over these extensive and mountainous territories the medieval Popes were unable to exercise effective sovereignty, given the pressures of the times, the new Papal States preserved the old Lombard heritage of many small counties and marquisates, each centered upon a fortified rocca. Pepin confirmed his Donations in Rome in 756. In 774 Pepin's son Charlemagne again confirmed and reasserted the Donation.
Some chronicles falsely claimed that he expanded them, granting Tuscany, Emilia and Corsica. Donation of Constantine, a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope
The Liber Pontificalis is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II or Pope Stephen V, but it was supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV and Pope Pius II. Although quoted uncritically from the 8th to 18th century, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny; the work of the French priest Louis Duchesne, of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."The title Liber Pontificalis goes back to the 12th century, although it only became current in the 15th century, the canonical title of the work since the edition of Duchesne in the 19th century. In the earliest extant manuscripts it is referred to as Liber episcopalis in quo continentur acta beatorum pontificum Urbis Romae and the Gesta or Chronica pontificum.
During the Middle Ages, Saint Jerome was considered the author of all the biographies up until those of Pope Damasus I, based on an apocryphal letter between Saint Jerome and Pope Damasus published as a preface to the Medieval manuscripts. The attribution originated with Rabanus Maurus and is repeated by Martin of Opava, who extended the work into the 13th century. Other sources attribute the early work to Hegesippus and Irenaeus, having been continued by Eusebius of Caesarea. In the 16th century, Onofrio Panvinio attributed the biographies after Damasus until Pope Nicholas I to Anastasius Bibliothecarius; the modern interpretation, following that of Louis Duchesne, is that the Liber Pontificalis was and unsystematically compiled, that the authorship is impossible to determine, with a few exceptions. Duchesne and others have viewed the beginning of the Liber Pontificalis up until the biographies of Pope Felix III as the work of a single author, a contemporary of Pope Anastasius II, relying on Catalogus Liberianus, which in turn draws from the papal catalogue of Hippolytus of Rome, the Leonine Catalogue, no longer extant.
Most scholars believe the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled in the 6th century. Because of the use of the vestiarium, the records of the papal treasury, some have hypothesized that the author of the early Liber Pontificalis was a clerk of the papal treasury. Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire summarised the scholarly consensus as being that the Liber Pontificalis was composed by "apostolic librarians and notaries of the viiith and ixth centuries" with only the most recent portion being composed by Anastasius. Duchesne and others believe that the author of the first addition to the Liber Pontificalis was a contemporary of Pope Silverius, that the author of another addition was a contemporary of Pope Conon, with popes being added individually and during their reigns or shortly after their deaths; the Liber Pontificalis only contained the names of the bishops of Rome and the durations of their pontificates. As enlarged in the 6th century, each biography consists of: the birth name of the pope and that of his father, place of birth, profession before elevation, length of pontificate, historical notes of varying thoroughness, major theological pronouncements and decrees, administrative milestones, date of death, place of burial, the duration of the ensuing sede vacante.
Pope Adrian II is the last pope for which there are extant manuscripts of the original Liber Pontificalis: the biographies of Pope John VIII, Pope Marinus I, Pope Adrian III are missing and the biography of Pope Stephen V is incomplete. From Stephen V through the 10th and 11th centuries, the historical notes are abbreviated with only the pope's origin and reign duration, it was only in the 12th century that the Liber Pontificalis was systematically continued, although papal biographies exist in the interim period in other sources. Duchesne refers to the 12th century work by Petrus Guillermi in 1142 at the monastery of St. Gilles as the Liber Pontificalis of Petrus Guillermi. Guillermi's version is copied from other works with small additions or excisions from the papal biographies of Pandulf, nephew of Hugo of Alatri, which in turn was copied verbatim from the original Liber Pontificalis from other sources until Pope Honorius II, with contemporary information from Pope Paschal II to Pope Urban II.
Duchesne attributes all biographies from Pope Gregory VII to Urban II to Pandulf, while earlier historians like Giesebrecht and Watterich attributed the biographies of Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II to Petrus Pisanus, the subsequent biographies to Pandulf. These biographies until those of Pope Martin IV are extant only as revised by Petrus Guillermi in the manuscripts of the monastery of
Peter (given name)
Peter is a common masculine given name. It is derived from Greek Πέτρος, "petros" The following names can be interpreted as Peter in English Afrikaans: Pieter, Petrus Albanian: Petro, Pjetër, Pjetri Amharic: ጴጥሮስ Arabic: بطرس, بيار, بيتر Aragonese: Pietro, Piero, Pier. Azerbaijani: Pyotr Armenian: Պետրոս Asturian: Pedru Basque: Peru, Pedro, Petri, Kepa Belarusian: Пётр, Пятро, Пятрусь Breton: Pêr Bulgarian: Петър, Пере, Перо, Петьо, Петю, Пеньо, Пеню, Пенко, Пельо, Пелю, Пелко, Пешо; the name is spelled "Pierre" and pronounced "pyè". Hausa: Bitrus Hindi: Pathrus, पीटर Hebrew: פטרוס, פיטר Hungarian: Péter. Diminutives/hypocoristics include Piotrek, Piotruś, Piotrunio. Piotr has several name days in Poland. Portuguese: Pedro, Pêro Punjabi: ਪਤਰਸਨੂੰ Quechua: Pidru Romanian: Petru, Petrică, Petrișor Russian: Пётр, Петя Samoan: Petelo Sardinian: Pedru, Pretu Scottish Gaelic: Petar, Pater Serbian: Петар, Перо, Пера, Перица, Периша Serbo-Croatian: Petar, Pera, Periša, Sicilian: Pietru Silesian: Pyjter, Piter Sinhala: Peduru Slovak: Peter, Peťo Slovene: Peter Spanish: Pedro Swahili: Petero Swedish: Peter, Peder, Pehr, Pär, Pelle, Pälle Syriac: ܦܛܪܘܣ Tamil: Pethuru, Raayappar Telugu: Peturu Thai: ปีเตอร์ Tswana: Petere, Pitoro Turkish: Petro, Petrus Ukrainian: Петро, Пітер, Петрик, Петрусь Urdu: پیٹر Uzbek: Piter Venetian: Piero Vietnamese: Phêrô Võro: Piitre Welsh: Pedr West Frisian: Petrus Yoruba: Peteru Zulu: Petru List of people named Peter Pete, a list of people Pete, a list of people Piotter
Pope Gregory II
Pope Gregory II was Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731. His defiance of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian as a result of the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Empire prepared the way for a long series of revolts and civil wars that led to the establishment of the temporal power of the popes. Born into a noble Roman family in the year 669, Gregory was the son of Honesta; as a young man, he was placed in the papal court, was made a subdeacon and sacellarius of the Roman See during the pontificate of Pope Sergius I. He was made a deacon and placed in charge of the Vatican Library. During the pontificate of Pope Constantine, Gregory was made a papal secretary, accompanied him to Constantinople in 711 to deal with the issues raised by Rome’s rejection of the canons of the Quinisext Council; the actual negotiations on the contentious articles were handled by Gregory, with the result that the emperor Justinian II agreed that the Papacy could disregard whichever of the council’s decisions it wished to.
After Constantine’s death on 9 April 715, Gregory was elected pope, was consecrated as Bishop of Rome on 19 May 715. Gregory began the task of repairing the Walls of Rome, beginning at the Porta Tiburtina. Work on this task was delayed in October 716 when the Tiber river burst its banks and flooded Rome, causing immense damage and only receding after eight days. Gregory ordered a number of litanies to be said to stem the floods, which spread over the Campus Martius and the so-called Plains of Nero, reaching the foot of the Capitoline Hill; the first year of his pontificate saw a letter arrive from Patriarch John VI of Constantinople, who attempted to justify his support of Monothelitism, while at the same time seeking sympathy from the pope over the position he was in, with respect to the emperor. Gregory responded by sending a letter outlining the traditional Roman position against Monothelitism. In 716, Gregory received an official visit from Theodo, the Duke of Bavaria, to discuss the continuing conversion of his lands to Christianity.
As a result of this meeting, Gregory gave specific instructions to his delegates who were to travel to Bavaria, coordinate with the duke, establish a local church hierarchy, overseen by an archbishop. Gregory maintained an interest in Bavaria. Gregory next turned his attention to Germany. In 718, he was approached by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, who proposed undertaking missionary work in Germany. Gregory agreed, after changing his name to Boniface, commissioned him in May 719 to preach in Germany. After hearing of the work, done so far, in 722 Gregory summoned Boniface back to Rome to answer rumours concerning Boniface’s doctrinal purity. At this face to face meeting, Boniface complained that he found Gregory’s Latin difficult to understand, a clear indication that Vulgar Latin had started to evolve into the Romance languages. After examining Boniface’s written profession of faith, Gregory was satisfied enough that he made Boniface a bishop in November 722, returned him to Germany to continue his mission.
Continued successes saw Gregory write to Boniface in December 724 to offer his congratulations, followed in November 726 by a response to Boniface’s questions about how to structure the newly emergent churches in Germany. Gregory strengthened papal authority in the churches of Britain and Ireland. In 726 Gregory had a royal visit from Ine, the former King of Wessex, who had abdicated the throne in order to undertake a pilgrimage to Rome and end his life there. Gregory concerned himself with establishing or restoring monasteries, he turned his family mansion in Rome into a monastery, St. Agatha in Suburra, endowing it with expensive and precious vessels for use at the altar, established a new church, dedicated to Sant'Eustachio. In 718 he restored Monte Cassino, which had not recovered from an attack by the Lombards in 584, he intervened in a dispute at the Monastery of St. Vincent on the Volturno over the deposition of the abbot. In 721, Gregory held a synod in Rome, for the purpose of fixing issues around illegitimate marriages.
In 723, the longstanding dispute between the patriarchs of Aquileia and Grado flared up again. Upon the request of the Lombard king, Gregory had given the pallium to Bishop Serenus, granting him the patriarchate of Aquileia. Soon afterwards, Gregory received a letter from Donatus, Patriarch of Grado, complaining that Serenus had overstepped his authority, was interfering within what was Grado’s ecclesiastical jurisdiction. At the same time, Gregory reprimanded Donatus for complaining about Gregory’s decision to grant the pallium to Serenus in the first place. In 725, upon Donatus’ death, the Grado patriarchate was usurped by Peter, the Bishop of Pola. Gregory responded by depriving Peter of both sees, he wrote to the people of the diocese, reminding them to only elect bishops in accordance with church law, whereupon they elected Antoninus, with Gregory’s approval. Gregory mandated a number of practices within the Church, he decreed that in Lent, on the Thursdays, people should fast, just as they were required to do during the other days of the week.
The practice had been frowned upon by popes of previous centuries, as pagans had fasted on Thursday as part of their worship of Jupiter. He prescribed the offices to be said during church services on Thursdays in Lent, as prior to this, the Mass of the preceding Sunday was said on those Thursdays. Gregory attempted to remain on good diplomat
Sutri is an Ancient town, modern comune and former bishopric in the province of Viterbo, about 50 kilometres from Rome and about 30 kilometres south of Viterbo. It is picturesquely situated on a narrow tuff hill, surrounded by ravines, a narrow neck on the west alone connecting it with the surrounding country; the modern comune of Sutri has a few more than 5,000 inhabitants. Its ancient remains are a major draw for tourism: a Roman amphitheatre excavated in the tuff rock, an Etruscan necropolis with dozens of rock-cut tombs, a Mithraeum incorporated in the crypt of its church of the Madonna del Parto, a Romanesque Duomo. Ancient Sutrium occupied an important position, commanding as it did the road into Etruria, the Via Cassia: Livy describes it as one of the keys of Etruria, nearby Nepi being the other, it came into the hands of Rome after the fall of Veii, a Latin colony was founded there. It was besieged by the Etruscans in 311–310 BC, but not taken. With Nepi and ten other Latin colonies it refused further help in the Second Punic War in 209 BC.
Its importance as a fortress explains, according to Festus, the proverb Sutrium ire, of one who goes on important business, as it occurs in Plautus. It is mentioned in; the war of 41 BC, received a colony of veterans under the triumviri. Inscriptions show that it was a place of some importance under the empire, it is mentioned as occupied by the Lombards. Sutri retained its strategic importance as a fortified place near the borders of the Duchy of Rome; the Donation of Sutri was an agreement reached at Sutri between the Lombard king Liutprand the Lombard and Pope Gregory II in 728. At Sutri the two reached an agreement, by which Sutri and some hill towns in Latium were given to the Papacy, "as a gift to the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul" according to the Liber Pontificalis; the pact formed the first extension of Papal territory beyond the confines of the Duchy of Rome. An important hoard of jewellery dating from this time, known as the Sutri Treasure, was found near the town in the 19th century.
It is now in the British Museum. Sutri, the seat of a bishopric, was retrieved for the Papacy after the defeat of the Lombards. Pope Gregory VI abdicated at Sutri on December 20, 1046, following the Synod of Sutri convened at the request of Emperor Henry III. In 1111 it was the seat of the treaty between Paschal II and Emperor Henry V. In 1244 it was conquered by Pietro di Vico, but was taken by Pandolfo, count of Anguillara, who gave it back to the Papal States; the city witnessed the struggles between Ghibellines. In 1433 the condottiero Niccolò Fortebraccio set fire to Sutri, from that point onward the city declined in favour of Ronciglione. Established circa 500 as Diocese of Sutri or Sutrium, without direct predecessor. In 900 it gained canonical territory from the suppressed Diocese of Monterano. Pope Gregory VI abdicated at Sutri on December 20, 1046, following the Synod of Sutri, a non-ecumenical council convened at the request of Emperor Henry III to resolve three rival claims to the papacy in favor of an imperial German protégé, Pope Clement II.
On 1435.12.12 it was suppressed itself, its territory and title being merged into the newly renamed Diocese of Nepi-Sutri. Recorded incumbent Bishops: Tommaso, Dominican Order The diocese was nominally restored in 1991 as Latin Titular bishopric of Sutri or Sutrium, it has had the following incumbents, of the fitting episcopal rank with two archiepiscopal exceptions: Titular Archbishop: Paolo Sardi, nbetween Roman Curia offices: Vice-Assessor for General Affairs of Papal Secretariat of State Vice-Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church of the Apostolic Camera, Pro-Patron of Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, created Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana, promoted Patron of above Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta Titular Bishop: Christoph Schönborn, Dominican order as Auxiliary Bishop of Wien; the cathedral, of Romanesque origin, is modern: of the medieval edifice the belltower and the crypt, from the Lombard period, with seven naves divided by twenty columns of different origin.
In the cliffs opposite the town on the south is the rock-cut church of the Madonna del Parto, developed out of one of the numerous Etruscan tombs of the area. The most striking edifice is the
Vetralla is a town and comune in the province of Viterbo, in central Italy, 11 kilometres south of that city, located on a shoulder of Monte Fogliano. Vetralla's dominating fortified position in the heart of Etruscan territories has been continuously occupied since the Early Middle Ages; the Roman site, two kilometers distant, was a posting station on the Via Cassia. The site was depopulated in the Empire, when a smaller population retreated to the present strategic position commanding the valley, where it remained exposed to attack, in spite of the imposing walls that encircled it; the little fortress had been incorporated into the Papal States from their historic beginnings with the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II, but the lords of Viterbo held it from 1110 to 1134. By 1145, Pope Eugene III was installed at Vetralla, safely removed from the violence and party strife of Rome; the territory was given extensive woodlands by Pope Innocent III in 1206, which brought it into fierce contention with the lords of Viterbo who coveted the land.
To this day, in the annual ceremonial Sposalizio dell'albero, the mayor of Vetralla reaffirms the town's rights of possession on Monte Fogliano. The fief was entrusted through the centuries to various noble families associated with the Papacy, as lords of Vetralla: first the Orsini the Di Vico until 1435, when the last lord Giacomo di Vico was forcibly ousted by the cardinal-condottiere Giovanni Vitelleschi, confined in the fortress of Soriano beheaded. Vetralla passed in rapid succession among a series of Papal nobles: to Cardinal Giovanni Borgia, to Lorenzo Cybo, to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in 1534. Uniquely among non-English cities, in 1512 Vetralla received the protection of the English Crown, bestowed upon the town by Henry VIII, a monument commemorating this event can still be found in the local town hall. Church of San Pietro Church of San Francesco Church of Sant'Angelo Grotta Porcina Church of Santa Maria in Forocasii City and Territory Museum Rock necropolis of Norchia Vetralle is reached by the SS Cassia national road.
The Aurelia bis road connects it to Tarquinia. It has a station on the FR3 Rome-Capranica-Viterbo regional railroad. Monti Cimini Official website Info about and pictures of Vetralla's Living Nativity Tuscia 360 about Vetralla with VR panoramas SITE CITTADIVETRALLA
Donation of Constantine
The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. Composed in the 8th century, it was used in the 13th century, in support of claims of political authority by the papacy. Lorenzo Valla, an Italian Catholic priest and Renaissance humanist, is credited with first exposing the forgery with solid philological arguments in 1439–1440, although the document's authenticity had been contested since 1001. In many of the existing manuscripts, including the oldest one, the document bears the title Constitutum domini Constantini imperatoris; the Donation of Constantine was included in the 9th-century Pseudo-Isidorean Decretals collection. The text, purportedly a decree of Roman Emperor Constantine I dated 30 March, in a year mistakenly said to be both that of his fourth consulate and that of the consulate of Gallicanus, contains a detailed profession of Christian faith and a recounting of how the emperor, seeking a cure for his leprosy, was converted and baptized by Pope Sylvester I.
In gratitude, he determined to bestow on the seat of Peter "power, dignity of glory, vigour, honour imperial", "supremacy as well over the four principal sees, Antioch and Constantinople, as over all the churches of God in the whole earth". For the upkeep of the church of Saint Peter and that of Saint Paul, he gave landed estates "in Judea, Asia, Africa and the various islands". To Sylvester and his successors he granted imperial insignia, the tiara, "the city of Rome, all the provinces and cities of Italy and the western regions". What may be the earliest known allusion to the Donation is in a letter of 778, in which Pope Hadrian I exhorts Charlemagne, whose father, Pepin the Younger, had made the Donation of Pepin granting the Popes sovereignty over the Papal States, to follow Constantine's example and endow the Roman Catholic church; the first pope to directly invoke the decree was Pope Leo IX, in a letter sent in 1054 to Michael I Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople. He cited a large portion of the document, believing it genuine, furthering the debate that would lead to the East–West Schism.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Donation was cited in the investiture conflicts between the papacy and the secular powers in the West. In his Divine Comedy, written in the early 14th century, the poet Dante Alighieri wrote: "Ahi, Costantin, di quanto mal fu matre, / non la tua conversion, ma quella dote / che da te prese il primo ricco patre!". During the Middle Ages, the Donation was accepted as authentic, although the Emperor Otto III did raise suspicions of the document "in letters of gold" as a forgery, in making a gift to the See of Rome, it was not until the mid-15th century, with the revival of Classical scholarship and textual criticism, that humanists, the papal bureaucracy, began to realize that the document could not be genuine. Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa spoke of it as an apocryphal work; the Catholic priest Lorenzo Valla argued in his philological study of the text that the language used in manuscript could not be dated to the 4th century. The language of the text suggests that the manuscript can most be dated to the 8th century.
Valla believed the forgery to be so obvious that he leaned toward believing that the Church had knowledge that the document was inauthentic. Valla further argued that papal usurpation of temporal power had corrupted the church, caused the wars of Italy, reinforced the "overbearing, tyrannical priestly domination."This was the first instance of modern, scientific diplomatics. Independently of both Cusa and Valla, Reginald Pecocke, Bishop of Chichester, reached a similar conclusion. Among the indications that the Donation must be a fake are its language and the fact that, while certain imperial-era formulas are used in the text, some of the Latin in the document could not have been written in the 4th century; the purported date of the document is inconsistent with the content of the document itself, as it refers both to the fourth consulate of Constantine as well as the consulate of Gallicanus. Pope Pius II wrote a tract in 1453, five years before becoming Pope, to show that, though the Donation was a forgery, the papacy owed its lands to Charlemagne and its powers of the keys to Peter.
Contemporary opponents of papal powers in Italy emphasized the primacy of civil law and civil jurisdiction, now embodied once again in the Justinian Corpus Juris Civilis. The Florentine chronicler Giovanni Cavalcanti reported that, in the year of Valla's treatise, Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, made diplomatic overtures toward Cosimo de' Medici in Florence, proposing an alliance against the Pope. In reference to the Donation, Visconti wrote: "It so happens that if Constantine consigned to Sylvester so many and such rich gifts –, doubtful, because such a privilege can nowhere be found – he could only have granted them for his lifetime: the Empire takes precedence over any lordship." Scholars further demonstrated that other elements, such as Sylvester's curing of Constantine, are legends which originated at a time. Wolfram Setz, a recent editor of Valla's work, has affirmed that at the time of Valla's refutation, Constantine's alleged "