Donato Bramante

Donato Bramante, born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo, his Tempietto marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome when Pope Julius II appointed him to build a sanctuary over the spot where Peter was crucified. Bramante was born under the name Donato d'Augnolo, Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio, or Donato Pascuccio d'Antonio in Urbania near Urbino. Here, in 1467, Luciano Laurana was adding to the Palazzo Ducale an arcaded courtyard and other Renaissance features to Federico da Montefeltro's ducal palace. Bramante's architecture has eclipsed his painting skills: he knew the painters Melozzo da Forlì and Piero della Francesca well, who were interested in the rules of perspective and illusionistic features in Mantegna's painting. Around 1474, Bramante moved to Milan, a city with a deep Gothic architectural tradition, built several churches in the new Antique style.

The Duke, Ludovico Sforza, made him his court architect, beginning in 1476, with commissions that culminated in the famous trompe-l'oeil choir of the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro. Space was limited, Bramante made a theatrical apse in bas-relief, combining the painterly arts of perspective with Roman details. There is an octagonal sacristy, surmounted by a dome. In Milan, Bramante built the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie. However, in 1499, with his Sforza patron driven from Milan by an invading French army, Bramante made his way to Rome, where he was known to the powerful Cardinal Riario. In Rome, he was soon recognized by Cardinal Della Rovere, shortly to become Pope Julius II. For Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile or Julius II, Bramante designed one of the most harmonious buildings of the Renaissance: the Tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio on the Janiculum. Despite its small scale, the construction has all the rigorous proportions and symmetry of Classical structures, surrounded by slender Doric columns, surmounted by a dome.

According to a engraving by Sebastiano Serlio, Bramante planned to set it within a colonnaded courtyard. In November 1503, Julius engaged Bramante for the construction of the grandest European architectural commission of the 16th century, the complete rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica; the cornerstone of the first of the great piers of the crossing was laid with ceremony on 17 April 1506. Few drawings by Bramante survive, though some by his assistants do, demonstrating the extent of the team, assembled. Bramante's vision for St Peter's, a centralized Greek cross plan that symbolized sublime perfection for him and his generation was fundamentally altered by the extension of the nave after his death in 1514. Bramante's plan envisaged four great chapels filling the corner spaces between the equal transepts, each one capped with a smaller dome surrounding the great dome over the crossing. So Bramante's original plan was much more Romano-Byzantine in its forms than the basilica, built. Bramante worked on several other commissions.

Among his earliest works in Rome, before the Basilica's construction was under way, is the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace near Piazza Navona. Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Milan, ca. 1482–1486 Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome, ca. 1489-1513 Santa Maria delle Grazie. Palazzo Caprini, started around 1510 Leon Battista Alberti Giorgio Vasari Sauer, Joseph. "Donato Bramante". Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. Donato Bramante Source Information, Pictures & Documentaries about Donato

Washington Monument (Milwaukee)

The Washington Monument is a public artwork by American artist Richard Henry Park located on the Court of Honor in front of the Milwaukee Public Library Central Library, near Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The bronze sculpture is a full-length portrait of a 43-year-old George Washington, stands on a granite pedestal, it was sculpted by Richard Henry Park and was erected in 1885 with philanthropic financial support from Elizabeth Plankinton. The statue was restored between July 2016 and January 2018; the 10 foot and 6 inch high full-length sculpture depicts George Washington at the age of 43. "He wears a hat with flower, boots, jacket and pants. He holds a sword with both hands in front of him." There are two bronze figures at the foot of the base that were added at the suggestion of Miss Elizabeth Plankinton. One, a woman, points up to the statue with her proper left arm, while the second figure, a child, gazes upward while holding an open book at his side; the inscription on the lower left side of the sculpture reads "RH PARK SC".

The inscription on the proper right lower side of the sculpture reads "F. GALLI FUSERO"; the front of the base reads "WASHINGTON". The back of the base reads "The Gift of / Elizabeth A. Plankinton / To the City of Milwaukee / 1885". Richard Henry Park's George Washington, dedicated on November 7, 1885, was the first public monument in Milwaukee, it was given to the city as a gift by Elizabeth Plankinton, popularly known as Miss Lizzie, as a gesture of her love for Milwaukee. "It would ensure, as one of the speakers noted at the dedication of the statue, that'during the coming generations when other men shall walk these streets, this monument will stand a text for the old and a lesson for the young.' Because this was to be the city's first public statue, it seemed fitting that the nation's first president, George Washington, be its subject." The 43-year-old Washington is depicted wearing an exact copy of the Commander-in-Chief uniform of the Continental Army. The sculpture cost about $20,000. Thousands of people attended its unveiling.

It was placed on the boulevard on one of the city's earliest parks. This location became known as the Court of Honor because of the crowning of Rex, King of the Milwaukee Midsummer Carnival Festival, which took place in the same area; every year on Washington's birthday the Military Order of the Purple Heart places a wreath on the monument to honor its founder. Artist Richard Henry Park was born on a farm in Connecticut in 1832. Park was inspired to become a sculptor after attending a Hiram Powers exhibition, he worked as a marble cutter's apprentice. The sculptor moved to Florence in 1871 where he met Thomas Hardy, yet he remained a popular artist with Milwaukee's elite, he became acquainted with Elizabeth Plankinton while making a sculpture of her father and they became engaged, but he ended up marrying a different woman. Park is known for sculpting a silver statue of Justice for Montana's exhibit at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 in Chicago. A 1994 survey reported in the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture database indicated that the sculpture was deteriorating and that treatment was needed.

Problems include that Washington's uniform is covered in dirt and corrosion and that part of the head of the bronze figure of a woman at Washington's feet is missing. Similar observations were included in a detailed report about the condition of the monument and works needed produced for the Westown Association in 2014. There had been no restoration work done since it was installed as Milwaukee's first piece of public art. In July 2016, the statue was moved to the Conservation of Sculpture and Objects Studio in Forest Park, Illinois where Andrzej Dajnowski supervised its restoration. A great deal of fundraising has been done to support the work, expected to cost about $100,000, of which the Westown Association provided $60,000; the process of moving the statue revealed several additional challenges, including the rust in base that he described as "a big issue because inserted a 1 inch rod in both of his legs and that's why one of the legs is splitting," and the possibility that Washington's sword is not the original but has been replaced at some point in the past.

The restored statue, now a dark bronze color instead of the previous green, was returned to its pedestal at North 9th St. and West Wisconsin Avenue in January 2018. As the 3,000 pounds, 10-foot tall statue was hoisted into place by a crane, Mayor Tom Barrett observed that "our first piece of public art is in pristine condition." Juneau Monument Thomas A. Hendricks Monument Washington Monument, Greetings from Milwaukee, UWM Archives, George Washington, 3

Rufus Wyman

Rufus Wyman was an American physician. He was the first physician and superintendent of the Asylum for the Insane, renamed in 1823 to McLean Hospital, part of the Massachusetts General Hospital system, the first mental hospital in the state. Wyman was born into a middle-class family in Woburn, whose forebears had arrived in the state in the mid-seventeenth century, he received his early education at the local school, graduated from Westford Academy. He entered Harvard College in 1795 and graduated with from its medical school in 1799, he spent a year teaching school before starting his medical training with Samuel Brown and John Jeffries. He practiced with Jeffries for one year moved to Chelmsford, Massachusetts where he established his practice, he was appointed a justice of the peace and came to be known as a compassionate and intelligent physician. He married in 1810 and the family grew to four sons and one daughter. Wyman was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1812.

In Boston, a group of prominent citizens planned to establish a hospital to include an asylum for the insane since only one almshouse provided care. A corporation was formed, a charter was received from the State legislature, fund raising was undertaken. An estate was purchased in Charleston to house the asylum; the mansion became the superintendents’ residence. The Trustees appointed Wyman as the first physician of the asylum. Before taking office, the Trustees sent Wyman to New York and Philadelphia to inspect the existing asylums at New York Hospital and the Pennsylvania Hospital. Wyman and his family moved to his new post in 1818. Wyman was the only physician at the asylum for 17 years. An assistant physician was appointed who helped in the apothecary to distribute medicine, maintained medical records, visited patients daily. In 1823, the Trustees appointed a steward to take over the business duties of the asylum which allowed Wyman to carry on as physician. Wyman had become acquainted with moral reformers’ treatment instituted at the Retreat at York, an asylum run by the Quaker community and William Tuke.

Wyman instituted Tuke’s treatment at the Asylum for the Insane. He added occupation and recreation therapies for patients, limited or removed the use of restraints. At times, patients shared meals with Wyman’s family in the mansion; the number of patients to the Asylum for the Insane increased. By 1821, 146 patients had been admitted; the growing need for more patient space led the Trustees to build new houses. The opening of the Worcester State Hospital in 1833 directed indigent patients there, thus allowing McLean to admit more affluent patients which improved its finances. Wyman wrote other than his annual reports for the hospital's Trustees. In 1816, he anonymously published a pamphlet titled “Remarks on the Observations of the Lord’s Day.” In 1830, he gave the annual address to the Massachusetts Medical Society titled “A Discourse on Mental Philosophy as Connected to Mental Disease.” In 1832, Wyman tendered his resignation from the hospital. He returned to McLean for three more years, in 1835, retired to Roxbury with his family.

He died in 1842 of a lung affection. Wyman’s legacy was to leave an institution that became a leader in the treatment of mental illness in the United States during the nineteenth century, he was succeeded by his assistant, who served for only a year Dr. Luther V. Bell, who served as superintendent to the McLean Asylum from 1837 to 1855, became a leader in psychiatry. Wyman married daughter of a prosperous merchant, their sons Jeffries both trained as doctors. Wyman, Rufus. Address of the Trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital, to the Subscribers and to the Public.. Wyman, Rufus. A Discourse on Mental Philosophy as Connected with Mental Disease: Delivered before the Massachusetts Medical Society, June 2, 1830. Boston: Daily Advertiser, 1830. A discourse on mental philosophy as connected with mental disease: delivered before the Massachusetts Medical Society, June 2, 1830 - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Wyman, Morrill. A Brief Record of the Lives and Writings of Dr. Rufus Wyman and his son Dr. Morrill Wyman.

Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 1913. Hurd, Henry M; the Institutional Care of the Insane in the United States and Canada. Baltimore: Hopkins, 1916-1917. Reprinted by Arno Press in 1973. Little, Nina F. Early Years of the McLean Hospital: Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown. Boston, MA: Frances A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972. Sutton, S. B. Crossroads in Psychiatry: A History of the McLean Hospital. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1986