Blumberg is a municipality situated in the Schwarzwald-Baar region of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Nineteen kilometers south of Donaueschingen, it lies between the southern edge of the Schwarzwald, the Black Forest, the border with Switzerland’s Canton of Schaffhausen, Lake Constance; the town of Blumberg is in the region where the ancient source for the Danube is situated, the former glacial valley between Eichberg and Buchberg, its official origins date from the 13th Century with the Masters of Blumberg first mentioned in 1260. However one of the oldest settlements, the Steppacher Hof, was documented in the 12th century, the town itself is believed to have originated long before that time as archaeological finds have shown the area was inhabited during the Stone Age; the Wutach is a 90 km long tributary of the River Rhine that changes name twice as it passes through the southern Black Forest, Blumberg was established in the Wutach valley close to the ancient Wutachschlucht. The spectacular'Wutach Gorge', now a nature reserve and conservation area known as the Grand-Canyon des Schwarzwaldes.
Built above the town in the Middle Ages Blumberg castle contributed towards the development of the surrounding settlements, from 1559, while ruled by the princely Fuerstenberg family who from 1283 until 2004 were owners of a brewery, Blumberg had grown enough in importance to be elevated from Städtle to a'city'. During the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648, the castle was destroyed but after 1648, thanks to its Doggererz iron ore reserves, the town experienced a short lived expansion. Doggererz mine was reopened and ore extracted once again from 1934 to 1942, the time of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi Germany. In Nazi Germany itself and throughout German-occupied Europe the use of Forced labour under German rule during World War II was widespread, Blumberg has a memorial honoring these workers as in Doggererz AG Zwangsarbeiter were used as miners; the population in what had been until a predominantly agricultural town increased dramatically. By 1945 it had risen from the 700 of 1935 to 7,000.
After World War II in 1945 the town and surrounding region were occupied by French forces as part of South Baden, as the previous states of Baden and Württemberg had been divided into US and French occupation zones. Blumberg expanded during the 1950s as various industrial works became established in the district, now has around 10.800 inhabitants, while the town is a thriving tourist area. Blumberg has retained a small town sense of community and traditional character, with time honored seasonal festivities, street parties and parades such as those for Swabian–Alemannic Fastnacht, continuing to take place. Small specialized local stores that go back generations still exist, for a few weeks multi-colored and filled carnival doughnuts can be found at artisanal bakers, where handmade bread and cookie specialties are freshly baked daily. While from the early hours of the morning master butchers, begin producing the region's traditionally seasoned cold cuts and terrines as well as fresh meat and Silesian specialties from what is now Poland.
Blumberg is set in the center of one of the most scenically beautiful areas of Germany, with everything from castles, nature parks, forests and mountains, to skiing, sailing and tourist routes. While close by are historic cities filled with culture as well as endless shopping possibilities, Switzerland is just minutes away, it is the starting point for the legendary Sauschwänzlebahn, The Pigtail Line, The Wutach Valley Railway. An old fashioned steam locomotive, with original carriages, which runs on a railway line that curves and loops around Blumberg like a curled pigtail, it is run as a railway museum and travels on elevated tracks across the countryside throughout the summer months. This had to take a break from November to March 2013 and 2014 as over 200 endangered Barbastella bats had set up their winter quarters in the six railway tunnels, trains would have disturbed the animals; the municipality of Blumberg is made up of the districts of Blumberg Achdorf, Epfenhofen, Fützen, Kommingen, Riedböhringen and Riedöschingen, with the exception of Blumberg itself, each of these has its own district council, the custom in Baden-Württemberg.
The village of Achdorf is the only one remaining of the original settlements alongside the river Wutach, which lies within scenic Wutachschlucht, the 30 km long pre-historic Danube Wutachschlucht gorge. After the Reformation the Blumberg region remained predominantly Roman Catholic, produced a Cardinal, Curial Cardinal Augustin Bea. Born the son of a carpenter on May 28, 1881 in Riedböhringen near Donaueschingen, he died in Rome on 16. November, 1968. A museum has been created in the house where his birth took place, this can be visited by appointment. Today the area has four Roman Catholic parishes, two parishes of the "Old Catholic Church" that follows Ultrajectine theology, as well as a Protestant and a New Apostolic Church. Sophie Scholl one of the founders of the White Rose, a non-violent Anti Nazi resistance student group from the University of Munich, lived in Blumberg for six months at the beginning of World War II, while working for the Reichsarbeitsdienst, State Labor Service, as an'Arbeitsmaiden', a female worker.
In 1940 she helped at a Protestant crèche in Blumberg. This had been set up to care for children of women forcibly recruited to work, in jobs considered important for the war effort, in her memory the'Kindergarten Sophie-Scholl' was opened February 28, 1992. Executed for treason on February 22, 1943 she, the group to which she belonged, have been
Königsfeld im Schwarzwald
Königsfeld im Schwarzwald is a town in the district of Schwarzwald-Baar in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It is the northern most town of the district Schwarzwald Baar. Königsfeld has six boroughs. Founded in 1807, it is a centre of the Moravian Church; until after the Second World War, most of the town's inhabitants continued to be Moravians and the Vorsteher of the Congregation served as de facto Mayor of the town. After the war, great numbers of refugees from former eastern provinces of Germany settled in the town. Königsfeld is on several major bus lines, the next train stations are in St. Georgen and Villingen-Schwenningen. Regional bus lines connect Königsfeld to these towns; until 1981 it was served by 5 km outside Königsfeld. Königsfeld is the seat of several boarding schools and a classical Gymnasium/High School/Public School and a School for Home Economics, all operated by the Moravian Church. Humanitarian Albert Schweizer maintained a home in Königsfeld because his wife could not live in Lambaréné due to her health.
His home in Königsfeld is now a museum. There is a small museum dealing with the history of the town
Lord mayor is a title of a mayor of what is a major city in the United Kingdom or Commonwealth realm, with special recognition bestowed by the sovereign. However, the title or an equivalent is present in countries outside such realms, including forms such as "high mayor". In Australia, lord mayor is a special status granted by the monarch to mayors of major cities the capitals of Australian states and territories. Australian cities with lord mayors are: Adelaide, Darwin, Melbourne, Parramatta, Perth and Wollongong. See list of cities in Australia. In Canada, the only town with a lord mayor in the traditional sense is Niagara-on-the-Lake, as recognition of its role as the first capital of Upper Canada. Unusually, the council of Brantford, Ontario has taken upon itself to appoint an honorary Lord Mayor Walter Gretzky in addition to the elected mayor; this is the only example of a council granting the cachet itself, rather than the cachet being granted by a higher authority, such as the Crown or national government.
In England and Northern Ireland, it is a purely ceremonial post conferred by letters patent. See List of lord mayoralties and lord provostships in the United Kingdom. Most famously it refers to the Lord Mayor of London, who only has jurisdiction over the City of London, as opposed to the modern title of Mayor of London governing Greater London. In Uganda, the only jurisdiction with a lord mayor is Kampala, in recognition of its status as the capital city of the country. In Ireland, the posts of Lord Mayor of Dublin and Lord Mayor of Cork still exist, are symbolic titles as in the UK. Annapolis, the only city in the thirteen colonies to receive a royal charter, used the title Lord Mayor prior to the American Revolution. In Denmark, as the translation of Danish Overborgmester, it is the title of the highest mayor of Denmark's capital city, Copenhagen. In Germany, it is sometimes used to translate German Oberbürgermeister, the title of the mayors of large county-free cities. In large cities that consist of subunits governed by mayors, the title Oberbürgermeister is used to distinguish the head executive of the entire city from those of the subunits.
As in Austria, Germany's mayors serve as the actual executive leaders of their cities and are elected officials. However, the post of mayor in the three German city-states is equivalent to that of a Ministerpräsident and the respective post is referred to as Regierender Bürgermeister in Berlin, Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg and Bürgermeister in Bremen. In Finland, the head city manager of the capital, Helsinki, is customarily given by the country's President the title ylipormestari, a tradition that resembles the lord mayoralties in other countries. In Romania and Moldova, the mayors of the capitals are named Primar General which means General Mayor; the name is ceremonial and it has no higher powers than mayors of other cities. In Hungary, the mayor of the capital Budapest is called főpolgármester which means chief mayor or grand mayor. Only the capital has a főpolgármester. Between 1873 and 1945, the Lord Mayor of Budapest was representative of the Hungarian government at the capital's municipal authority.
In ancient China, jīng zhào yĭn was the title given to the mayor of capital city. Today, on the other hand, city mayor and party-appointed secretary of the four direct-controlled municipalities, Tianjin and Chongqing, though without special titles, share the rank of provincial governor and party-appointed secretary. In Estonia, the mayor of the capital, was named Lord Mayor from 1938 to 1940. In Czech Republic, the mayor of the capital Prague and so-called statutory cities is called Primátor. In Sweden, the titles of mayor and lord mayor have no direct equivalent since the 1970s; the executive leader of Swedish municipalities is one of sometimes several Kommunalråd in the function of Chair of the Municipal Board. In the capital Stockholm the chief executive is traditionally called Finansborgarråd —"council" in this context referring to the executive rather than the legislative branch of local government; the Welsh translation of Lord Mayor is Arglwydd Faer. The Irish translation of Lord Mayor is Ard-Mhéara, which means "Chief Mayor".
The style of address for the office of the Lord Mayors of Belfast, the City of London, York is The Right Honourable. All other Lord Mayors are The Right Worshipful; this refers only to the post, rather than the person. The title Sir can be used for salutations. Lord Provost, the similar post in Scotland
Bad Dürrheim is a town in the district of Schwarzwald-Baar, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated east of the Black Forest, 8 km north of Donaueschingen, 6 km southeast of Villingen. Bad Dürrheim was from 1951 until 1978 location of a broadcasting transmitter for mediumwave; the mayor is Walter Klumpp. He was elected in March 2003 with 63,28 % of the votes and reelected in 2011 with 97,2 % of the votes. 1946–1954: Wilhelm Grießhaber 1954–1979: Otto Weissenberger 1979–2003: Gerhard Hagmann since 2003: Walter Klumpp Bad Dürrheim is twinned with: Hajdúszoboszló, Hungary Enghien-les-Bains, France Spotorno, Italy 1937: Walter Köhler, honorary citizenship canceled on 28 May 1946 by order of the District Administrator Bienzeisler of Villingen Pictures Bad Dürrheim Erster Farbfotos 1936 Farbdias
Christian Democratic Union of Germany
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian-democratic, liberal-conservative political party in Germany. It is the major catch-all party of the centre-right in German politics; the CDU forms the CDU/CSU grouping known as the Union, in the Bundestag with its Bavarian counterpart the Christian Social Union in Bavaria. The party is considered an effective successor of the Centre Party, although it has a broader base; the leader of the CDU is Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer. She is the successor of the former party leader Angela Merkel, the current Chancellor of Germany; the CDU is a member of the Centrist Democrat International, International Democrat Union and European People's Party. Following the collapse of the Nazi dictatorship at the end of World War II, the need for a new political order in Germany was paramount. Simultaneous yet unrelated meetings began occurring throughout Germany, each with the intention of planning a Christian-democratic party; the CDU was established in Berlin on 26 June 1945 and in Rheinland and Westfalen in September of the same year.
The founding members of the CDU consisted of former members of the Centre Party, the German Democratic Party, the German National People's Party and the German People's Party. Many of these individuals, including CDU-Berlin founder Andreas Hermes, were imprisoned for the involvement in the German Resistance during the Nazi dictatorship. In the Cold War years after World War II up to the 1960s, the CDU attracted conservative, anti-communist former Nazis and Nazi collaborators into its higher ranks. A prominent anti-Nazi member was theologian Eugen Gerstenmaier, who became Acting Chairman of the Foreign Board. One of the lessons learned from the failure of the Weimar Republic was that disunity among the democratic parties allowed for the rise of the Nazi Party, it was therefore crucial to create a unified party of Christian democrats—a Christian Democratic Union. The result of these meetings was the establishment of an interconfessional party influenced by the political tradition of liberal conservatism.
The CDU experienced considerable success gaining support from the time of its creation in Berlin on 26 June 1945 until its first convention on 21 October 1950, at which Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was named the first Chairman of the party. In the beginning, it was not clear which party would be favored by the victors of World War II, but by the end of the 1940s the governments of the United States and of Britain began to lean toward the CDU and away from the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the latter was more nationalist and sought German reunification at the expense of concessions to the Soviet Union, depicting Adenauer as an instrument of both the Americans and the Vatican. The Western powers appreciated the CDU's moderation, its economic flexibility and its value as an oppositional force to the communists which appealed to European voters at the time. Adenauer was trusted by the British; the party was split over issues of rearmament within the Western alliance and German unification as a neutral state.
Adenauer staunchly outmanoeuvred some of his opponents. He refused to consider the SPD as a party of the coalition until he felt sure that they shared his anti-communist position; the principled rejection of a reunification that would alienate Germany from the Western alliance made it harder to attract Protestant voters to the party as most refugees from the former German territories east of the Oder were of that faith as were the majority of the inhabitants of East Germany. The CDU was the dominant party for the first two decades following the establishment of West Germany in 1949. Adenauer remained the party's leader until 1963, at which point the former minister of economics Ludwig Erhard replaced him; as the Free Democratic Party withdrew from the governing coalition in 1966 due to disagreements over fiscal and economic policy, Erhard was forced to resign. A grand coalition with the SPD took over government under CDU Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger; the SPD gained popularity and succeeded in forming a social-liberal coalition with the FDP following the 1969 federal election, forcing the CDU out of power for the first time in their history.
The CDU continued its role as opposition until 1982, when the FDP's withdrawal from the coalition with the SPD allowed the CDU to regain power. CDU Chairman Helmut Kohl became the new Chancellor of West Germany and his CDU–FDP coalition was confirmed in the 1983 federal election. Public support for the coalition's work in the process of German reunification was reiterated in the 1990 federal election in which the CDU–FDP governing coalition experienced a clear victory. After the collapse of the East German government in 1989, Kohl—supported by the governments of the United States and reluctantly by those of France and the United Kingdom—called for German reunification. On 3 October 1990, the government of East Germany was abolished and its territory acceded to the scope of the Basic Law in place in West Germany; the East German CDU merged with its West German counterpart and elections were held for the reunified country. Although Kohl was re-elected, the party began losing much of its popularity because of an economic recession in the former GDR and increased taxes in the west.
The CDU was nonetheless able to win the 1994 federal election by a narrow margin due to an economic recovery. Kohl served as chairman until the party's electoral defeat in 1998, when he was su
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Schonach im Schwarzwald
Schonach im Schwarzwald is a town in the district of Schwarzwald-Baar in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. Winter sports Nordic combined and cross country, have a great influence on Schonach. In every year, Schonach is a station of the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup holding the Schwarzwaldpokal. In 1981 and 2002, Schonach hosted the FIS Nordic Junior World Ski Championships. Famous athletes from Schonach: Urban Hettich Hans-Peter Pohl Christian Dold Georg Hettich Hansjörg Jäkle Alexander Herr Benedikt Kuner, NSDAP district leader Karl Rombach, member of the Landtag of Baden-Württemberg Urban Hettich, Nordic Combiner Hansjörg Jäkle, ski jumper Hans-Peter Pohl, Nordic combiner and Olympic Champion Georg Hettich, Nordic combiner and Olympic Champion