The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the quality press market category. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, Times Newspapers publishes The Times. The two papers were founded independently and have been under common ownership only since 1966 and they were bought by News International in 1981. The Sunday Times occupies a dominant position in the quality Sunday market, its circulation of just under one million equals that of its rivals, The Sunday Telegraph and The Observer. While some other national newspapers moved to a format in the early 2000s. It sells more than twice as many copies as its sister paper, The Times, the Sunday Times has acquired a reputation for the strength of its investigative reporting – much of it by its award-winning Insight team – and for its wide-ranging foreign coverage. It has a number of writers and commentators including Jeremy Clarkson. It was Britains first multi-section newspaper and remains substantially larger than its rivals, a typical edition contains the equivalent of 450 to 500 tabloid pages.
Besides the main section, it has standalone News Review, Sport, Money. There are three magazines and two tabloid supplements and it publishes The Sunday Times Bestseller List of books in Britain, and a list of the 100 Best Companies to Work For, focusing on UK companies. It organises The Sunday Times Oxford Literary Festival, held annually, and The Sunday Times Festival of Education, the paper began publication on 18 February 1821 as The New Observer, but from 21 April its title was changed to the Independent Observer. On 20 October 1822 it was reborn as The Sunday Times, in January 1823, White sold the paper to Daniel Whittle Harvey, a radical politician. The paper was bought in 1887 by Alice Cornwell, whose father George Cornwell made a fortune in mining in Australia and she sold it in 1893 to Frederick Beer, who already owned Observer. Beer appointed his wife, Rachel Sassoon Beer, as editor and she was already editor of Observer – the first woman to run a national newspaper – and continued to edit both titles until 1901.
There was a change of ownership in 1903, and in 1915 the paper was bought by William Berry and his brother, Gomer Berry, ennobled as Lord Camrose. In 1943, the Kemsley Newspapers Group was established, with The Sunday Times becoming its flagship paper, at this time, Kemsley was the largest newspaper group in Britain. On 12 November 1945, Ian Fleming, who created James Bond, joined the paper as foreign manager, the following month, circulation reached 500,000. On 28 September 1958 the paper launched a separate Review section, in 1959 the Kemsley group was bought by Lord Thomson, and in October 1960 circulation reached one million for the first time
Ramapo, New York
Ramapo is a town in Rockland County, New York, United States. Ramapo, which means Sweet Water, was known as New Hempstead. As of the 2010 census, Ramapo had a population of 126,595. If Ramapo were incorporated as a city, it would be the sixth-largest city in the state of New York, the citys name, recorded variously as Ramopuck, Ramapock, or Ramapough, is of Lenape origin, meaning either sweet water or slanting rocks. Maps referred to Ramapo as Ramepog -1695, Ramepogh -1711, the town is located south of Haverstraw and west of Clarkstown and Orangetown. The present-day town was inhabited by the Munsee, a band of the Lenape nation. Their descendants now live on Stag Hill in Mahwah, New Jersey, general Washington and his troops set up an encampment in Suffern, in the west of Ramapo, due to its strategic location near a local mountain pass. In this encampment were two French soldiers, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau and Gilbert du Motier, the encampment was on the path to Yorktown, where the final battle of the American Revolution took place.
The Town of New Hempstead was formed part of the Town of Haverstraw in 1791. In 1829 the name was changed to Ramapo, the first railroad line across Rockland County was built in 1841 and ran from Piermont to Ramapo. By 1851, the line was extended to Lake Erie, and was considered an engineering marvel and its founder, Jeremiah H. Pierson, was influential in building the Nyack Turnpike and the New York & Erie Railroad across the county. A cotton mill is still standing on the east side of the road, in 1916, what would become State Route 59, which reached from Nyack to Spring Valley in 1915, was extended to Suffern and Hillburn. Ramapo became one of the first cities to use Adequate Public Facilities acts to tier growth, in 2006 Money magazine ranked Ramapo as the 49th best place in the United States and the best place in New York State to live. Arts and leisure, housing, low crime rates, in the category of park space, percentage of land set aside for gardens and parks, the town finished first. Ramapo received the highest rating and one of the best in the country for its open spaces and parkland.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 61.9 square miles, of which 61.2 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles. The south town line is the border of New Jersey, the break in the Ramapo Mountains at Suffern formed by the Ramapo River causes the town to be the site of the New York State Thruway and I-287, New York State Route 17, and a railroad line. The Palisades Interstate Parkway runs through the northeast corner of the town, Torne Mountain, in Harriman State Park, overlooks the Ramapo Pass and remnants of the once-thriving Ramapo Iron Works
Carrigaline is a commuter town in County Cork, Ireland. It is about 14 km south of Cork city which can be reached by car in 25 minutes, Carrigaline has grown rapidly in recent years, from a village of a few hundred people into a thriving town, although many locals still refer to it as the village. The town is one of the key gateways to West Cork, Carrigaline is the name of the parish containing Carrigaline town. The town had the world-famous Carrigaline Pottery, situated in Main Street, which closed in 1979, unusually for an Irish village of its size, it had a small cinema and run by the Cogan family. Neither the pottery nor the cinema exist today, the Carrigdhoun Weekly newspaper is published in Carrigaline. The town has four banks and a credit union, there is a long-established Supervalu supermarket, as well as a Dunnes Stores and Lidl. The four-star Carrigaline Court Hotel is located across from the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady, Main Street has a selection of pubs and restaurants, as well as a variety of retail shops.
A Dairygold Co-op Superstore is located on Kilmoney Road, the town is twinned with Guidel in Brittany and Kirchseeon, Germany. Locals sports clubs in the include, Avondale United Carrigaline GAA Carrigaline United F. C. Carrigaline RFC Carrigaline Tennis Club Carrigaline Basketball Club Fernhill Golf. Brazilian JiuJitsu Carrigaline website of the Parish of Our Lady and St
A townland is a small geographical division of land used in Ireland. The townland system is of Gaelic origin, pre-dating the Norman invasion, some townland names and boundaries come from Norman manors, plantation divisions, or creations of the Ordnance Survey. The total number of inhabited townlands was 60,679 in 1911, the total number recognised by the Irish Place Names database as of 2014 was 61,098, including uninhabited townlands, mainly small islands. In Ireland a townland is generally the smallest administrative division of land, the term townland in English is derived from the Old English word tun, denoting an enclosure. The term describes the smallest unit of division in Ireland, based on various forms of Gaelic land division. The term baile, anglicised as bally, is the most dominant element used in Irish townland names, today the term bally denotes an urban settlement, but its precise meaning in ancient Ireland is unclear, as towns had no place in Gaelic social organisation. The modern Irish term for a townland is baile fearainn, the term fearainn means land, quarter.
Throughout most of Ulster townlands were known as ballyboes, and represented an area of economic value. In County Cavan similar units were called polls, and in Counties Fermanagh and these names appear to be of English origin, but had become naturalised long before 1600. In modern townland names the prefix pol- is widely found throughout western Ireland, in County Cavan, which contains over half of all townlands in Ulster with the prefix pol-, some should probably be better translated as the poll of. In County Tyrone the following hierarchy of divisions was used, ballyboe, gort. In County Fermanagh the divisions were ballybetagh and tate, further subdivisions in Fermanagh appear to be related to liquid or grain measures such as gallons and pints. In Ulster the ballybetagh was the unit controlled by an Irish sept. Fragmentation of ballybetaghs resulted in units consisting of four, one of these fragmented units, the quarter, representing a quarter of a ballybetagh, was the universal land denomination recorded in the survey of County Donegal conducted in 1608.
In the early 17th century 20 per cent of the area of western Ulster was under the control of the church. These termon lands consisted likewise of ballybetaghs and ballyboes, but were held by erenaghs instead of sept leaders, other units of land division used throughout Ireland include, In County Tipperary, capell lands and quatermeers. A capell land consisted of around 20 great acres, in the province of Connacht and cartrons, a quarter being reckoned as four cartrons, and each cartron being 30 acres. The quarter has been anglicised as carrow, carhoo or caracute, in County Clare, as in Connacht, half-quarters and sessiagh
Buttevant is a medieval market town, incorporated by charter of Edward III, situated in North County Cork, Ireland. Here they built their stronghold in North Cork. Buttevant is located on the N20 road between Limerick and Cork and the R522 regional road, rotulus Pipae Cloynensis makes ten references to Bothon in its Latin text. The Lateran Registers record the name tempore Pope Innocent VIII as Bottoniam and Buttumam, and tempore Pope Alexander VI in various forms, as Bothaniam and Buttomam. Philip OSullivan Beare in his Historiae Catholicae Iberniae, published in Spain in 1620, gives the name Killnamollacham for the town, the Irish denomination for Buttevant has reached such a degree of confusion as to make it almost unidentifiable. The oral tradition of the area consistently gives Cill na Mullach, or Church of the Hillocks, peadar Ua Laoghaire confirms the tradition in his Mo Scéal Féin. The name Buttevant is reportedly a corruption of the motto of the DeBarry family, on the Barry coat of arms the inscription is Butez en Avant - Strike/Kick/Push Forward—or, more colloquially, Bash your way forward.
The town of Buttevant accumulated a series of grants over several centuries. Fairs and markets were held at Buttevant for cattle sheep and pigs on 23 January,30 April,27 May,27 August and sheep fairs were held on 27 March,14 October,17 December. Pig markets were held on 11 July, fairs falling on Saturdays were held on Mondays. Fridays were devoted to egg markets, Horse fairs were held on the Fourth Monday in October. Cahirmee Horse Fair, the only surviving fair, is held on 12 July, the development of the settlement followed a pattern frequently repeated in the Norman colonies of North Cork and Limerick. The original nucleus of the town consisted of a keep situated on an elevation on the side of the town. Opposite the keep, on a site, was built the parish church, dedicated to St. Brigit. A mill, another element of Norman settlements, was located on the river. In addition, a hospice for lepers was established about a mile to the North East outside of the town wall and this basic structure was repeated in nearby Castletownroche, where it is still clearly to be seen, in Glanworth, and in Kilmallock and Adare.
A further feature of Norman settlements in North Cork was their concomitant religious foundations, early colonial sites, such as Buttevant and Castletownroche, saw the introduction of the more traditional monastic communities which were housed in foundations outside of the town walls. The Augustinian priories of Bridgetown and Ballybeg being respectively founded by the Roches, the burgage of Buttevant developed to the north of the keep and eventually increased in size to about 50 acres enclosed by walls for which Murage grants had been made by the crown in 1317
Midleton, is a town in south-eastern County Cork, Ireland. It lies some 16 km east of Cork City on the Owenacurra River and the N25 road, a satellite town of Cork City, Midleton is part of Metropolitan Cork. It is the hub of business for the East Cork Area. In the 1180s advancing Normans led by Barry Fitz Gerald established an abbey at a weir on the river to be populated by Cistercian Monks from Burgundy. The abbey became known as Chore Abbey and Castrum Chor, taking its name from the Irish word cora, although some say that Chor comes from Choir or Choral. The abbey is commemorated in the Irish name for Midleton, Mainistir na Corann, or Monastery at the Weir, St John the Baptists Church, belonging to the Church of Ireland was erected in 1825 and today still stands on the site of the abbey. Captain Walter Raleigh had an association with Midleton, living for periods in nearby Youghal between 1585 and 1602 and his presence came about due to a distribution of land in reward for helping suppress the Second Desmond Rebellion of 1579–1583.
As part of this suppression he was ordered to seize Barrys Castle at nearby Cahermore, the Desmond FitzGerald Seneschal, or steward of Imokilly, on being expelled from the castle, took refuge in the Abbey, but was again forced to flee by Raleigh. Raleigh is credited with planting the first potatoes in Europe, at Youghal, the town gained the name Midleton or Middle Town as the main midway town,10 miles between Cork and Youghal. It was incorporated as a town and postal depot in 1670, receiving its charter from Charles II, as the borough. Later it would become a post town of the Great Southern and Western Railway, alan Brodrick, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons and Lord Chancellor of Ireland was made the first Baron and Viscount Midleton in 1715 and 1717, respectively. He is commemorated by Broderick St in the town, the town is the site of Cork Distilleries, formed in 1825, merged into Irish Distillers in 1967, and as of 2011 owned by French spirits group Pernod Ricard. Distilling of whiskey and gin now takes place at the new Midleton distillery complex opened in 1975, paddy Whiskey, produced in the town, takes its name from Patrick J Flaherty, a salesman for Cork Distilleries in the 1920s.
The world-famous Jameson Whiskey is produced in the town, at the top of the main street stands a monument to 16 Irish Republican Army men killed on 20 February 1921 during the Irish War of Independence. Twelve of the IRA men were killed in fighting with members of the British Army at the nearby Clonmult Ambush, while four more were captured, the incident was the biggest single loss of life for the IRA during the war. Captain Sean OShea led the Clonmult boys and is buried as head of the Republician Plot at Midleton cemetery, nearby stands a monument marking the 200th anniversary of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. Two houses designed by Augustus Pugin, the architect of the Houses of Parliament in London and they now form one building and house McDaids bar – a popular music venue. Elizabeth Villiers, former mistress of William of Orange, founded the school named Midleton College in 1696
The Honourable Elizabeth Aldworth, born the Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger, was known in her time as The Lady Freemason, and was the first recorded woman to be initiated into Regular Freemasonry. Aldworth was the daughter of Arthur St Leger, 1st Viscount Doneraile, of Doneraile Court, County Cork and she was married in 1713 to Richard Aldworth, Esq. Nothing else of her life is known between her initiation into Freemasonry as a girl and her death almost sixty years later. The date of her initiation into Freemasonry is uncertain, but the Memoir of a Lady Freemason indicates that it was between 1710–1712, before her marriage, in his paper in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum in 1895, Edward Conder states that it was sometime between 1710–1718. In a reply to the paper, Masonic scholar William James Hughan stated, Hughan found the facts related to contradict the statements made by an Aldworth descendant. Those facts are found in the Memoir, extracted from the records of the First Lodge of Ireland, the Memoirs editor indicates that Conders work was the first fixing of the date, which as of 1864 was not known.
Conder seems to be refuting a statement that Aldworth was initiated after the formation of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. It is now taken to be 1725, the tradition of Aldworths initiation is that Aldworth had fallen asleep while reading on a dim winter evening in the library, which was located next to the room in which the Lodge was meeting. In consequence of construction going on in the library, she was woken by the voices she heard next door, and she removed some of the bricks and watched the proceedings. When she understood the solemnity of the proceedings, she wished to retreat, but was caught by the Lodge Tyler, realizing her predicament, she screamed and fainted. The tyler summoned the Brethren, and they decided to initiate her into the Lodge. In the reply to Conders presentation, a Bro, rylands indicated that there was no evidence forthcoming that Aldworth served as Master of a Lodge, or that she regularly attended. There was a plaque erected at the new St. Finbarres Cathedral by the Masons of Cork, daughter of ARTHUR, FIRST VISCOUNT DONERAILE.
Her Remains Lie Close to This Spot, initiated into Masonry in Lodge No. 44, at Doneraile Court In this County, A. D.1712, the International Mixed Order of Freemasonry Le Droit Humain has dedicated its first lodge to her, Lodge Elizabeth Saint Leger
Clonakilty, is a town in County Cork, Ireland. The town is located at the head of the tidal Clonakilty Bay and is surrounded by hilly country devoted primarily to dairy farming, the towns population as of 2011 is 4,721. It is an part of West Corks tourist attraction and noted for its vibrant culture. Clonakilty is rich in ancient monuments and dwelling places of early, the Normans made the area their home and their castles and surnames survive to the present day. In 1292, Thomas De Roach received a charter to hold a market every Monday at Kilgarriffe, the area was abundant in woods, as the Irish names of the town and surrounding townlands indicate. In the 14th century, a strip of fallow woodland called Tuath na gCoillte divided the barony of Ibane and Barryroe. Here a castle called Coyltes Castell was recorded in a 1378 plea roll and this was subsequently referred to as Cloghnykyltye, one of the many phonetic spellings for Cloch na gCoillte. Clonakilty benefited greatly from the patronage of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork and it was this Lord Cork who obtained its charter from King James I of England in 1613 with the right to return members to the Irish House of Commons.
The borough of Clonakilty returned two members from 1613 to 1801, it was disenfranchised when the Act of Union came into force in January 1801, Clonakilty was inherited by the Earls of Shannon, another branch of the Boyle dynasty. They remained the main landlords of the town from the century through until the early twentieth century. General Collins served as Chairman of the Provisional Government and was instrumental in the founding of the Irish Free State. Collins is widely regarded as one of Irelands leading historical figures and he was killed by an Anti-Treaty ambush party during the Civil War. He gave many an oration from ODonovans Hotel on the Main Street of Clonakilty, a statue of Michael Collins by local artist Kevin Holland was erected in the centre of Clonakilty and dedicated in 2002. It can be seen at the junction of Bridge Street and Emmet Square, in April 1943, a war plane, a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, was travelling from Morocco to England when it was forced to make an unscheduled stop at a marsh just outside Clonakilty.
The crew were uninjured in the landing and, once they had emerged from the bog, Kennedy Gardens at Emmet Square in the centre of town are named after John F. Kennedy. In June 2012, Clonakilty was damaged by flooding, Clonakilty was founded on 5 May 1613. On 5 May 2013, President Michael D. Higgins and his wife visited the town to commemorate 400 years since it obtained its charter from the King of England, kilgariffe Church is a building of 1818 replacing an older church going back to 1613. The Church of the Immaculate Conception is a building in Early French Gothic style, designed by George Ashlin
Daniel OConnell, often referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century. OConnell was born at Carhan near Cahersiveen, County Kerry, to the OConnells of Derrynane, a once-wealthy Roman Catholic family, among his uncles was Daniel Charles, Count OConnell, an officer in the Irish Brigades of the French Army. A famous aunt was Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill, while Sir James OConnell, in his early years, he became acquainted with the pro-democracy radicals of the time and committed himself to bringing equal rights and religious tolerance to his own country. While in Dublin studying for the law, OConnell was under his Uncle Maurices instructions not to become involved in any militia activity, when Wolfe Tones French invasion fleet entered Bantry Bay in December 1796, OConnell found himself in a quandary. Politics was the cause of his unsettlement and he desired to enter Parliament, yet every allowance that the Catholics had been led to anticipate, two years previously, was now flatly vetoed.
As a law student, OConnell was aware of his own talents and he read the Jockey Club as a picture of the governing class in England and was persuaded by it that, vice reigns triumphant in the English court at this day. The spirit of liberty shrinks to protect property from the attacks of French innovators, the corrupt higher orders tremble for their vicious enjoyments. Later that month, for the sake of expediency, he joined the Lawyers Artillery Corps, on 19 May 1798, OConnell was called to the Irish Bar and became a barrister. Four days later, the United Irishmen staged their rebellion which was put down by the British with great bloodshed, OConnell did not support the rebellion, he believed that the Irish would have to assert themselves politically rather than by force. He went on the Munster circuit, and for over a decade, although he was ultimately to inherit Derrynane from his uncle Maurice, the old man lived to be almost 100 and in the event Daniels inheritance did not cover his debts.
He condemned Robert Emmets Rebellion of 1803, of Emmet, a Protestant, he wrote, A man who could coolly prepare so much bloodshed, so many murders—and such horrors of every kind has ceased to be an object of compassion. He was noted for his fearlessness in Court, if he thought poorly of a judge he had no hesitation in making this clear, OConnell returned to politics in the 1810s. In 1811, he established the Catholic Board, which campaigned for Catholic emancipation, that is, the opportunity for Irish Catholics to become members of parliament. In 1823, he set up the Catholic Association which embraced other aims to better Irish Catholics, such as, electoral reform, reform of the Church of Ireland, tenants rights, and economic development. The Association was funded by membership dues of one penny per month, the subscription was highly successful, and the Association raised a large sum of money in its first year. The money was used to campaign for Catholic emancipation, specifically funding pro-emancipation members of parliament standing for the British House of Commons.
Members of the Association were liable to prosecution under a statute. OConnell was often briefed for the defence, and showed extraordinary vigour in pleading the rights of Catholics to argue for emancipation, in 1815 a serious event in his life occurred
Kinsale is a historic port and fishing town in County Cork, which has significant military history. Kinsale is in the Cork South–West constituency, which has five seats, Kinsale is a popular holiday resort for Irish and overseas tourists. Leisure activities include yachting, sea angling, and golf, the town has several art galleries and a school of English. The town is compact with a quaint air of antiquity in the narrow streets, there is a large yachting marina close to the town centre. The town is known for its restaurants, and holds an annual Gourmet Festival, chef Keith Floyd was previously a resident of Kinsale. The towns Community School has been awarded the Best School in the Republic of Ireland twice, including at the BT Young Scientist Exhibition in 2014. Prominent historical buildings in the town include St. Multoses church of 1190, St. John the Baptist of 1839, the Market House of c.1600, Charles Fort, a partly restored star fort of 1677, is in nearby Summercove. On 8 October 2005, Kinsale became Irelands second Fair Trade Town, in 1333, under a charter granted by King Edward III of England, the Corporation of Kinsale was established to undertake local government in the town.
It returned two members to the Irish House of Commons prior to its abolition in 1800, in its history, Kinsale has important occasional links with Spain. In 1518 Archduke Ferdinand, Emperor Ferdinand I, paid a visit to the town. In 1601 a Spanish military expedition - the last of the Armadas - landed in Kinsale, shortly after the battle, Jamess Fort was built to protect the harbour. Charles Fort, located at Summer Cove and dating from 1677 in the reign of Charles II, is a bastion-fort that guards the entrance to Kinsale harbour. It was built to protect the area and specifically the harbour from use by the French, Jamess Fort, which dates from the reign of James I, is located on the other side of the cove, on the Castlepark peninsula. An underwater chain used to be strung between the two forts across the mouth during times of war to scuttle enemy shipping by ripping the bottoms out of incoming vessels. Kinsales naval significance declined after the Royal Navy moved its centre from Kinsale to Cork harbour in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars in the period of Frances First Empire.
A statue in the harbour commemorates the effort, the Lusitania memorial is at Casement Square in Cobh, to the east of Cork city. The station, inconveniently located for the town and harbour, was on Barrack Hill, bus Éireann provides Kinsales primary means of public transport. Buses regularly operate from Kinsale to Cork City, with most of these stopping at Cork Airport on the way and Bandon are linked by public transport with a bus service provided by East Cork Rural Transport
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Ballincollig is a satellite town and largest town in County Cork, approximately 9 km west of Cork city. It is located beside the River Lee on the R608 regional road, in 2011 the population of Ballincollig DED was 17,368. The nearest towns include, Carrigohane, Ovens, Inniscarra, Blarney and it is located beyond the Green Belt from the Cork city suburbs of Bishopstown and Wilton. Many of the people from Ballincollig commute to the city for work and it is a mainly residential town. The Barrett family built Ballincollig Castle during the reign of Edward III, the castle was taken from Andrew Barrett by rebels in 1641, but they were expelled by English Parliamentary forces under Murrough OBrien, Earl Inchiquinn, in 1645. It was garrisoned for James II in 1689, during the Williamite war in Ireland, remained unoccupied after his defeat, the Ballincollig Royal Gunpowder Mills were opened in 1794 by Charles Henry Leslie, a prominent Cork businessman. Eleven years later, the mills were bought by the British, who were preparing for war with Napoleon, and it was one of the largest gunpowder mills in the British Isles.
In 1837, the mill employed several hundred workers, and by 1880, Ballincollig was one of the largest industrial establishments in Cork, with the mill employing many men and boys from the area. With the closure of the Gunpowder Mills in the early 1900s, the 3rd Royal Munster Fusiliers Battalion were stationed there during the Great War. Other Regiments stationed in the Barracks before it was decommissioned were 1st Field Artillery Regiment, the recently decommissioned Murphy Barracks was a major source of employment. In the 1970s, Ballincollig developed as more of a satellite town, with many housing developments constructed around the old village. This expansion continued through the late 80s and 90s, the towns population has risen dramatically, particularly with the westward expansion of the town. Ballincollig has grown to be largest town in the county, two Catholic churches are located in the town. The modern Church of Christ Our Light is located on the west side of the town, while the old Church of St Mary and St John is located near the centre of the town, the Bible Baptist Church meets in the Westgate Foundation on the west end of town.
The church is associated with the Cork Bible Institute and other Gospel ministries, other religious groups including Hindus and Greek Orthodox have services at various locations in Ballincollig. The amenities located in Ballincollig include a library, a cinema, shopping centres. The site is approximately 2.4 kilometres in length and the River Lee runs the length of the site. The site contains a system of canals used during the manufacturing process connecting all the areas in a single flat system without locks