Billy Gray (actor)
William Thomas Gray is an American former actor known for his role as James "Bud" Anderson, Jr. in 193 episodes of the situation comedy Father Knows Best, which aired between 1954 and 1960 on both NBC and CBS. A motorcycle aficionado, Gray maintains a large collection of the vehicles. Gray was born in Los Angeles to actress Beatrice Gray, her husband, William H. Gray, his mother was uncredited in the 1930s and 1940s, having appeared in Otto Preminger's Laura, with Gene Tierney and Dana Andrews. In 1949, Billy Gray and his mother appeared in separate scenes in the film Abbott and Costello Meet the Killer, Boris Karloff. In 1951, at age 13, he appeared in the film Jim Thorpe -- All-American, with Burt Lancaster in the lead role. Gray portrayed the Indian athlete Jim Thorpe as a child; that year, he was chosen to appear in the science fiction picture The Day the Earth Stood Still. Michael Rennie played the part of the alien. In 1952 he appeared in an uncredited role as one of the many children in Ma and Pa Kettle at the Fair.
That same year he played George Murphy's son in MGM's Talk About a Stranger, portraying a boy who saves his money to buy a dog, only to have it killed. He blames a strange reclusive new neighbor played by Kurt Kasznar for the death. Gray in 1952 was slated to play the part of Tagg Oakley in the syndicated western television series Annie Oakley, starring Gail Davis and Brad Johnson. Billy did perform as Tagg in the first of two pilots produced for that series, in the 1952 episode titled "Bull's Eye", which potential sponsors opted not to purchase and underwrite the series. Oddly, the Bull's Eye episode was aired as Season 1, Episode 21; this makes watching the series a bit confusing when Annie's appearance is somewhat different and Tagg is played by a different actor for a single mid season episode. The role of Tagg went to 12-year-old Jimmy Hawkins for the series' second pilot, "Annie Gets Her Man", for the full run of Annie Oakley after sponsors bought the series. Gray instead joined the cast of Father Knows Best, which would premiere nine months after the first broadcast of Annie Oakley in January 1954.
After Gray's brief work on the Annie Oakley series, Warner Bros. in 1953 cast Gray as Wesley Winfield in By the Light of the Silvery Moon, a sequel to On Moonlight Bay in which Gray had played the role of the same Wesley Winfield. He appeared as Alan in the 1953 episode "Shot in the Dark" of the Adventures of Superman, starring George Reeves. In that episode's plot, the character Alan takes a photograph of Superman that could expose the hero's secret identity. In 1953 Billy Gray appeared in "The Girl Next Door" as Dan Dailey's son Joe Carter. In 1953 Billy Gray appeared in "All I Desire" as Barbara Stanwyck's son Ted Murdoch. In 1955, Gray appeared in The Seven Little Foys, which starred Bob Hope as famed vaudeville entertainer Eddie Foy, in the teen role of Bryan Lincoln Foy. In 1957, while still on Father Knows Best, Gray appeared as Mike Edwards in the episode "Come Back Darling Asta" of Peter Lawford's NBC crime series The Thin Man, based on the work of Dashiell Hammett. After Father Knows Best, Gray appeared in several dozen single-appearance television roles.
In 1960, he guest-starred as Frankie Niles in the episode "Dark Return" of the ABC western series Stagecoach West, a program similar to the longer-running Wagon Train. That same year he portrayed David Ross in the episode "Ginger's Big Romance" on Bachelor Father. In 1961, he played Johnny Blatner in the episode "Two-Way Deal" of the Henry Fonda/Allen Case NBC western The Deputy, he appeared twice in 1961 on the anthology series General Electric Theater. That same year he was Perry Hatch in "The Hatbox" of CBS's Alfred Hitchcock Presents. In 1962, he appeared on CBS's The Red Skelton Show, his other roles included appearances on The Greatest Show on Earth and Combat!. He guest-starred in such series as Rawhide and Trial, Custer. In 1962, at age 24, Gray was arrested for possession of marijuana; the arrest was blamed for costing him film and television roles. He appeared in the 1971 film Dusty and Sweets McGee. Critic Leonard Maltin claimed incorrectly that Gray had been recruited for the role of "City Life" from actual addicts and narcotics dealers.
Maltin did not remove the false information from his guide for another two decades, only after Gray filed suit for libel. In 1977, Gray appeared on both Father Knows Best television movie reunion specials that aired on NBC: the Father Knows Best Family Reunion special on May 15, 1977, the Father Knows Best: Home for Christmas special on December 18, 1977. Both specials were reunions of the entire cast from the former series that had left the air 17 years earlier. In a 1983 interview, Gray spoke disparagingly of Father Knows Best:"I wish there was some way I could tell the kids not to believe it; the dialogue, the situations, the characters they were all false. The show did everyone a disservice; the girls were always trained to pretend to be helpless to attract men. The show contributed to a lot of the problems between men and women that we see today.... I think we were all well motivated, but what we did was run a hoax.'Father Knows Best' purported to be a reasonable facsimile of life. And the bad thing is.
It revolved around not wanting to tell the truth, either out of embarrassment or not wanting to hurt someone. If I could say anything to make up for all the years I lent myself to, it would be,'You Know Best." As the co-owner of a company called BigRock Engineering, Gray markets several products that h
Vincent Canby was an American film and theatre critic who served as the chief film critic for The New York Times from 1969 until the early 1990s its chief theatre critic from 1994 until his death in 2000. He reviewed more than one thousand films during his tenure there. Canby was born in Chicago, the son of Katharine Anne and Lloyd Canby, he attended boarding school in Christchurch, with novelist William Styron, the two became friends. He introduced Styron to the works of E. B. White and Ernest Hemingway. After war service in the Pacific theater, he didn't graduate, he obtained his first job as a journalist in 1948 for the Chicago Journal of Commerce. In 1951, he left Chicago for New York and was employed as a film critic by Variety for six years before starting to work for The New York Times. Canby was viewed as biased in his reviews, as he was an enthusiastic supporter of only specific styles of filmmakers. On the other hand, Canby was heavily critical of some otherwise acclaimed films, such as Rocky, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi, Night of the Living Dead, After Hours, Blazing Saddles, A Christmas Story, Mask, The Natural, Rain Man, The Exorcist, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, The Godfather Part II, Alien and The Thing.
Among the best-known texts written by Canby was an negative review of the movie Heaven's Gate by Michael Cimino. In the early 1990s, Canby switched his attention from film to theatre. Canby, was an occasional playwright and novelist, penning the novels Living Quarters and Unnatural Scenery and the plays End of the War, After All and The Old Flag, a drama set during the civil war; the career of Vincent Canby is discussed in the film For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism by contemporary critics such as The Nation's Stuart Klawans, who talks of Canby's influence. Canby never was, for many years, the companion of English author Penelope Gilliatt, he died from cancer in Manhattan on October 15, 2000. Three years upon the death of Bob Hope, the late Canby's byline appeared on the front page of The New York Times. Canby had written the bulk of Hope's obituary for the newspaper several years before. Vincent Canby Reviews at The New York Times Vincent Canby on IMDb
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Blood Song is a 1982 American independent slasher film directed by Robert Angus and Alan J. Levi, produced by Frank Avianca and Lenny Montana, starring Frankie Avalon and Donna Wilkes, it follows a crippled young woman in a coastal Oregon town, stalked by a hatchet-wielding psychopath from whom she once received a blood transfusion. The film was shot in Coos Bay and Coquille and released theatrically in October 1982. While not prosecuted for obscenity, the film was seized and confiscated in the UK under Section 3 of the Obscene Publications Act 1959 during the "video nasty" panic. In 1955 in Portland, Oregon, a businessman finds his wife in bed with another man, commits a double murder-suicide, his young son, witnesses the three deaths, is traumatized. Twenty-five years in 1980, Paul is incarcerated at a psychiatric institution near Stanford Bay, a small town on the Oregon Coast. One day, Paul manages to murder an orderly, subsequently retrieves a beloved wooden flute given to him by his father before escaping the institution.
Local teenager Marion is struggling to adjust to her disability—she survived a car accident several years prior, caused by her drunken father Frank, which left her unable to walk without the help of a leg brace. She is plagued by bizarre dreams. Marion's home life is troubled, with her father being verbally abusive to her and her mother and she dreams of leaving Stanford Bay once her fisherman boyfriend, obtains a job in Portland. Meanwhile, Paul hitchhikes with a truck driver whom he bludgeons to death with a hatchet, steals his vehicle, he subsequently picks up a female hitchhiker, who he brings to a local motel in Stanford Bay, murders her after failing to charm her with his flute-playing. Marion's psychic visions of Paul's murders increase in frequency and intensity, sh soon witnesses him in person disposing of a body on a rural beach, making her his next target. Marion manages to elude to Paul, but he discovers where she lives, infiltrates her home, killing Frank. Struggling to walk, Marion manages to flee her home to an adjacent sawmill, is pursued by Paul.
While chasing Marion, Paul impales a worker with a forklift, inadvertently crashes through a barrier, driving the forklift off the pier and into the bay. At the police station, Marion is questioned about her attacker, who she identifies as the "man she dreamed about." Unable to find any trace of Paul, the police assume Marion is mentally ill and is responsible for the murders herself. She is committed to the same psychiatric institution. While lying bound to a hospital bed, Paul enters her room posing as a doctor, she awakens, screams in horror. Frankie Avalon as Paul Foley Donna Wilkes as Marion Richard Jaeckel as Frank Hauser Antoinette Bower as Bea Dane Clark as Sheriff Gibbons Lenny Montana as Skipper William Kirby Cullen as Joey Noelle North as Kathy Jennifer Enskat as Judith Christopher Scarano as Deputy Wilkins Victor Izay as Doctor David Arndt as First Boy Norman Brecke as Norm Roydon Clark as Watchman Candace Dickey as Betty The film was shot in 1981 in the Central Oregon Coast, including locations in Coos Bay and North Bend.
Though uncredited, Robert Angus served as an additional director on the film. Its original working title was Premonitions; the film was given a limited release theatrically in the United States by Summa Vista Pictures in 1982. It was subsequently released on VHS by various companies including Coast-to-Coast Video under the title Dream Slayer; the film was released on DVD by BCI Entertainment as part of their Exploitation Cinema double feature line alongside the film Mausoleum. This version is out of print. AllMovie's review of the film was mixed, writing, "Blood Song is dumb fun for those in the market for such and there is perverse enjoyment in watching Avalon's inexplicable performance, but don't expect chills or logic." Film scholar Scott Aaron Stine wrote: "As derivative as the script may be, Blood Song is palatable," citing the script's "sympathetic" characters as key. Blood Song on IMDb
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Culver City, California
Culver City is a city in Los Angeles County, California. The city was named after Harry Culver; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 38,883. It is surrounded by the city of Los Angeles, but shares a border with unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Over the years, it has annexed more than 40 pieces of adjoining land and now comprises about five square miles. Since the 1920s, Culver City has been a center for motion picture and television production, best known as the home of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. From 1932 to 1986, it was the headquarters for the Hughes Aircraft Company. National Public Radio West and Sony Pictures Entertainment have headquarters in the city; the NFL Network studio is based in Culver City. Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence in the area of present-day Culver City since at least 8,000 BC; the region was the homeland of the Tongva-Gabrieliño Native Americans. The city was founded on the lands of the former Rancho La Ballona, Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes, Rancho La Cienega o Paso de la Tijera.
In 1861, during the American Civil War, Camp Latham was established by the 1st California Infantry under Col. James H. Carleton and the 1st California Cavalry under Lt. Col. Benjamin F. Davis. Named for California Senator Milton S. Latham, the camp was the first staging area for the training of Union troops and their operations in Southern California, it was located on land of the Rancho La Ballona, on the South side of Ballona Creek, near what is now the intersection of Jefferson and Overland Boulevards. The post was moved to Camp Drum, which became the Drum Barracks. Harry Culver first attempted to establish Culver City in 1913; the first film studio in Culver City was built by Thomas Ince in 1918. Silent film comedy producer Hal Roach built his studios there in 1919, Metro Goldwyn Mayer in the'20s. During Prohibition and nightclubs such as the Cotton Club lined Washington Boulevard. Culver Center, one of Southern California's first shopping malls, was completed in 1950 on Venice Boulevard near the Overland Avenue intersection.
Many other retail stores, including a Rite Aid and several banks and restaurants, have occupied the center since then. Hughes Aircraft opened its Culver City plant in July 1941. There the company built the H-4 Hercules transport. Hughes was an active subcontractor in World War II, it developed and patented a flexible feed chute for faster loading of machine guns on B-17 bombers, manufactured electric booster drives for machine guns. Hughes produced more ammunition belts than any other American manufacturer, built 5,576 wings and 6,370 rear fuselage sections for Vultee BT-13 trainers. Hughes grew after the war, in 1953 Howard Hughes donated all his stock in the company to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. After he died in 1976, the institute sold the company, which made it the second-best-endowed medical research foundation in the world; the Hal Roach Studios were demolished in 1963. In the late 1960s, much of the MGM backlot acreage, the nearby 28.5-acre of the RKO Forty Acres, once owned by RKO Pictures and Desilu Productions, were sold by their owners.
In 1976 the sets were razed to make way for redevelopment. Today the RKO site is the southern expansion of the Hayden Industrial Tract, while the MGM property has been converted to a subdivision and a shopping center known as Raintree Plaza. In the 1990s, Culver City launched a successful revitalization program in which it renovated its downtown as well as several shopping centers in the Sepulveda Boulevard corridor near Westfield Culver City. Around the same time, Sony's motion picture subsidiary, Columbia Pictures, moved into the old MGM lot; the influx of many art galleries and restaurants to the eastern part of the city, formally designated the Culver City Art District, prompted The New York Times in 2007 to praise the new art scene and call Culver City a "nascent Chelsea."In 2012 Roger Vincent of the Los Angeles Times said that, according to local observers, the city's "reputation as a pedestrian-friendly destination with upscale restaurants, gastropubs and a thriving art scene is less than a decade old."
Hundreds of movies have been produced on the lots of Culver City's studios: Sony Pictures Studios, Culver Studios, the former Hal Roach Studios. These include The Wizard of Oz, The Thin Man, Gone with the Wind, the Tarzan series, the original King Kong. More recent films made in Culver City include Grease, Raging Bull, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, City Slickers, Air Force One, Wag the Dog and Contact. Television series made on Culver City sets have included Las Vegas, Cougar Town, Mad About You, Hogan's Heroes, The Green Hornet, Arrested Development, The Andy Griffith Show, Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. Jeopardy!, The Nanny, Hell's Kitchen, MasterChef, the syndicated version of Wheel of Fortune and Tosh. O; the television series The Green Hornet featured Bruce Lee as Kato. John Travolta's "Stranded at the Drive-In" sequence in Grease was filmed at the Studio Drive-In on the corner of Jefferson and Sepulveda, it served as a set including Pee-wee's Big Adventure. The theatre was closed in 1993 and demolished in 1998.
Culver City's streets have been featured in television series. Since much of the
East Harlem known as Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, is a neighborhood of Upper Manhattan, New York City encompassing the area north of the Upper East Side and East 96th Street up to East 142nd Street east of Fifth Avenue to the East and Harlem Rivers. Despite its name, it is not considered to be a part of Harlem; the neighborhood is one of the largest predominantly Latino communities in New York City made up of Puerto Ricans, as well as sizeable numbers of Dominican and Mexican immigrants. The community is notable for its contributions to Latin salsa music. East Harlem includes the area known as Italian Harlem, in which the remnants of a once predominantly Italian community remain; the Chinese population has increased in East Harlem since 2000. East Harlem has suffered from many social issues, such as a high crime rate, the highest jobless rate in New York City, teenage pregnancy, AIDS, drug abuse, an asthma rate five times the national average, it has the second-highest concentration of public housing in the United States, behind Brownsville, Brooklyn.
However, East Harlem is undergoing some gentrification. In February 2016, East Harlem was one of four neighborhoods featured in an article in The New York Times about "New Hot Neighborhoods", the city was considering re-zoning the area. East Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 11 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10029 and 10035, it is patrolled by the 25th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. The area which became East Harlem was rural for most of the 19th century, but residential settlements northeast of Third Avenue and East 110th Street had developed by the 1860s; the construction of the elevated transit line to Harlem in 1879 and 1880, the building of the Lexington Avenue subway in 1919, urbanized the area, precipitating the construction of apartment buildings and brownstones. The extension of cable cars up Lexington Avenue into East Harlem was stymied by the incline created by Duffy's Hill at 103rd Street, one of the steepest grades in Manhattan. East Harlem was first populated by poor German, Irish and Eastern European Jewish immigrants, with the Jewish population standing at 90,000 around 1917.
In the 1870s, Italian immigrants joined the mix after a contractor building trolley tracks on First Avenue imported Italian laborers as strikebreakers. The workers' shantytown along the East River at 106th Street was the beginning of an Italian neighborhood, with 4,000 having arrived by the mid-1880s; as more immigrants arrived, it expanded north to west to Third Avenue. East Harlem now consisted of pockets of ethnically-sorted settlements – Italian, German and Jewish – which were beginning to press up against each other, with the spaces still between them occupied by "gasworks and tar and garbage dumps". In 1895, Union Settlement Association, one of the oldest settlement houses in New York City, began providing services in the area, offering the immigrant and low-income residents a range of community-based programs, including boys and girls clubs, a sewing school and adult education classes. Southern Italians and Sicilians, with a moderate number of Northern Italians, soon predominated in the area east of Lexington Avenue between 96th and 116th Streets and east of Madison Avenue between 116th and 125th Streets, with each street featuring people from different regions of Italy.
The neighborhood became known as "Italian Harlem", the Italian American hub of Manhattan. The first Italians arrived in East Harlem in 1878, from Polla in the province of Salerno, settled in the vicinity of 115th Street. There were many crime syndicates in Italian Harlem from the early Black Hand to the bigger and more organized Italian gangs that formed the Italian-American Mafia, it was the founding location of the Genovese crime family, one of the Five Families that dominated organized crime in New York City. This includes the current 116th Street Crew of the Genovese family. During the 1970s, Italian East Harlem was home to the Italian-American drug gang and murder-for-hire crew known as the East Harlem Purple Gang. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Italian Harlem was represented in Congress by future Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia, in the 1940s, by Italian-American civil rights lawyer and socialist Vito Marcantonio; the Italian neighborhood approached its peak in the 1930s, with over 110,000 Italian-Americans living in its crowded, run-down apartment buildings.
The 1930 census showed that 81 percent of the population of Italian Harlem consisted of first- or second-generation Italian Americans. The Italian community in East Harlem remained strong into the 1980s, but it has diminished since then. However, Italian inhabitants and vestiges of the old Italian neighborhood remain; the annual Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and the "Dancing of the Giglio", the first Italian feast in New York City, is still celebrated there every year on the second weekend of August by the Giglio Society of East Harlem. Italian retail establishments still exist, such as Rao's restaurant, started in 1896, the original Patsy's Pizzeria which opened in the 1933. In May 2011, one of the last remaining Italian retail businesses in the neighborhood, a barbershop owned by Claudio Caponigro on 116th Street, was threatened with closure by a rent increase. Puerto Rican and Latin American migration after the First World War established an enclave at the western portion of East Har