Sainte-Croix is a municipality in and the seat of the Municipalité régionale de comté de Lotbinière in Quebec, Canada. It is part of the Chaudière-Appalaches region and the population is 2,433 as of 2009; the new constitution dates from 2001, after the amalgamation of the parish and the village of Sainte-Croix. Sainte-Croix name refers to the True Cross, but was in use well before its foundation in 1713. In fact, the seigneurie of Sainte-Croix was granted in 1637 to the Company of One Hundred Associates at a point named Platon Sainte-Croix, at the mouth of the Jacques-Cartier River, it had been named as such by Jacques Cartier. Samuel de Champlain explained in 1613 that there had been a mistake and this was not the place where Jacques Cartier had wintered; the point is now called Pointe Platon. South Shore Furniture has a factory in the municipality. Media related to Sainte-Croix, Quebec at Wikimedia Commons Commission de toponymie du Québec Ministère des Affaires municipales, des Régions et de l'Occupation du territoire
Abitibi Consolidated Inc. was a Canadian pulp and paper company based in Montreal, Quebec. Abitibi-Consolidated was formed from the merger of Abitibi-Price Inc. and Stone Consolidated Corp. on May 29, 1997. A network of 19 paper mills, 20 sawmills, 4 remanufacturing facilities and 2 engineered wood facilities, located in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom, supplied publishers, building products distributors and housing manufacturers in over 70 countries, it had 12,500 employees. A global leader in newsprint, commercial printing papers and wood products, the Company saw combined revenues of $4.85 billion in 2006. Number one in Canada in terms of total certified woodlands, Abitibi-Consolidated was one of the largest recyclers of newspapers and magazines, serving 21 metropolitan areas in North America and the United Kingdom. In addition, the Company had significant hydroelectric generating assets in eastern Canada, which provided a cost advantage for the associated production facilities and was an extension into the energy sector.
Price Brothers & Company Limited was a lumber firm from Quebec founded in 1820 as William Price Company by William Price. Following the death of Price Sr sons William Evan Price and Evans John Price took over and the firm became Price Brothers and Company Limited. In 1910 the company became Price Brothers Limited as Sir William Price took control of the family firm, after he died in 1924 Sir William's sons John Herbert and Arthur Clifford Price assumed control. In the 1930s the family firm lost the firm was sold. Price Brothers and Company was renamed Price Limited in 1966 and was acquired by Abitibi Power and Paper Co. and became Abitibi-Price in 1974. When Abitibi-Price became Abitibi-Consolidated in 1997, the Price name disappeared. Abitibi Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd. was founded in 1912 at Iroquois Falls, Ontario on the Abitibi River by Frank Harris Anson. The following February, the company name was changed to Abitibi Power and Paper Co. Ltd. to reflect the power generation business it created through the need to build a dam to generate electricity for its mill.
The company expanded to other locations in Ontario where it built dams and operated hydro electric power stations. Wherever the company built a mill, a new town sprang up around it and it built radio stations such as CFCH in Iroquois Falls to serve these remote new communities; the company acquired other small lumber operations and grew to become a major force in the North American newsprint business but the Great Depression forced the company to file for bankruptcy protection on September 10, 1932. A Royal commission was held to enquire into the company's affairs, with its report issued in March 1941, it remained under the control of the Court-appointed Receiver until 1946, the longest such receivership in Canadian history. Emerging from bankruptcy, the company prospered in the post-World War II industrial boom and in 1965 changed its name to the Abitibi Paper Company Ltd. In 1974, Abitibi purchased a controlling interest in the Price Brothers & Company Limited which had extensive operations in the Province of Quebec and whose vast forestry business dated back to the William Price Company established in Quebec City in 1820.
The merger of Abitibi and the Price Brothers made it the world's biggest newsprint producer. In 1979, the corporate name was changed to Abitibi-Price Inc. and in 1981 it was taken over by Olympia and York Developments Ltd. In 1982, Abitibi-Price bought out the Hilroy companies, whose founder, Roy Hill, had been a member of the Abitibi board of directors and had died in 1978. With the purchase of Hilroy, Abitibi-Price became the premiere vertically-integrated supplier of office stationery in the Canadian market; the collapse of Olympia and York in 1992 resulted in the consortium of banks being forced to take control of Abitibi-Price Inc. for a short time until they sold it through a public share issue in 1994. The share issue entailed the divestment and sale of Hilroy to the Mead Corporation; the Bathurst Power and Paper Company Ltd. built a mill in Bathurst, New Brunswick in 1914. Majority control of the company was obtained in the late 1930s by Arthur J. Nesbitt and his partner Peter A. T. Thomson through their holding company, Power Corporation of Canada.
In the early 1960s, Power Corporation bought the Consolidated Paper Company. When Paul Desmarais acquired control of Power Corporation in 1968, the two companies were merged to become Consolidated-Bathurst Inc, which, in 1989, was sold to Stone Container Corporation of Chicago, Illinois who renamed it Stone Consolidated Inc. In 2000, Abitibi-Consolidated acquired a majority shareholding in Canadian integrated forest products company Donohue Inc. On January 29, 2007, Bowater and Abitibi-Consolidated announced they would be merging to create AbitibiBowater; the merger created the third largest pulp and paper company in North America, the eighth largest in the world. Following the merger, Abitibi-Consolidated was rated B1, B+ and B+ by Moody's, Standard & Poor's and Fitch Ratings respectively. Company web site Yahoo profile
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients. Prior to the invention and adoption of the Fourdrinier machine and other types of paper machine that use an endless belt, all paper in a paper mill was made by hand, one sheet at a time, by specialized laborers. Historical investigations into the origin of the paper mill are complicated by differing definitions and loose terminology from modern authors: Many modern scholars use the term to refer indiscriminately to all kinds of mills, whether powered by humans, by animals or by water, their propensity to refer to any ancient paper manufacturing centre as a "mill", without further specifying its exact power drive, has increased the difficulty of identifying the efficient and important water-powered type. The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Muslim papermakers. However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century.
The general absence of the use of water-powered paper mills in Muslim papermaking prior to the 11th century is suggested by the habit of Muslim authors at the time to call a production center not a "mill", but a "paper manufactory". Scholars have identified paper mills in Abbasid-era Baghdad in 794–795; the evidence that waterpower was applied to papermaking at this time is a matter of scholarly debate. In the Moroccan city of Fez, Ibn Battuta speaks of "400 mill stones for paper". Since Ibn Battuta does not mention the use of water-power and such a number of water-mills would be grotesquely high, the passage is taken to refer to human or animal force. An exhaustive survey of milling in Al-Andalus did not uncover water-powered paper mills, nor do the Spanish books of property distribution after the Christian reconquest refer to any. Arabic texts never use the term mill in connection with papermaking and the most thorough account of Muslim papermaking at the time, the one by the Zirid Sultan Al-Muizz ibn Badis, describes the art purely in terms of a handcraft.
Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand, in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni, but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill. This is seen by Leor Halevi as evidence of Samarkand first harnessing waterpower in the production of paper, but notes that it is not known if waterpower was applied to papermaking elsewhere across the Islamic world at the time. Robert I. Burns remains sceptical, given the isolated occurrence of the reference and the prevalence of manual labour in Islamic papermaking elsewhere prior to the 13th century. Hill notes that paper mills appear in early Christian Catalan documentation from the 1150s, which may imply Islamic origins, but that hard evidence is lacking. Burns, has dismissed the case for early Catalan water-powered paper mills, after re-examination of the evidence; the identification of early hydraulic stamping mills in medieval documents from Fabriano, Italy, is completely without substance.
Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to 1282 in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. A decree by the Christian king Peter III addresses the establishment of a royal "molendinum", a proper hydraulic mill, in the paper manufacturing centre of Xàtiva; this early hydraulic paper mill was operated by Muslim Mudéjar in the Moorish quarter of Xàtiva, though it appears to have been resented by sections of the local Muslim papermakering community. The first permanent paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in 1390. From the mid-14th century onwards, European paper milling underwent a rapid improvement of many work processes; the size of a paper mill prior to the use of industrial machines was described by counting the number of vats it had. Thus, a "one vat" paper mill had only one vatman, one coucher, other laborers. By the early 20th century, paper mills sprang up around New England and the rest of the world, due to the high demand for paper. At this time, there were many world leaders of the production of paper.
During the year 1907, the Brown Company cut between 30 and 40 million acres of woodlands on their property, which extended from La Tuque, Canada to West Palm, Florida. In the 1920s Nancy Baker Tompkins represented large paper manufacturing companies, like Hammermill Paper Company, Honolulu Paper Company and Appleton Coated Paper Company to promote sales to the distributors of paper products, it was the only business of its kind in the world and was started in 1931 by Tompkins and prospered in spite of the business depression. “Log drives” were conducted on local rivers to send the logs to the mills. By the late 20th and early 21st-century, paper mills began to close and the log drives became a dying craft. Due to the addition of new machinery, many millworkers were laid off and many of the historic paper mills closed. Paper mills can be integrated mills or nonintegrated mills. Integrated mills consist of a paper mill on the same site; such mills produce paper. The modern paper mill uses large amounts of energy and wood pulp in an efficient and complex series of processes, control technology to produce a sheet of paper that can be used in diverse ways.
Modern paper machines can be 500 feet in length, produce a sheet 400 inc
St. Lawrence Iroquoians
The St. Lawrence Iroquoians were an Indigenous people who existed from the 14th century to about 1580, they concentrated along the shores of the St. Lawrence River in present-day Quebec and Ontario, Canada, as well as the American state of New York, although their territory extended east, they spoke a branch of the Iroquoian family. They were believed to have numbered up to 120,000 people in 25 nations. However, this much higher estimate of the number Lawrence Iroquoians is improbable, their largest known village had a population of about 600, the best scientific and archeological evidence is that their population was 8,000–10,000. The traditional view is that they disappeared because of late 16th century warfare by the Mohawk nation of the Haudenosaunee, who wanted to control fur trade in the valley, but other possibilities, including climate change, wars with various Algonquin tribes and exposure to European diseases, may have been important. Knowledge about the St. Lawrence Iroquoians has been constructed from the studies of surviving oral accounts of the historical past from the current Native people, writings of the French explorer Jacques Cartier, earlier histories, anthropologists' and other scholars' work with archaeological and linguistic studies since the 1950s.
Archaeological evidence has established this was a people distinct from the other regional Iroquoian peoples, the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee and the Wendat. Recent archaeological finds suggest distinctly separate groups may have existed among the St. Lawrence Iroquoians as well. For years historians and other scholars debated the identity of the Iroquoian cultural group in the St. Lawrence valley which Jacques Cartier and his crew recorded encountering in 1535–36 at Stadacona and Hochelaga. An increasing amount of archaeological evidence since the 1950s has settled some of the debate. Since the 1950s, anthropologists and some historians have used definitive linguistic and archaeological studies to reach consensus that the St. Lawrence Iroquoians were peoples distinct from nations of the Iroquois Confederacy or the Huron. Since the 1990s, they have concluded that there may have been as many as 25 tribes among the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, who numbered anywhere from 8000 to 10,000 people.
They lived in the river lowlands and east of the Great Lakes, including in present-day northern New York and New England. Before this, some argued that the people were the ancestors or direct relations of historic Iroquoian groups in the greater region, such as the Huron or Mohawk, Onondaga or Oneida of the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee encountered by explorer Samuel de Champlain. Since the 18th century, several theories have been proposed for the identity of the St. Lawrence River peoples; the issue is important not only for historical understanding but because of Iroquois and other indigenous land claims. In 1998 James F. Pendergast summarized the four major theories with an overview of evidence: Huron-Mohawk Option: Several historians combined data from early French reports, vocabulary lists and oral histories of accounts by Native tribes to theorize the early inhabitants were Iroquoian-speaking Huron or Mohawk, two well-known tribes in history. There has not been sufficient documentation to support this conclusion according to 20th-century standards.
In addition, archaeological finds and linguistic studies since the 1950s have discredited this theory. Mohawk Identity Option: Based in part on material from the 18th century, Mark Cleland Baker and Lars Sweenburg developed a theory that the Mohawk had migrated and settled in the St. Lawrence River valley before relocating to their historic territory of present-day New York. Pendergast says that attribution of Stadacona or Hochelaga as Mohawk, Onondaga or Oneida has not been supported by the archaeological data. "Since the 1950s a vast accumulation of archaeological material from Ontario, Vermont and New York State has provided compelling evidence to demonstrate that neither the Mohawk, the Onondaga, nor the Oneida homelands originated in the St Lawrence Valley." Laurentian Iroquoian and Laurentian Iroquois Identity: based on language studies, with material added since 1940. The current anthropological convention is to designate these people St Lawrence Iroquoians, all the while being aware that on-going archaeological research indicates that several discrete Iroquoian political entities were present in a number of dispersed geographical regions on the St Lawrence River axis."As noted and some historians have used definitive linguistic and archaeological studies to reach consensus that the St. Lawrence Iroquoians were a people distinct from nations of the Iroquois Confederacy or the Huron, consisted of numerous groups.
Pendergast notes that while Iroquoians and topical academics have reached consensus on this theory, some historians have continued to publish other theories and ignore the archaeological evidence. The St. Lawrence Iroquoians did share many cultural and linguistic aspects with other Iroquoian groups; the St. Lawrence Iroquoians appear to have disappeared from the St. Lawrence valley some time prior to 1580. Champlain reported no evidence of Native habitation in the valley. By t
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
The Jacques-Cartier River is a river in the province of Quebec, Canada. It is 161 km long and its source is Jacques-Cartier Lake in Laurentides Wildlife Reserve, flows in a predominantly southern direction before ending in the Saint Lawrence River at Donnacona, about 30 km upstream from Quebec City, it is under nomination for Canadian Heritage River status. The Jacques-Cartier River drains an area of 2,515 square kilometres, starting in and flowing for nearly 160 kilometres through the Laurentian mountains in the geological region of Grenville flows through the sedimentary rocks of the St. Lawrence Lowlands for 17 kilometres, from the municipality of Pont-Rouge to its mouth; the area covered by the drainage basin is for the most part undeveloped or protected its source. In fact, 77% of its length is protected by the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve and the Jacques-Cartier National Park where one finds a steep glaciated valley formed during the last glaciation. About 25,000 people live on the shores of this river close to its mouth, where it crosses the regional municipality of Portneuf and the municipalities of Tewkesbury, Saint-Gabriel-de-Valcartier, Sainte-Catherine-de-la-Jacques-Cartier, Pont-Rouge and Donnacona.
Important tributaries are: Rivière aux Pommes Rivière Sautauriski Rivière Ontaritzi Rivière à l'Épaule Rivière Cachée Rivière Launière The reports that according to surveyor John Adams, in 1829, the river was known by the Hurons as Lahdaweoole, meaning "coming from far". They and the Montagnais used its shores for trapping, it is estimated. Explorer Samuel de Champlain mentioned this river in 1632 as the "Sturgeon and Salmon River". In 1656, a map of Samson of Abbeville showed "R. J. Quartier" as the river's designation so named according to the popular belief that Jacques Cartier had passed by the river's mouth; this natural highway was used among others by Jesuit missionaries to reach the Lac Saint-Jean area during the 17th century. Logging in the Laurentian highlands became an important economic activity during the second half of the 18th century; the Jacques-Cartier River was used for log drives to transport the logs to the Saint-Lawrence River and to the mills downstream. This practice was only stopped in 1975.
With the settlement of French immigrants near the river's mouth came the formation of townships and new industries appeared such as flour mills. In 1895 the Laurentian Wildlife Reserve was created to provide fishing and recreation opportunities for the people. From 1918 on, the construction of fishing camps made fishing more popular; the end of the First World War and the construction of nearby roads to Lac Saint-Jean contributed to this popularity. Hydro-electric dams started to be built, taking advantage of the river's geography up until the 1970s. In 1972, a proposed Hydro-Québec project would have flooded the Jacques-Cartier River valley, but the project was opposed by the population; the government reversed its decision and in 1981 Jacques-Cartier Park was created out of the wildlife reserve as a 671 km2 conservation park, accessible to the public for nature interpretation and nature friendly recreation activities. The river bank is mixed forest, consisting of yellow birch and sugar maple, whereas the surrounding areas show rather the boreal forest rich in conifers, in particular the black spruce.
This distinction is visible in the steeper sections of the valley where a milder microclimate prevails. The fauna therefore is typical of a Canadian mixed forest. One can find in the Jacques-Cartier River valley the American black bear, common raccoon, gray wolf, river otter, moose, white-tailed deer, caribou. There are 104 species of birds, including birds of prey such as the barred owl, American kestrel, osprey. There are 16 species of fish, of which brook trout in particular can be found frequently. In addition, a reintroduction program has been established for Atlantic salmon, which disappeared from the river in the 19th century. Jacques-Cartier River information of Commission de toponymie du Québec Jacques-Cartier Factsheet of Canadian Heritage River System Parcs Quebec - Jacques-Cartier Park Corporation du Bassin de la Jacques-Cartier