A Hanoverian is a warmblood horse breed originating in Germany, seen in the Olympic Games and other competitive English riding styles, has won gold medals in all three equestrian Olympic competitions. It is one of the oldest, most numerous, most successful of the warmbloods. A carriage horse, infusions of Thoroughbred blood lightened it to make it more agile and useful for competition; the Hanoverian is known for a good temperament, athleticism and grace. In 1735, George II, the King of England and Elector of Hanover, founded the State Stud at Celle, he purchased stallions suitable for all-purpose work in agriculture and in harness, as well as for breeding cavalry mounts. The local mares were refined with Holsteiner and Cleveland Bay, Andalusian and Mecklenburg stock. By the end of the 18th century, the Hanoverian had become a high-class coach horse. In 1844, a law was passed that allowed only stallions approved by a commission to be used for the purpose of breeding. In 1867, breeders started a society aimed at producing a coach and military horse, with the first stud book being published in 1888.
The Hanoverian became one of the most popular breeds in Europe for army work. When the demand for Hanoverians declined following World War I, the aim for breeding became a horse that could be used for farm work, but still had the blood and gaits to be used as a riding and carriage horse. After World War II, there was a growing demand for sport horses, as well as general riding horses, the breeding yet again was adapted. Thoroughbreds were used to refine the breed; the key to the success of the Hanoverian has been the rigorous selection of breeding stock, a large breed population, breeders' willingness to adapt to changes in demand. Today, the Hanoverian breeders' association offers many incentives to breed the best, including the famous auctions at Verden, extensive grading opportunities for stallions and young horses. In addition, few breeds have such well-kept records, allowing breeders to trace bloodlines over many generations, improving their chances to find the best stallion–mare match.
The current aim of breeders today is to create a noble, versatile warmblood with light and ground-covering gaits. Whenever necessary, outside blood is brought in to improve the horse; the strict selection ensures that Hanoverians are athletic and good jumpers, for show jumping and eventing, have the gaits for dressage. Hanoverians are elegant and robust, they are bred to be willing and trainable, have a strong back, powerful body, athletic movement, strong limbs. Chestnut, bay and gray are found the most often. Regulations prohibit horses with too much white, buckskin and cremello horses from being registered; the horses can be 15.3 -- 17.2 hands high. The World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses uses results from International Federation for Equestrian Sports-recognized competitions to rank individual horses and breed registries within each Olympic discipline: dressage, show jumping, eventing; the WBFSH publishes these rankings each year. The FEI is the International Olympic Committee-recognized international governing body for equestrian sport.
In North America, the hunt seat style of riding features the show hunter, a competitive discipline. While infrastructure does not allow the accuracy and completeness of WBFSH/FEI standings, the United States Equestrian Federation publishes yearly rankings of the top hunter horses, the top sires of hunter horses; the Hanoverian Society has been the most successful studbook in international dressage competition as ranked by the WBFSH and FEI since these standings began to be published in 2001. The top Hanoverian-branded international dressage horses include Salinero, Satchmo 78, Bonaparte 67, Wansuela Suerte. Since the 1956 Olympic Games, Hanoverians have earned 3 individual gold medals, 4 individual silver medals, 4 individual bronze medals. Hanoverians have been members of no fewer than 7 gold medal dressage teams; the World Equestrian Games, which are held every four years to split the non-Olympic years evenly, have been won by many Hanoverians. Dressage champions at the World Equestrian Games that bore the Hanoverian brand include Mehmed, Gigolo and Salinero.
Hanoverians have been members of 8 gold-medal winning WEG teams since 1966. At the age of 25, the Hanoverian stallion Weltmeyer is the world's #3 sire of international-caliber dressage horses, behind #2 Donnerhall, sired by the Hanoverian Donnerwetter; the Hanoverian Society has been ranked in the top five most successful studbooks in international show jumping competition as ranked by the WBFSH and FEI since 2001. The best Hanoverian jumpers of the new millennium are Shutterfly, by Silvio, For Pleasure, by Furioso II. Shutterfly won the Show Jumping World Cup in 2005, 2008, 2009. For Pleasure was second place at the 1995 World Cup, was a member of two gold medal-winning Olympic show jumping teams. Warwick Rex won the individual gold medal in show jumping at the 1976 Montreal Olympics, Fidelitas took silver at the 1964 Tokyo Games. Hanoverians have been members of 6 Olympic gold medal teams in show jumping. Other top-notch Hanoverian show jumpers include winner of
Eventing is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combine and compete against other combinations across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, show jumping. This event has its roots in a comprehensive cavalry test that required mastery of several types of riding; the competition may be run as a one-day event, where all three events are completed in one day or a three-day event, more now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days, followed by cross-country the next day and show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was known as Combined Training, the name persists in many smaller organizations; the term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test", which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most dressage and show jumping. Eventing is an equestrian triathlon, in that it combines three different disciplines in one competition set out over one, two, or three days, depending on the length of courses and number of entries.
This sport follows a similar format in Australia, Ireland, United Kingdom and the United States The dressage phase consists of an exact sequence of movements ridden in an enclosed arena. The test is judged by one or more judges, who are looking for balance, rhythm and most the cooperation between the horse and rider; the challenge is to demonstrate that a supremely fit horse, capable of completing the cross-country phase on time has the training to perform in a graceful and precise manner. Dressage work is the basis of all the other phases and disciplines within the sport of eventing because it develops the strength and balance that allow a horse to go cross-country and show jump competently. At the highest level of competition, the dressage test is equivalent to the United States Dressage Federation Third Level and may ask for half-pass at trot, shoulder-in, collected and extended gaits, single flying changes, counter-canter; the tests may not ask for Grand Prix movements such as canter pirouette, or passage.
Each movement in the test is scored on a scale from 0 to 10, with a score of "10" being the highest possible mark and with the total maximum score for the test varying depending on the level of competition and the number of movements. A score of 10 is rare. Therefore, if one movement is poorly executed, it is still possible for the rider to get a good overall score if the remaining movements are well executed; the marks are added together and any errors of course deducted. To convert this score to penalty points, the average marks of all judges are converted to a percentage of the maximum possible score, subtracted from 100 and the multiplied by a co-efficient decided by the governing body. Canadian example: 77 percent becomes 34.5 penalty points or x 1.5 = 34.5 Once the bell rings the rider is allowed 45 seconds to enter the ring or receive a two-point penalty an additional 45 seconds, for a total of 90 seconds, or is eliminated. If all four feet of the horse exit the arena during the test, this results in elimination.
If the horse resists more than 20 seconds during the test, this results in elimination. If the rider falls, this results in elimination. Errors on course: 1st: minus 2 marks 2nd: minus 4 marks 3rd: elimination The next phase, cross-country, requires both horse and rider to be in excellent physical shape and to be brave and trusting of each other; this phase consists of 12–20 fences, or 30–40 at the higher levels, placed on a long outdoor circuit. These fences consist of solidly built natural objects as well as various obstacles such as ponds and streams, ditches and banks, combinations including several jumping efforts based on objects that would occur in the countryside. Sometimes at higher levels, fences are designed that would not occur in nature. However, these are still designed to be as solid as more natural obstacles. Safety regulations mean that some obstacles are now being built with a "frangible pin system", allowing part or all of the jump to collapse if hit with enough impact. Speed is a factor, with the rider required to cross the finish line within a certain time frame.
Crossing the finish line after the optimum time results in penalties for each second over. At lower levels, there is a speed fault time, where penalties are incurred for horse and rider pairs completing the course too quickly. For every "disobedience" a horse and rider incur on course, penalties will be added to their dressage score. After four disobediences altogether or three disobediences at one fence the pair is eliminated, meaning they can no longer participate in the competition. A horse and rider pair can be eliminated for going off course, for example missing a fence. If the horses shoulder and hind-quarter touch the ground, mandatory retirement is taken and they are not allowed to participate further in the competition. If the rider falls off the horse they are eliminated. However, in the US this rule is being revised for the Novice level and below; the penalties for disobediences on cross-country are weighted relative to the other phases of competition to emphasize the importance of courage and athleticism.
Fitness is required as the time allowed will require a strong canter at the lower levels, all the way to a strong gallop at the higher events. In recent years, a controversy has developed between supporters of sho
European Dressage Championships
The European Dressage Championships are the European Championships for the equestrian discipline of dressage. They are now held every 2 years, in odd-numbered years. Gold and Bronze medals are awarded in both an individual and team competition. There is a Championship held for juniors, young riders, ponies. Since the 2015, the competition has shared a site and branding with vaulting, reigning and driving, but for sponsor reasons not eventing, as the FEI European Championships, echoing the combined World Equestrian Games concept; the first official combined event took place in Aachen in 2015. First time in 1963 an official European Dressage Championship was held. Before this time, beginning in the 1950s, the FEI has held one time each year the „FEI Grand Prix“; the winners of this events were referred to as European champions. At the official first European Dressage Championship in 1963 it was possible to start with more than one horse - so each rider can win more than one individual medal. Today each rider can start only with one horse.
The history of team medals start at the European Dressage Championships in 1965. Two years before, only Great Britain and Romania start with three riders at the European Championships, but the rules say that a minimum number of three teams has to start in the team competition - so no team medals were awarded in 1963. From 1963 to 2005, each European Dressage Championship team competition was won by the team of the Federal Republik of Germany. In 2007 the Dutch team win this competition. Up to 1991 only one individual prize giving was held. In 1993 and 1995 two individual competitions was held—the Grand Prix Spécial and the Grand Prix Freestyle; the riders had to choose, in. In 1997 the rules were changed again: The riders had to start in the Grand Prix de Dressage, in the Grand Prix Spécial and the Grand Prix Freestyle. At the end of this competitions only one individual prize giving was held. Since 2005 the riders can win an individual in the Grand Prix Spécial and in the Grand Prix Freestyle. A Rider who want to start in the Grand Prix Freestyle must start in the Grand Prix Spécial.
In 2003 the European Dressage Championship was held as Open European Dressage Championship, but a European Championship was calculated based on the result
A sport horse or sporthorse is a type of horse, rather than any particular breed. The term is applied to horses bred for the traditional Olympic equestrian sporting events of dressage, show jumping, combined driving, but the precise definition varies. In the United States, horses used in hunt seat and show hunter competition are classed as sport horses, whereas the British show hunter is classified as a "show horse." Horses used for western riding disciplines, Saddle seat, or any form of horse racing are not described as sport horses. Sport horses are bred for specific qualities in their conformation and temperament; the purpose and breeding of sport horses across the world varies little, but the exact definition of a "sport horse" differs from country to country. In the United Kingdom, the term "sport horse" refers to any horse suitable for dressage, eventing or show jumping. In the USA, the definition is broader, sometimes encompassing horses used in any of the hunt seat disciplines. Worldwide, the breeding of sport horses is overseen by the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses.
The WBFSH acts as a connection between sport horse breeding organizations and the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Characteristics common to quality sport horses include the following: Conformation: most sport horses have similarities in their conformation; these include a sloping shoulder, "turned-over" neck, uphill build. Conformation has direct effects on the animal's jumping ability. Movement: although movement may vary between disciplines, most sport horses are bred for a long, athletic stride and movement that uses the whole body; the trot and canter should have good suspension, the horse reaches under his body with his hind legs. This movement makes it easier for the rider to teach the horse to engage and extend his stride, which are necessary qualities in all sport horse disciplines. Jumping ability: horses bred for the jumping disciplines possess good jumping form, with tight lower legs and good bascule, they are bred to have conformation that allows them to jump higher.
Temperament: because of the great deal of training needed to produce a successful sport horse, they are bred for trainability and willingness to work. Horses intended for Olympic-level may be bred a bit "hotter," which can be controlled by their experienced riders and used to his or her advantage, while those intended for amateur use are bred to be quieter and more forgiving. Many Warmblood breeds were developed for use as sport horses for use in dressage and show jumping. Thoroughbreds are commonly used as sport horses in eventing, some have been bred as sport horses, rather than as race horses; such Thoroughbreds tend to have a heavier sport horse build, rather than the leaner conformation of a race horse. However, there have been many instances of former race horses being retrained as successful sport horses. Thoroughbreds are crossed with warmbloods and draft horses to create sport horses, such crosses were the historic foundation of most warmblood breeds. One example is a cross between the Thoroughbred and Irish Draught breeds.
Additional breeds, such as the assorted Baroque horse breeds, American Quarter Horses, Arabian horses, several pony breeds, some gaited breeds such as the American Saddlebred are sometimes used as sport horses. Representatives of many different breeds have been successful at the highest levels, although in international competition, horses with warmblood or Thoroughbred ancestry are in the majority. Warmblood Equestrian at the Summer Olympics
International Federation for Equestrian Sports
The International Federation for Equestrian Sports is the international governing body of equestrian sports. The FEI headquarters are in Switzerland. An FEI code of conduct protects the welfare of the horses from physical doping; the FEI recognizes eight disciplines under global governance in both regular and para-equestrianism competition: dressage combined driving endurance eventing para-equestrian reining show jumping equestrian vaulting The following two disciplines are under regional governance: horseball tent peggingThe FEI does not govern or provide rules for horse racing or polo, but in the latter case, it has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Federation of International Polo. Jumping and Eventing have been a part of the Olympics since 1912. Para-Equestrian Dressage has been part of the Paralympic games since 1996. Jumping has been part of the Youth Olympic Games since its creation in Singapore in 2010. For more equestrian information about the Olympics, the Paralympic and the Youth Olympic games, please visit the FEI History Hub.
The FEI has organized the FEI World Equestrian Games every four years since 1990. The idea of the World Equestrian Games came into being in the mid-1980s and was supported by HRH Prince Philip, FEI President; the WEG encompasses the World Championship titles in all the FEI global disciplines. The FEI World Cup is an indoor series and takes place throughout the world with qualifying leagues leading to a final in each of the disciplines; the FEI World Cup series began with show jumping in 1978 and has since been extended to the disciplines of dressage and vaulting. Main events include: Dressage World Cup Show Jumping World Cup World Cup Driving World Cup Vaulting FEI World and Regional Championships are held in all the FEI disciplines and age categories. Events include: World Eventing Championships for Young Horses FEI World Driving Championships for Four-in-Hand FEI World Driving Championships for Singles FEI World Endurance Championships for Seniors FEI World Vaulting Championships for Seniors FEI World Para-Equestrian Driving Championships The FEI was formed in 1921 with the joining of the national organizations of Belgium, France, Japan, Norway and the United States of America.
Today, there are 134 National Equestrian Federations affiliated with the FEI. There have been 13 different presidents of the organization. Major Jhkr Karl F. Quarles van Ufford is the only individual to have served twice. Nowadays, a President can serve for a maximum of two terms. Since 2014, the President of the FEI is Ingmar De Vos from Belgium. Official website FEI TV: Official Video Website Official Facebook Page
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded. Stallions follow the conformation and phenotype of their breed, but within that standard, the presence of hormones such as testosterone may give stallions a thicker, "cresty" neck, as well as a somewhat more muscular physique as compared to female horses, known as mares, castrated males, called geldings. Temperament varies based on genetics, training, but because of their instincts as herd animals, they may be prone to aggressive behavior toward other stallions, thus require careful management by knowledgeable handlers. However, with proper training and management, stallions are effective equine athletes at the highest levels of many disciplines, including horse racing, horse shows, international Olympic competition; the term "stallion" dates from the era of Henry VII, who passed a number of laws relating to the breeding and export of horses in an attempt to improve the British stock, under which it was forbidden to allow uncastrated male horses to be turned out in fields or on the commons.
"Stallion" is used to refer to males of other equids, including zebras and donkeys. Contrary to popular myths, many stallions do not live with a harem of mares. Nor, in natural settings, do they fight each other to the death in competition for mares. Being social animals, stallions who are not able to find or win a harem of mares band together in stallions-only "bachelor" groups which are composed of stallions of all ages. With a band of mares, the stallion is not the leader of a herd but defends and protects the herd from predators and other stallions; the leadership role in a herd is held by a mare, known colloquially as the "lead mare" or "boss mare." The mare determines the movement of the herd as it travels to obtain food and shelter. She determines the route the herd takes when fleeing from danger; when the herd is in motion, the dominant stallion herds the straggling members closer to the group and acts as a "rear guard" between the herd and a potential source of danger. When the herd is at rest, all members share the responsibility of keeping watch for danger.
The stallion is on the edge of the group, to defend the herd if needed. There is one dominant mature stallion for every mixed-sex herd of horses; the dominant stallion in the herd will tolerate both sexes of horses while young, but once they become sexually mature as yearlings or two-year-olds, the stallion will drive both colts and fillies from the herd. Colts may present competition for the stallion, but studies suggest that driving off young horses of both sexes may be an instinctive behavior that minimizes the risk of inbreeding within the herd, as most young are the offspring of the dominant stallion in the group. In some cases, a single younger mature male may be tolerated on the fringes of the herd. One theory is that this young male is considered a potential successor, as in time the younger stallion will drive out the older herd stallion. Fillies soon join a different band with a dominant stallion different from the one that sired them. Colts or young stallions without mares of their own form small, all-male, "bachelor bands" in the wild.
Living in a group gives these stallions the protective benefits of living in a herd. A bachelor herd may contain older stallions who have lost their herd in a challenge. Other stallions may directly challenge a herd stallion, or may attempt to "steal" mares and form a new, smaller herd. In either case, if the two stallions meet, there is a true fight. If a fight for dominance occurs do opponents hurt each other in the wild because the weaker combatant has a chance to flee. Fights between stallions in captivity may result in serious injuries. In the wild, feral stallions have been known to mate with domesticated mares; the stallion's reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics. The external genitalia comprise: the testes; the testes of an average stallion are ovoids 8 to 12 cm long, 6 to 7 cm high by 5 cm wide. Stallions have a vascular penis; when non-erect, it is quite flaccid and contained within the prepuce. The retractor penis muscle is underdeveloped.
Erection and protrusion take place by the increasing tumescence of the erectile vascular tissue in the corpus cavernosum penis. When not erect, the penis is housed within the prepuce, 50 cm long and 2.5 to 6 cm in diameter with the distal end 15 to 20 cm. The retractor muscle contracts to retract the penis into the sheath and relaxes to allow the penis to extend from the sheath; when erect, the penis doubles in length and thickness and the glans increases by 3 to 4 times. The urethra opens within a small pouch at the distal end of the glans. A structure called the urethral process projects beyond the glans; the internal genitalia comprise the accessory sex glands, which include the vesicular glands, the prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands. These contribute fluid to the semen at ejaculation, but are not necessary for fertility. Domesticated stallions are trained and managed in a variety of ways, depending on the region of the w
The piaffe is a dressage movement where the horse is in a collected and cadenced trot, in place or nearly in place. The center of gravity of the horse should be more towards the hind end, with the hindquarters lowered and great bending of the joints in the hind legs; the front end of the horse is mobile and light, with great flexion in the joints of the front legs, the horse remains light in the hand. The horse should retain a clear and rhythm, show great impulsion, ideally should have a moment of suspension between the foot falls; as in all dressage, the horse should perform in a calm manner and remain on the bit with a round back. The piaffe was used in battle to keep the horse focused and moving, ready to move forward into battle. In modern times, the piaffe is taught as an upper level movement in Classical dressage and as a Grand Prix level movement. Additionally, it is from that, the airs above the ground; the following are elements of the correct piaffe: The piaffe is straight and comes from the rider containing the horse's desire to go forward.
The legs do not move out to the cross. The horse lowers his hindquarters and raises the shoulders by taking weight onto the hindquarters, rather than hollowing the back and piaffing with the hindquarters trailing out behind. Bending of the joints is not always a good indication of true collection, it is possible to perform a piaffe-like movement with good bend in the legs while the horse remains hollow and on the forehand. This can be seen in horses trained to trot in place by holding them back while asking the hindlegs to bend by applying the whip on the hocks; the horse will not lower the hindquarters. The horse is not to raise the hind legs higher than the front, which comes when the horse is on the forehand, nor show exaggerated bending of the front legs without true collection; the horse remains supple. An incorrect piaffe has jerky steps; the horse does not move his fore legs backwards toward his hind legs, so that they are more under his body, but rather keep them perpendicular to the ground.
The horse remains with his poll as the highest point. The horse maintains the rhythm and tempo of the trot