The Doolittle Raid known as the Tokyo Raid, was an air raid on 18 April 1942 by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on Honshu during World War II. It was the first air operation to strike the Japanese archipelago, it demonstrated that the Japanese mainland was vulnerable to American air attack, served as retaliation for the attack on Pearl Harbor, provided an important boost to American morale. The raid was planned, led by, named after Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle General of the United States Army Air Forces. Sixteen B-25B Mitchell medium bombers were launched without fighter escort from the U. S. Navy's aircraft carrier USS Hornet deep in the Western Pacific Ocean, each with a crew of five men; the plan called for them to bomb military targets in Japan and to continue westward to land in China. The bombing raid killed about 50 people, including civilians, injured 400. Fifteen aircraft reached China but all crashed, while the 16th landed at Vladivostok in the Soviet Union.
Of the 80 crew members, 77 survived the mission. Eight airmen were captured by Japanese Army in China; the B-25 that landed in the Soviet Union was confiscated and its crew interned for more than a year before being allowed to "escape" via Soviet-occupied Iran with the help of the NKVD. Fourteen complete crews of five returned to the United States or to American forces, except for one crewman, killed in action; the raid caused negligible material damage to Japan. In the United States, it raised morale. In Japan, it raised doubt about the ability of military leaders to defend the home islands, but the bombing and strafing of civilians steeled Japanese resolve to gain retribution, this was exploited for propaganda purposes, it pushed forward Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's plans to attack Midway Island in the Central Pacific, an attack that turned into a decisive defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy by the U. S. Navy in the Battle of Midway; the consequences were most felt in China, where Japanese reprisals caused the deaths of 250,000 civilians and 70,000 soldiers.
Doolittle believed that the loss of all his aircraft would lead to his court-martial, but he instead received the Medal of Honor and was promoted two ranks to brigadier general. President Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in a meeting at the White House on 21 December 1941 and said that Japan should be bombed as soon as possible to boost public morale after Pearl Harbor. Doolittle recounted in his autobiography that the raid was intended to bolster American morale and to cause the Japanese to begin doubting their leadership. "An attack on the Japanese homeland would cause confusion in the minds of the Japanese people and sow doubt about the reliability of their leaders.… Americans badly needed a morale boost." The concept for the attack came from Navy Captain Francis S. Low, Assistant Chief of Staff for antisubmarine warfare, he reported to Admiral Ernest J. King on 10 January 1942 that he thought that twin-engined Army bombers could be launched from an aircraft carrier, after observing several at Naval Station Norfolk Chambers Field in Norfolk, where the runway was painted with the outline of a carrier deck for landing practice.
Doolittle was a famous military test pilot, civilian aviator, aeronautical engineer before the war. The aircraft to be used would need a cruising range of 2,400 nautical miles with a 2,000-pound bomb load, so Doolittle selected the B-25B Mitchell to carry out the mission; the range of the Mitchell was about 1,300 miles, so the bombers had to be modified to hold nearly twice the normal fuel reserves. Doolittle considered the Martin B-26 Marauder, Douglas B-18 Bolo, Douglas B-23 Dragon, but the B-26 had questionable takeoff characteristics from a carrier deck and the B-23's wingspan was nearly 50-percent greater than the B-25's, reducing the number that could be taken aboard a carrier and posing risks to the ship's superstructure; the B-18 was one of the final two types that Doolittle considered, he rejected it for the same reason. The B-25 had yet to see combat, but tests indicated that it could fulfill the mission's requirements. Doolittle's first report on the plan suggested that the bombers might land in Vladivostok, shortening the flight by 600 nautical miles on the basis of turning over the B-25s as Lend-Lease.
Negotiations with the Soviet Union were fruitless for permission to land because it had signed a neutrality pact with Japan in April 1941. China's Chiang Kai-shek agreed to the landing sites in China despite the concern of Japanese reprisals. Five possible airfields were selected; these sites would serve as allowing the crews to fly to Chungking. Bombers attacking defended targets relied on a fighter escort to defend them from enemy fighters, but accompanying fighters were not possible; when planning indicated that the B-25 was the aircraft that best met all of the requirements of the mission, two were loaded aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet at Norfolk and were flown off the deck without difficulty on 3 February 1942. The raid was approved and the 17th Bomb Group was chosen to provide the pool of crews from which volunteers would be recruited; the 17th BG had been the first group to receive B-25s, with all four of its squadrons equipped with the bomber by September 1941. The 17th not only was the first medium bomb group of the Army Air Corps, but in early 1942 had the most experienced B-25 crews.
Its first assignment following the entry of the United States into the war was to the U. S. Eighth Air Force; the 17th BG flying antisubmarine patrols from Pendleton, was moved cross-country to Columb
This is a list of members of the South Australian House of Assembly from 1924 to 1927, as elected at the 1924 state election: 1 Barossa Liberal MHA William Hague died on 9 October 1924. Liberal candidate Henry Crosby won the resulting by-election on 22 November. 2 Port Adelaide Labor MHA John Price resigned on 21 April 1925. Labor candidate John Stanley Verran won the resulting by-election on 20 June. 3 East Torrens Labor MHA Harry Kneebone resigned on 30 September 1925 to contest the 1925 federal election. Liberal candidate Walter Hamilton won the resulting by-election on 28 November. 4 Yorke Peninsula Liberal MHA Peter Allen died on 22 October 1925. Liberal candidate Edward Giles won the resulting by-election on 20 January 1926. 5 Stanley Liberal MHA Sir Henry Barwell resigned on 17 December 1925. Liberal candidate John Lyons won the resulting by-election on 16 March 1926. 6 Adelaide Labor MHA John Gunn resigned on 28 August 1926. Labor candidate Herbert George won the resulting by-election on 21 September
Ignacio Nicolás Casale Catraccia is a four-wheeler motorcycle rider who won two times in the quad bike category of Dakar Rally. He moved to the UTV category after his second victory on the Dakar Rally in 2018. Ignacio is the son of Francisco Casale, an off-roader competing in the Jeep Fun Race in Chile in the 1980s and 1990s, Mónica Catracchia, he shares the love of motorsport from his father and uncle, beginning to race in motocross competitions and race as the co-driver for his father in the Dakar Rally. Casale took part in the 2010 Dakar Rally with his father, they finished in 26th place, earning Casale a wild card place in the 2011 Dakar Rally, where he finished 40th in the motorcycle category. The following year he competed in the four-wheeler category and finished in fourth place, the highest ranked Chilean rider. In the 2013 Dakar Rally he won the seventh stage, becoming the first Chilean to win a stage in the Four-Wheeler category, he went to come second overall, behind Marcos Patronelli, the best result achieved by any Chilean in the history of the Dakar Rally.
In 2014, after 14 days and 5,000 miles of riding through the Argentinean and Chilean Andes, Bolivian salt plains and the Atacama desert, Casale won his first Dakar victory. Casale performed well throughout the 2014 Dakar Rally, finishing first in seven of the 13 stages and holding the overall number one spot from stage 7 through to the end. Casale meet Chilean president Sebastián Piñera at La Moneda Palace in Santiago, he has told the media. In the 2015 Dakar Rally he retired in stage 10 due to a mechanical problem after winning 3 stages and being the leader of the general classification of the first two stages and the eighth stage, he would retire in the 6th stage of 2016 Dakar Rally due to an accident. The 2017 Dakar Rally saw a return to form with a runner-up finish and two stage wins in the quad category, he would win his second Dakar title in the quad category of the 2018 Dakar Rally. He began racing in the UTV category since his run at the 2018 Atacama Rally in Chile. In the 2019 Dakar Rally, he moved to the UTV category and will race with Americo Aliaga as his co-driver.
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