|Part of the Pacific War of World War II|
A B-25 taking off from USS Hornet (CV-8) for the raid
|Commanders and leaders|
|James H. Doolittle||Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni|
2 aircraft carriers
|Unknown number of Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien fighters and anti-aircraft artillery|
|Casualties and losses|
8 POWs (4 lived to be rescued and 4 died in captivity: 3 executed, 1 by disease)
1 interned in the Soviet Union
The Doolittle Raid, also known as the Tokyo Raid, on Saturday, April 18, 1942, was an air raid by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on the island of Honshu during World War II, the first air operation to strike the Japanese Home Islands. It demonstrated that the Japanese mainland was vulnerable to American air attack, served as retaliation for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and provided an important boost to American morale. The raid was planned and led by Lieutenant Colonel James "Jimmy" Doolittle of the United States Army Air Forces.
Sixteen B-25B Mitchell medium bombers were launched without fighter escort from the U.S. Navy's aircraft carrier USS Hornet (CV-8) deep in the Western Pacific Ocean, each with a crew of five men. The plan called for them to bomb military targets in Japan, and to continue westward to land in China—landing a medium bomber on Hornet was impossible. The bombing raid killed about 50 people, including civilians, and injured 400. Fifteen aircraft reached China, but all crashed, while the 16th landed at Vladivostok in the Soviet Union. Amazingly, 77 of 80 crew members initially survived the mission. Eight airmen were captured by the Japanese Army in China; three of those were later executed. The B-25 that landed in the Soviet Union was confiscated, with its crew interned for more than a year before being allowed to "escape" via Soviet-occupied Iran. Fourteen complete crews of five, except for one crewman who was killed in action, returned either to the United States, or to American forces.
After the raid, the Imperial Japanese Army conducted a massive sweep through the eastern coastal provinces of China, in an operation now known as the Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign, searching for the surviving American airmen and inflicting retribution on the Chinese who aided them, in an effort to prevent this part of China from being used again for an attack on Japan.
The raid caused negligible material damage to Japan, but its consequences had major psychological effects. In the United States, it raised morale. In Japan, it raised doubt about the ability of military leaders to defend the home islands, but the bombing and strafing of civilians also steeled the resolve of many to gain retribution and was exploited for propaganda purposes. It also contributed to Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's decision to attack Midway Island in the Central Pacific—an attack that turned into a decisive strategic defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) by the U.S. Navy in the Battle of Midway. The consequences were most severely felt in China, where Japanese reprisals cost an estimated 250,000 lives.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Preparation
- 3 Participating aircraft
- 4 Mission
- 5 Aftermath
- 6 Impact
- 7 After the war
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The raid had its start in a desire by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, expressed to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in a meeting at the White House on 21 December 1941, that Japan be bombed as soon as possible to boost public morale after the disaster at Pearl Harbor.
Doolittle later recounted in his autobiography that the raid was intended to bolster American morale and to cause the Japanese to begin doubting their leadership, at which it succeeded:
The Japanese people had been told they were invulnerable ... An attack on the Japanese homeland would cause confusion in the minds of the Japanese people and sow doubt about the reliability of their leaders. There was a second, and equally important, psychological reason for this attack ... Americans badly needed a morale boost.
The concept for the attack came from Navy Captain Francis Low, Assistant Chief of Staff for antisubmarine warfare, who reported to Admiral Ernest J. King on January 10, 1942, that he thought twin-engined Army bombers could be launched from an aircraft carrier, after observing several at a naval airfield in Norfolk, Virginia, where the runway was painted with the outline of a carrier deck for landing practice. The attack was planned and led by Doolittle, a famous military test pilot, civilian aviator, and aeronautical engineer before the war.
Requirements that the aircraft have a cruising range of 2,400 nautical miles (4,400 km) with a 2,000-pound (910 kg) bomb load resulted in the selection of the B-25B Mitchell to carry out the mission. The range of the Mitchell at the time was only about 1,300 miles, so the bombers had to be modified to hold nearly twice the normal fuel reserves. The Martin B-26 Marauder, Douglas B-18 Bolo, and Douglas B-23 Dragon were also considered, but the B-26 had questionable takeoff characteristics from a carrier deck and the B-23's wingspan was nearly 50% greater than the B-25's, reducing the number that could be taken aboard a carrier and posing risks to the ship's superstructure. The B-18, one of the final two types considered by Doolittle, was rejected for the same reason. The B-25 had yet to see combat,[Note 1] but tests indicated it could fulfill the mission's requirements.
Doolittle's first report on the plan suggested the bombers might land in Vladivostok, shortening the flight by 600 nautical miles (1,100 km) on the basis of turning over the B-25s as Lend-Lease. Negotiations with the Soviet Union for permission to land were fruitless because it had signed a neutrality pact with Japan in April 1941. But far more important than treaty considerations was that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had redeployed nearly all of the Red Army's units in the Far East in late 1941 after receiving assurances from intelligence sources that Japan had no intention of attacking the Soviet Union. With virtually the entire Red Army engaged in fighting Germany and her allies in Europe, Stalin was not in a position to provoke Japan by appearing to offer any sort of assistance to American forces in Asia.
China's Chiang Kai-shek agreed to the landing sites in China despite the concern of Japanese reprisals. Five possible airfields were selected. These sites would serve as refueling stops, allowing the crews to fly to Chongqing (Anglicized at the time as "Chungking").
Bombers attacking defended targets often relied on a fighter escort to defend them from enemy fighters; not only did Doolittle's aircraft lack a full complement of guns to save weight, but fighters to accompany them were not possible.
When planning indicated that the B-25 was the aircraft best meeting all specifications of the mission, two were loaded aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet at Norfolk, Virginia, and were flown off the deck without difficulty on 3 February 1942. The raid was immediately approved and the 17th Bomb Group (Medium) was chosen to provide the pool of crews from which volunteers would be recruited. The 17th BG had been the first group to receive B-25s, with all four of its squadrons equipped with the bomber by September 1941. The 17th not only was the first medium bomb group of the Army Air Corps, but in early 1942, also had the most experienced B-25 crews. Its first assignment following the entry of the United States into the war was to the U.S. Eighth Air Force.
The 17th BG, then flying antisubmarine patrols from Pendleton, Oregon, was immediately moved cross-country to Lexington County Army Air Base at West Columbia, South Carolina, and Columbia Army Air Base at Columbia, South Carolina, ostensibly to fly similar patrols off the east coast of the United States, but in actuality to prepare for the mission against Japan. The group officially transferred effective 9 February to Columbia, where its combat crews were offered the opportunity to volunteer for an "extremely hazardous", but unspecified mission. On 19 February, the group was detached from the Eighth Air Force and officially assigned to III Bomber Command.
Initial planning called for 20 aircraft to fly the mission, and 24 of the group's B-25B Mitchell bombers were diverted to the Mid-Continent Airlines modification center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. With support provided by two senior airline managers, Wold-Chamberlain Field's maintenance hangar was the first modification center to become operational. From nearby Fort Snelling, the 710th Military Police Battalion provided tight security around this hangar. Modifications included:
- Removal of the lower gun turret
- Installation of de-icers and anti-icers
- Steel blast plates mounted on the fuselage around the upper turret
- Removal of the liaison radio set to save weight
- Installation of a 160-gallon collapsible neoprene auxiliary fuel tank fixed to the top of the bomb bay, and support mounts for additional fuel cells in the bomb bay, crawlway, and lower turret area to increase fuel capacity from 646 to 1,141 U.S. gallons (538–950 imperial gallons; 2,445–4,319 L)
- Mock gun barrels installed in the tail cone
- Replacement of their Norden bombsight with a makeshift aiming sight devised by pilot Capt. C. Ross Greening and dubbed the "Mark Twain". The materials for the bombsight cost only 20 cents.
Two bombers also had cameras mounted to record the results of bombing.
The 24 crews were selected and picked up the modified bombers in Minneapolis and flew them to Eglin Field, Florida, beginning 1 March 1942. There, the crews received concentrated training for three weeks in simulated carrier deck takeoffs, low-level and night flying, low-altitude bombing, and over-water navigation, operating primarily out of Eglin Auxiliary Field#1, a more secluded site. Lieutenant Henry L. Miller, a U.S. Navy flight instructor from nearby Naval Air Station Pensacola, supervised their takeoff training and accompanied the crews to the launch. For his efforts, Miller is considered an honorary member of the Raider group.
Doolittle stated in his after-action report that the crews reached a "safely operational" level of training, despite several days when flying was not possible because of rain and fog. One aircraft was written off in a landing accident on 10 March and another was heavily damaged in a takeoff accident on 23 March, while a third was removed from the mission because of a nose wheel shimmy that could not be repaired in time.
On 25 March 1942, the remaining 22 B-25s took off from Eglin for McClellan Field, California. They arrived two days later at the Sacramento Air Depot for inspection and final modifications. A total of 16 B-25s were flown to NAS Alameda, California, on 31 March. Fifteen made up the mission force and the 16th, by last-minute agreement with the Navy, was loaded so that it could be launched shortly after departure from San Francisco to demonstrate to the Army pilots that sufficient deck space remained for a safe takeoff. Instead, that bomber was made part of the mission force.[Note 2]
In order of launching, the 16 aircraft were:
|AAF serial #||Nickname||Sqdn||Target||Pilot||Disposition|
|40-2344||Tokyo||Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle||crashed N Quzhou, China|
|40-2292||37th BS||Tokyo||1st Lt. Travis Hoover||crashed Ningbo, China|
|40-2270||Whiskey Pete||95th BS||Tokyo||1st Lt. Robert M. Gray||crashed SE Quzhou, China|
|40-2282||95th BS||Tokyo||1st Lt. Everett W. Holstrom||crashed SE Shangrao, China|
|40-2283||95th BS||Tokyo||Capt. David M. Jones||crashed SW Quzhou, China|
|40-2298||The Green Hornet||95th BS||Tokyo||1st Lt. Dean E. Hallmark||ditched at sea Wenzhou, China|
|40-2261||The Ruptured Duck||95th BS||Tokyo||1st Lt. Ted W. Lawson||ditched at sea Changshu, China|
|40-2242||95th BS||Tokyo||Capt. Edward J. York[Note 3]||interned Primorsky Krai, USSR|
|40-2303||Whirling Dervish||34th BS||Tokyo||1st Lt. Harold F. Watson||crashed S Nanchang, China|
|40-2250||89th RS||Tokyo||1st Lt. Richard O. Joyce||crashed NE Quzhou, China|
|40-2249||Hari Kari-er||89th RS||Yokohama||Capt. C. Ross Greening||crashed NE Quzhou, China|
|40-2278||Fickle Finger of Fate||37th BS||Yokohama||1st Lt. William M. Bower||crashed NE Quzhou, China|
|40-2247||The Avenger||37th BS||Yokosuka||1st Lt. Edgar E. McElroy||crashed N Nanchang, China|
|40-2297||89th RS||Nagoya||Maj. John A. Hilger||crashed SE Shangrao, China|
|40-2267||TNT||89th RS||Kobe||1st Lt. Donald G. Smith||ditched at sea Changshu, China|
|40-2268||Bat Out of Hell||34th BS||Nagoya||1st Lt. William G. Farrow||crashed S Ningbo, China|
On 1 April 1942, the 16 modified bombers, their five-man crews, and Army maintenance personnel, totaling 71 officers and 130 enlisted men, were loaded onto the USS Hornet at Naval Air Station Alameda. Each aircraft carried four specially constructed 500-pound (225-kg) bombs. Three of these were high-explosive munitions and one was a bundle of incendiaries. The incendiaries were long tubes, wrapped together to be carried in the bomb bay, but designed to separate and scatter over a wide area after release. Five bombs had Japanese "friendship" medals wired to them—medals awarded by the Japanese government to U.S. servicemen before the war.
The bombers' armament was reduced to increase range by decreasing weight. Each bomber launched with two .50-caliber (12.7-mm) machine guns in an upper turret and a .30-caliber (7.62-mm) machine gun in the nose. The aircraft were clustered closely and tied down on Hornet's flight deck in the order of launch.
Hornet and Task Force 18 got underway from San Francisco Bay at 08:48 on 2 April with the 16 bombers in clear view. At noon the next day, parts to complete modifications that had not been finished at McClellan were lowered to the forward deck of the Hornet by Navy blimp L-8. A few days later, the carrier met with Task Force 16, commanded by Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr.—the carrier USS Enterprise and her escort of cruisers and destroyers in the mid-Pacific Ocean north of Hawaii. Enterprise's fighters and scout planes provided protection for the entire task force in the event of a Japanese air attack, since Hornet's fighters were stowed below decks to allow the B-25s to use the flight deck.
The combined force was two carriers (Hornet and Enterprise), three heavy cruisers (Salt Lake City, Northampton, Vincennes), one light cruiser (Nashville), eight destroyers (Balch, Fanning, Benham, Ellet, Gwin, Meredith, Grayson, Monssen), and two fleet oilers (Cimarron and Sabine). The ships proceeded in radio silence. On the afternoon of 17 April, the slow oilers refueled the task force, then withdrew with the destroyers to the east while the carriers and cruisers dashed west at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) toward their intended launch point in enemy-controlled waters east of Japan.
At 07:38 on the morning of 18 April, while the task force was still about 650 nautical miles (1,200 km; 750 mi) from Japan (around  The boat was sunk by gunfire from USS Nashville.[Note 4] The chief petty officer who captained the boat killed himself rather than be captured, but five of the 11 crew were picked up by Nashville.), it was sighted by the Japanese picket boat No. 23 Nittō Maru, a 70-ton patrol craft, which radioed an attack warning to Japan.
Doolittle and Hornet skipper Captain Marc Mitscher decided to launch the B-25s immediately—10 hours early and 170 nautical miles (310 km; 200 mi) farther from Japan than planned.[Note 5] After respotting to allow for engine start and runups, Doolittle's aircraft had 467 feet (142 m) of takeoff distance. Although none of the B-25 pilots, including Doolittle, had ever taken off from a carrier before, all 16 aircraft launched safely between 08:20 and 09:19. The B-25s then flew toward Japan, most in groups of two to four aircraft, before flying singly at wave-top level to avoid detection.
The aircraft began arriving over Japan about noon Tokyo time, six hours after launch, climbed to 1,500 feet (460 m) and bombed 10 military and industrial targets in Tokyo, two in Yokohama, and one each in Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe, and Osaka. Although some B-25s encountered light antiaircraft fire and a few enemy fighters over Japan, no bomber was shot down. Only the B-25 of 1st Lt. Richard O. Joyce received any battle damage, minor hits from antiaircraft fire. B-25 No. 4, piloted by 1st Lt. Everett W. Holstrom, jettisoned its bombs before reaching its target when it came under attack by fighters after its gun turret malfunctioned.
The Americans claimed to have shot down three Japanese fighters – one by the gunners of the Whirling Dervish, piloted by 1st Lt. Harold Watson, and two by the gunners of the Hari Kari-er, piloted by 1st Lt. Ross Greening. Many targets were strafed by the bombers' nose gunners. The subterfuge of the simulated gun barrels mounted in the tail cones was described afterwards by Doolittle as effective, in that no airplane was attacked from directly behind.
Fifteen of the 16 aircraft then proceeded southwest off the southeastern coast of Japan and across the East China Sea toward eastern China. One B-25, piloted by Captain Edward J. York, was extremely low on fuel, and headed instead for the Soviet Union rather than be forced to ditch in the middle of the East China Sea. Several fields in Zhejiang province were supposed to be ready to guide them in using homing beacons, then recover and refuel them for continuing on to Chongqing, the wartime Kuomintang capital. The primary base was at Zhuzhou, toward which all the aircraft navigated, but Halsey never sent the planned signal to alert them, apparently because of a possible threat to the task force.
The raiders faced several unforeseen challenges during their flight to China: night was approaching, the aircraft were running low on fuel, and the weather was rapidly deteriorating. None would have reached China if not for a tail wind as they came off the target, which increased their ground speed by 25 kn (46 km/h; 29 mph) for seven hours. The crews realized they would probably not be able to reach their intended bases in China, leaving them the option of either bailing out over eastern China or crash-landing along the Chinese coast.
All 15 aircraft reached the Chinese coast after 13 hours of flight and crash-landed or the crews bailed out. One crewman, 20-year-old Corporal Leland D. Faktor, flight engineer/gunner with 1st Lt. Robert M. Gray, was killed during his bailout attempt over China, the only man in that crew to be lost. Two crews (10 men) were missing. The 16th aircraft, commanded by Capt. Edward York (eighth off—AC #40-2242) flew to the Soviet Union and landed 40 miles (65 km) beyond Vladivostok at Vozdvizhenka (air base), where their B-25 was confiscated and the crew interned.
Although York and his crew were treated well, diplomatic attempts to return them to the United States ultimately failed, as the Soviet Union was not at war with Japan and therefore obligated under international law to intern any combatants found on its soil. Eventually, they were relocated to Ashkhabad, 20 miles (32 km) from the Iranian border, and York managed to "bribe" a smuggler, who helped them cross the border into Iran, which at the time was under British-Soviet occupation. From there, the Americans were able to reach a nearby British consulate on 11 May 1943. The smuggling was actually staged by the NKVD, according to declassified Soviet archives, because the Soviet government was unable to repatriate them legally in the face of the neutrality pact with Japan and unwilling to openly flout its treaty obligations with Japan in light of the fact that Vladivostok and the rest of the Soviet Far East were essentially defenceless in the face of any potential Japanese retaliation. Nevertheless, by the time of the American aircrew's "escape" from Soviet internment, Japan's armed forces were clearly on the defensive and drawing down their strength in Manchuria in order to reinforce other fronts. Meanwhile, Soviet forces had gained the strategic initiative in Europe. Even if the Americans' "escape" managed to gain significant attention in Tokyo, it was by then thought extremely unlikely that Japan would respond with any sort of military retaliation.
Doolittle and his crew, after parachuting into China, received assistance from Chinese soldiers and civilians, as well as John Birch, an American missionary in China. As did the others who participated in the mission, Doolittle had to bail out, but he landed in a heap of dung (saving a previously injured ankle from breaking) in a paddy in China near Quzhou. The mission was the longest ever flown in combat by the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber, averaging about 2,250 nautical miles (4,170 km).
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Fate of the missing crewmen
Following the Doolittle Raid, most of the B-25 crews who had reached China eventually achieved safety with the help of Chinese civilians and soldiers. Of the 16 planes and 80 airmen who participated in the raid, all either crash-landed, were ditched, or crashed after their crews bailed out, with the single exception of Capt. York and his crew, who landed in Soviet Russia. Despite the loss of these 15 aircraft, 69 airmen escaped capture or death, with only three killed in action. When the Chinese helped the Americans escape, the grateful Americans, in turn, gave them whatever they had on hand. The people who helped them paid dearly for sheltering the Americans. Eight Raiders were captured (POW), but their fate was not fully known until 1946. Some of the men who crashed were aided by Irish Bishop of Nancheng, Patrick Cleary. The Japanese troops retaliated by burning down the city.
The crews of two aircraft (10 men in total) were unaccounted for: those of 1st Lt. Dean E. Hallmark (sixth off) and 1st Lt. William G. Farrow (last off). On 15 August 1942, the United States learned from the Swiss Consulate General in Shanghai that eight of the missing crew members were prisoners of the Japanese at the city's police headquarters. Two crewmen drowned after crash-landing in the ocean. On 19 October 1942, the Japanese announced that they had tried the eight prisoners and sentenced them all to death, but said several had received commutation of their sentences to life imprisonment. No names or details were given.
The story of the missing crews was revealed in February 1946 during a war crimes trial held in Shanghai to try four Japanese officers charged with mistreating the eight captured crewmen. Two of the missing crewmen, bombardier S/Sgt. William J. Dieter and flight engineer Sgt. Donald E. Fitzmaurice of Hallmark's crew, were found to have drowned when their B-25 crashed into the sea. Both of their remains were recovered after the war and were buried with military honors at Golden Gate National Cemetery.
The other eight were captured: Hallmark, Farrow, 1st Lt. Robert J. Meder, 1st Lt. Chase Nielsen, 1st Lt. Robert L. Hite, 2nd Lt. George Barr, Cpl. Harold A. Spatz, and Cpl. Jacob DeShazer. On 28 August 1942, Hallmark, Farrow, and gunner Spatz faced a war crimes trial by a Japanese court alleging they strafed and murdered Japanese civilians. At 16:30 on 15 October 1942, they were taken by truck to Public Cemetery Number 1 and executed by firing squad.
When their remains were recovered after the war, Farrow, Hallmark and Meder were buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. Spatz was buried with military honors at National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific.
The other captured airmen remained in military confinement on a starvation diet, their health rapidly deteriorating. In April 1943, they were moved to Nanking, where Meder died on 1 December 1943. The remaining men—Nielsen, Hite, Barr and DeShazer—eventually began receiving slightly better treatment and were given a copy of the Bible and a few other books. They were freed by American troops in August 1945. Four Japanese officers were tried for war crimes against the captured Doolittle Raiders, found guilty, and sentenced to hard labor, three for five years and one for nine years. Barr had been near death when liberated and remained behind in China recuperating until October, by which time he had begun to experience severe emotional problems. Untreated after transfer to Letterman Army Hospital and a military hospital in Clinton, Iowa, Barr became suicidal and was held virtually incommunicado until November, when Doolittle's personal intervention resulted in treatment that led to his recovery. DeShazer graduated from Seattle Pacific University in 1948 and returned to Japan as a missionary, where he served for over 30 years.
Total crew casualties: 3 KIA: 2 off the coast of China, 1 in China; 8 POW: 3 executed, 1 died in captivity, 4 repatriated. In addition, seven crew members (including all five members of Lawson's crew) received injuries serious enough to require medical treatment. Of the surviving prisoners, Barr died of heart failure in 1967, Nielsen in 2007, DeShazer on 15 March 2008, and the last, Hite, died 29 March 2015.
Service of the returning crewmen
Immediately following the raid, Doolittle told his crew that he believed the loss of all 16 aircraft, coupled with the relatively minor damage to targets, had rendered the attack a failure, and that he expected a court-martial upon his return to the United States. Instead, the raid bolstered American morale. Doolittle was promoted two grades to brigadier general on 28 April while still in China, skipping the rank of colonel, and was awarded the Medal of Honor by Roosevelt upon his return to the United States in June. When General Doolittle toured the growing Eglin Field facility in July 1942 with commanding officer Col. Grandison Gardner, the local paper of record (the Okaloosa News-Journal, Crestview, Florida), while reporting his presence, made no mention of his still-secret recent training at Eglin. He went on to command the Twelfth Air Force in North Africa, the Fifteenth Air Force in the Mediterranean, and the Eighth Air Force in England during the next three years.
All 80 Raiders were awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, and those who were killed or wounded during the raid were awarded the Purple Heart. Every Doolittle Raider was also decorated by the Chinese government. In addition, Corporal David J. Thatcher (a flight engineer/gunner on Lawson's crew) and 1st Lt. Thomas R. White (flight surgeon/gunner with Smith) were awarded the Silver Star for helping the wounded crew members of Lt. Lawson's crew to evade Japanese troops in China.
Twenty-eight of the crewmen remained in the China Burma India theater, including the entire crews of planes 4, 10, and 13, flying missions, most for more than a year; five were killed in action.[Note 6] Nineteen crew members flew combat missions in the Mediterranean theater after returning to the United States, four of whom were killed in action and four becoming prisoners of war.[Note 7] Nine crew members served in the European Theater of Operations; one was killed in action. Altogether, 12 of the survivors died in air crashes within 15 months of the raid. Two survivors were separated from the USAAF in 1944 due to the severity of their injuries.
The 17th Bomb Group, from which the Doolittle Raiders had been recruited, received replacement crews and transferred to Barksdale Army Air Field in June 1942, where it converted to Martin B-26 Marauder medium bombers. In November 1942, it deployed overseas to North Africa, where it operated in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations with the Twelfth Air Force for the remainder of the war.
After the raid, the Japanese Imperial Army began the Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign (also known as Operation Sei-go) to prevent these eastern coastal provinces of China from being used again for an attack on Japan. All airfields within an area of some 20,000 sq mi (50,000 km2) where the Raiders had landed were torn up. Germ warfare was used and atrocities committed, and those found with American items were shot. The Japanese killed an estimated 10,000 Chinese civilians during their search for Doolittle's men.
Doolittle recounted in his autobiography that at the time he thought the mission was a failure.
This mission showed that a B-25 takeoff from a carrier was easier than previously thought, and night operations could be possible in the future. The shuttle bombing run was a better carrier task force tactic since there was no need to wait for the returning aircraft.
If Claire Lee Chennault had been informed of the mission specifics, the outcome might have been very much better for the Americans. Chennault had built an effective air surveillance net in China that would have been extremely helpful in bringing the planes in for safe landings. The lack of visible beacons in the dark forced them to bail out.
Chinese airfield crews recounted that due to the unexpectedly early arrivals of the B-25s, homing beacon and runway torch lights were not on for fear of possible Japanese airstrikes as happened before. Chiang Kai-Shek awarded the raiders China's highest military decorations, and stated in his diary that Japanese would alter their goal and strategy for the disgrace.
The raid shook staff at Japanese Imperial General Headquarters. Japan attacked territories in China to prevent similar shuttle bombing runs. High command withdrew substantial air force resources from supporting offensive operations in order to defend the home islands; two carriers were diverted to the Alaskan island invasion to prevent them from being used as bomber bases and could not be used in the Midway operations. Thus, the raid's most significant strategic accomplishment was that it compelled the Japanese high command into ordering a very inefficient disposition of their forces, and poor decision-making due to fear of attack, for the rest of the war.
Compared with the future devastating Boeing B-29 Superfortress attacks against Japan, the Doolittle raid did little material damage, and all of it was easily repaired. Preliminary reports stated 12 were killed and more than 100 were wounded. Eight primary and five secondary targets were struck. In Tokyo, the targets included an oil tank farm, a steel mill, and several power plants. In Yokosuka, at least one bomb from the B-25 piloted by 1st Lt. Edgar E. McElroy struck the nearly completed light carrier Ryūhō, delaying her launch until November. Six schools and an army hospital were also hit. Japanese officials reported the two aircraft whose crews were captured had struck their targets.
Allied ambassadors and staff in Tokyo were still interned until agreement was reached about their repatriation via the neutral port of Lourenço Marques in Portuguese East Africa in June-July 1942. When Joseph Grew (US) realised the low-flying planes overhead were American (not Japanese planes on maneuvers) he thought they may have flown from the Aleutian Islands. The Japanese press claimed that nine had been shot down, but there were no pictures of crashed planes. Embassy staff were "very happy and proud" and the British said that they "drank toasts all day to the American flyers". Sir Robert Craigie (UK) said that Japanese staff had been amused at the embassy’s air raid precautions as the idea of an attack on Tokyo was "laughable" with the Allies in retreat, but the guards now showed "considerable excitement and perturbation." Several false alarms followed, and in poorer districts people rushed into the streets shouting and gesticulating, losing their normal "iron control" over their emotions and showing a "tendency to panic". The police guards on Allied and neutral missions were doubled to foil xenophobic attacks; but the guard on the German mission was "tripled"!
Despite the minimal damage inflicted, American morale, still reeling from the attack on Pearl Harbor and Japan's subsequent territorial gains, soared when news of the raid was released. The Japanese press was told to describe the attack as a cruel, indiscriminate bombing against civilians, women, and children. After the war, the casualty count was 87 dead, 151 serious injuries, and more than 311 minor injuries; children were among those killed, and newspapers asked their parents to share their opinion on how the captured raiders should be treated. For years before the attack on Pearl Harbor, there had been mock air raid drills in every Japanese city, although China's air force was almost nonexistent; this may have been part of the process of keeping warlike emotion at a high pitch.
The Japanese Navy attempted to locate and pursue the American task force. The Second Fleet, its main striking force, was near Formosa, returning from the Indian Ocean Raid to refit and replace its air losses. Spearheaded by five aircraft carriers and its best naval aircraft and aircrews, the Second Fleet was immediately ordered to locate and destroy the U.S. carrier force, but failed to do so. Nagumo and his staff on the Akagi heard that an American force was near Japan but expected an attack on the next day. Mitsuo Fuchida and Shigeyoshi Miwa considered the "one-way" raid "excellent strategy", with the bombers evading Army fighters by flying "much lower than anticipated". Kuroshima said the raid "passed like a shiver over Japan" and Miwa criticised the Army for claiming to have shot down nine aircraft rather than "not even one".
The Imperial Japanese Navy also bore a special responsibility for allowing an American aircraft carrier force to approach the Japanese Home Islands in a manner similar to the IJN fleet to Hawaii in 1941, and permitting it to escape undamaged. The fact that medium, normally land-based bombers carried out the attack confused the IJN's high command. This confusion and the knowledge that Japan was now vulnerable to air attack strengthened Yamamoto's resolve to capture Midway Island, resulting in a decisive Japanese defeat at the Battle of Midway.
"It was hoped that the damage done would be both material and psychological. Material damage was to be the destruction of specific targets with ensuing confusion and retardation of production. The psychological results, it was hoped, would be the recalling of combat equipment from other theaters for home defense thus effecting relief in those theaters, the development of a fear complex in Japan, improved relationships with our Allies, and a favorable reaction on the American people." —General James H. Doolittle, 9 July 1942
After the raid there were worries in April about the "still very badly undermanned west coast" and Chief of Staff George Marshall discussed a "possible attack by the Japanese upon our plants in San Diego and then a flight by those Japs down into Mexico after they have made their attack." So Secretary Stimson asked State to "touch base with their people south of the border", and Marshall flew to the West Coast on 22 May.
An unusual consequence of the raid came after—when in the interests of secrecy—President Roosevelt answered a reporter's question by saying that the raid had been launched from "Shangri-La", the fictional faraway land of the James Hilton novel Lost Horizon. The true details of the raid were revealed to the public one year later, in April 1943. The Navy, in 1944, commissioned the Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Shangri-La, with Doolittle's wife Josephine as the sponsor.
After the war
|Panel discussion with William Bower, Richard E. Cole, Thomas Griffin, Edwin Horton, and C.V. Glines, November 10, 2006, C-SPAN|
The Doolittle Raiders held an annual reunion almost every year from the late 1940s to 2013. The high point of each reunion was a solemn, private ceremony in which the surviving Raiders performed a roll call, then toasted their fellow Raiders who had died during the previous year. Specially engraved silver goblets, one for each of the 80 Raiders, were used for this toast; the goblets of those who had died were inverted. Each Raider's name was engraved on his goblet both right side up and upside down. The Raiders drank a toast using a bottle of cognac that accompanied the goblets to each Raider reunion. In 2013, the remaining Raiders decided to hold their last public reunion at Fort Walton Beach, Florida, not far from Eglin Air Force Base, where they trained for the original mission. The bottle and the goblets had been maintained by the United States Air Force Academy on display in Arnold Hall, the cadet social center, until 2006. On 19 April 2006, these memorabilia were transferred to the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
On 18 April 2013, a final reunion for the surviving Raiders was held at Eglin Air Force Base, with Robert Hite the only survivor unable to attend.
The "final toast to fallen comrades" by the surviving raiders took place at the NMUSAF on 9 November 2013, preceded by a B-25 flyover, and was attended by Richard Cole, Edward Saylor, and David Thatcher.
Seven other men, including Lt. Miller and raider historian Col. Carroll V. Glines, are considered honorary Raiders for their efforts for the mission.
Lt Col. Richard E. Cole, copilot of aircraft No. 1 (age 103) is the last surviving Doolittle Raider. and the only one to live to an older age than Doolittle, who died in 1993 at age 96. Cole was Doolittle's co-pilot on the raid.
S/Sgt. David J. Thatcher, gunner of aircraft No. 7, died on 22 June 2016 in Missoula, Montana, at the age of 94.
Doolittle Raiders exhibit
The most extensive display of Doolittle Raid memorabilia is at the National Museum of the United States Air Force (on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) in Dayton, Ohio. The centerpiece is a like-new B-25, which is painted and marked as Doolittle's aircraft, 40-2344, (rebuilt by North American Aviation to B-25B configuration from an F-10D photo reconnaissance version of the B-25D). The bomber, which North American Aviation presented to the Raiders in 1958, rests on a reproduction of Hornet's flight deck. Several authentically dressed mannequins surround the aircraft, including representations of Doolittle, Hornet Captain Marc Mitscher, and groups of Army and Navy men loading the bomber's bombs and ammunition. Also exhibited are the silver goblets used by the Raiders at each of their annual reunions, pieces of flight clothing and personal equipment, a parachute used by one of the Raiders in his bailout over China, and group photographs of all 16 crews, and other items.
The 2006 Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor on Ford Island, Oahu, Hawaii, also has a 1942 exhibit in which the centerpiece is a restored B-25 in the markings of The Ruptured Duck used on the Doolittle Raid.
Doolittle Raiders re-enactment
On 21 April 1992, in conjunction with other World War II 50th-anniversary festivities, two B-25 Mitchell bombers were hoisted aboard the Ranger. The bombers participated in a commemorative re-enactment of the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo, taking off from Ranger's flight deck before over 1,500 guests.
Congressional Gold Medal
On 19 May 2014, the United States House of Representatives voted to pass H.R. 1209, which would award the Doolittle Raiders a Congressional Gold Medal for "outstanding heroism, valor, skill, and service to the United States in conducting the bombings of Tokyo." The award ceremony took place at the Capitol Building on 15 April 2015 with retired Air Force Lieutenant General John Hudson, the Director of the National Museum of the Air Force, accepting the award on behalf of the Doolittle Raiders.
Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider
In September 2016, the Northrop Grumman B-21 was formally named "Raider" in honor of the Doolittle Raiders. The last surviving Doolittle Raider, retired Lt Col Richard E. Cole, was present at the naming ceremony at the Air Force Association conference.
In popular culture
Many books have been written about the Doolittle Raid:
- Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo (1943), by Captain Ted W. Lawson – a pilot who participated in the raid, focuses on the experiences of himself and his crew. A popular film based on the book was released in 1944. Written while the war was still in progress, Lawson disguised the identities of the persons in China assisting the raiders and did not publish the story until after the AAF had released an official communique on 20 April 1943 detailing most aspects of the mission, including the identities of the raiders and their fates.
- Doolittle's Tokyo Raiders, by C. V. Glines (1964) – tells the complete story of the raid, including the unique experiences of each B-25 crew. A quarter century later he followed up with a second account, The Doolittle Raid: America's daring first strike against Japan (1988), incorporating information from first-hand accounts of the Raiders and from Japanese sources.
- Four Came Home (1966), also by Glines – relates the experiences of the eight Raiders who were captured.
- Guests of the Kremlin (1949), by York's copilot Bob Emmens – describes his crew's adventures as internees in The Soviet Union after their landing in that country following the raid.
- The First Heroes (2002) by Craig Nelson – goes into great detail of the events leading up to the raid and the aftermath for all the pilots and their families.
- Target Tokyo: Jimmy Doolittle and the Raid That Avenged Pearl Harbor, by James M. Scott (2015) – based on scores of never-before-published records drawn from archives across four continents as well as new interviews with survivors.
- Raid of No Return: Nathan Hale's Hazardous Tales #7 (2017), by Nathan Hale - Part of the popular Nathan Hale's Hazardous Tales series, it is a graphic novel on the Doolittle Raid.
A highly fictionalized film in 1943, Destination Tokyo starring Cary Grant, tangentially involved the raid, concentrating on the fictional submarine USS Copperfin. The submarine's mission is to enter Tokyo Bay undetected and place a landing party ashore to obtain weather information vital to the upcoming Doolittle raid. The film suggests the raid did not launch until up-to-the-minute data were received. All the after-action reports indicated the raid launched without time for weather briefings because of the encounter with the picket ship.
The Doolittle Raid was the subject of the 1944 feature film, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, based on the book of the same title by Ted Lawson, who was seriously injured in a crash landing off the coast of China. Spencer Tracy played Doolittle and Van Johnson portrayed Lawson. Footage from the film was later used for the opening scenes of Midway and in the TV miniseries War and Remembrance.
The 2001 film Pearl Harbor (with Alec Baldwin playing Doolittle) presented a heavily fictionalized version of the raid. The film used the retired World War II aircraft carrier USS Lexington in Corpus Christi, Texas, to stand in for a Japanese carrier, while the aircraft were launched from the USS Constellation, standing in for the USS Hornet from which the Doolittle Raid was launched. The film's portrayal of the planning of the raid, the air raid itself, and the raid's aftermath, is not historically accurate.
A VHS video with contemporary footage of Doolittle and the flight preparations, along with the B-25s launching, is DeShazer, the story of missionary Sergeant Jake DeShazer of B-25 No. 16 (the last to launch from the Hornet). The video is based on The Amazing Story of Sergeant Jacob De Shazer: The Doolittle Raider Who Turned Missionary by C. Hoyt Watson. At the end of both the video and the book, DeShazer after the war meets Mitsuo Fuchida, the commander and lead pilot of the Pearl Harbor attack.
Doolittle's Raiders: A Final Toast, a documentary by Tim Gray and the World War II Foundation, released in 2015, has interviews with the few surviving members of the raid.
- The first bombing mission by B-25s preceded the Doolittle Raid by only 12 days. On 6 April 1942, six Mitchells bombed Gasmata, New Britain. This was followed on 12 and 13 April by two days of attacks against Cebu City and Davao in the Philippines. All of these were conducted by the 3rd Bomb Group, which staged 10 Mitchells through Darwin, Australia, to Mindanao for the latter.
- 1st Lt. Richard Joyce was to have flown this aircraft back to the mainland with Navy Lieut. Miller as his copilot. Instead, he flew the 10th bomber off the Hornet and Miller remained aboard until the task force returned to port when Doolittle decided to increase the attacking force to all 16 aircraft.
- York was born Edward Joseph Cichowski and was known as "Ski". He legally changed his name to York in early 1942 before the raid.
- The order to Nashville did not go out until 07:52. Heavy seas made hitting the picket boat difficult even with rapid fire, and it was not sunk until 08:23.
- Doolittle, first off, was 610 nautical miles (1,130 km; 702 mi) from Tokyo at launch, while Farrow, last off, was 600 nautical miles (1,110 km; 690 mi) from landfall.
- 27 of the 28 flew B-25 combat missions with the 7th and 341st Bomb Groups. Three died on 3 June 1942 when their B-25s collided with a mountain in poor weather after bombing Lashio airfield in Burma, and two others on 18 October in the takeoff crash of their B-25 from Dinjan, India, on a bombing mission. 2nd Lt. Richard E. Cole, Doolittle's co-pilot, volunteered to fly air transport missions over the Hump, which he did until May 1943, earning a second DFC.
- Jones, pilot of plane 5, flew missions in both the CBI and the Mediterranean, and was one of the four POWs.
- Glines, General James H. "Jimmy" Doolittle, with Carroll V. (1995). I could never be so lucky again : an autobiography. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. pp. 3, 541. ISBN 0887407374.
- James M. Scott. "The Untold Story of the Vengeful Japanese Attack After the Doolittle Raid". Smithsonian.
- Gerrrard, Clayton K.S. Chun ; illustrated by Howard (2006). The Doolittle raid 1942 : America's first strike back at Japan (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Osprey. p. 60. ISBN 9781841769189.
- "Eighty Brave Men". Doolittle Tokyo Raiders, Memorial site of Richard O. Joyce. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- Glines 1998, pp. 166–68.
- Glines 1998, p. 10.
- Doolittle and Glines 1991, pp. 1–2.
- Glines 1998, p. 13.
- Glines 1998, p. 19.
- Glines 1998, pp. 19–20.
- Martin and Stephenson 2008, pp. 174, 182–83.
- Glines 1998, p. 27.
- "General Doolittle's report on raid, 9 July 1942". Hyper War. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
- Gerrrard, Clayton K.S. Chun ; illustrated by Howard (2006). The Doolittle raid 1942 : America's first strike back at Japan (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Osprey. p. 32. ISBN 9781841769189.
- Glines 1998, p. 22.
- Craven and Cate 1948, p. 439.
- Craven and Cate 1948, p. 614.
- Craven and Cate 1948, p. 440.
- "Memorial site of Richard O. Joyce". Doolittle Tokyo Raiders. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- "March 1942 USAAF Accident Reports". aviationarchaeology.com. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "1940 USAAC Serial Numbers". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Glines 1988, pp. 47, 51.
- Glines 1988, p. 47.
- Glines 1988, p. 45.
- Lawson 1943, pp. 58, 208.
- Doolittle took along all 22 flight crews, both to provide spare flight personnel and as an additional security measure. Lawson wrote that the copilot of one crew (Farrow's) was replaced on 17 April, the day before the mission, by one of the spare pilots.
- Coletta 1993, pp. 73–86.
- Glines 1988, p. 50.
- Glines 1988, p. 52.
- Glines 1998, p. 63.
- Chun 2006, p. 45.
- Glines 1988, p. 70.
- Glines 1998, p. 71.
- Glines 1988, p. 71.
- Craven and Cate 1948, p. 442.
- Watson 1950, p. 20.
- Glines 1998, p. 94.
- Glines 1988, p. 158.
- The carburetors of the B-25s had been carefully adjusted and bench-marked at Eglin Field for maximum fuel efficiency in low level flight. Without Doolittle's knowledge and in violation of his orders, both carburetors on York's plane had been replaced by depot workers in Sacramento. The change was not discovered until the raiders were at sea, and the extra flying distance caused by the premature launch meant that the B-25 had no chance of reaching the Chinese coast. York, Doolittle's operations officer and the only West Pointer among the raiders, made decision in flight to divert to the closer USSR.
- Glines 1998, pp. 81, 91.
- Doolittle's after-action report stated that some B-25s were heard overflying the bases, but because the Chinese had not been alerted to the attack, they assumed it was a Japanese air raid.
- Roshchupkin, Vladimir. "Секретная миссия подполковника Дулиттла" (in Russian). NRC Magazine: The Guardian, 6 February 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Japs execute 3 Doolittle Flyers". Lodi News-Sentinel, 27 September 1945, p. 4, col 5.
- Shepherd, Joel. "1942 – Doolittle Raid Aircrews". USS Enterprise CV-6, 15 February 2014.
- "The Doolittle Raid (CV-8)". USS Hornet Museum. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "Bishop%2BPatrick%2BCleary" "Columban Bishop Who Aided Doolittle's Raiders Dies". The Catholic Advance. Wichita, Kansas. 5 November 1970. p. 2. Retrieved 18 May 2017 – via newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)).
- Glines 1988, pp. 202–04.
- DeShazer Dixon, Carol Aiko. "Return of the Raider: A Doolittle Raider's Story of War and Forgiveness". jacobdeshazer.com, 2010.
- "We didn't know to be afraid: Five surviving vets from daring WWII Doolittle Raid on Tokyo gather on the 70th anniversary and remember the 75 who have died". Daily Mail, 17 April 2012.
- Doolittle and Glines 1991, p. 12.
- Okerstrom 2015, pp. 140–41.
- Chang 1997, p. 189.
- Yamamoto, 2000, p. 166.
- Glines, General James H. "Jimmy" Doolittle, with Carroll V. (1995). I could never be so lucky again : an autobiography. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. pp. 7, 10, 267. ISBN 0887407374.
- Glines, General James H. "Jimmy" Doolittle, with Carroll V. (1995). I could never be so lucky again : an autobiography. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. p. 281. ISBN 0887407374.
- The diaries are in the Hoover Institute of Stanford University.
- "War in the Pacific: View from Japan, Bungeishunju 文藝春秋 1994"
- Scott 2016, ch. 18.
- Shepherd, Joel. "USS Enterprise CV-6: The most decorated ship of the Second World War". cv6.org. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- Grew, Joseph C (1944). Ten Years in Japan. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 526, 527.
- Craigie, Robertt (1945). Behind the Japanese Mask. London: Hutchinson & Co. pp. 146, 147.
- Glines 1998, p. 219.
- Glines 1988, p. 77.
- An air raid drill took place in Tokyo on the morning of the raid.
- Chun 2006, p. 84.
- Glines 1988, pp. 75–76.
- Craven and Cate 1948, p. 441.
- Prange 1982, p. 25.
- Glines 1998, pp. 60–62.
- The Japanese, through a small amount of intercepted radio traffic between Halsey and Mitscher, were aware that an American carrier force was at large in the Western Pacific Ocean and could possibly attack Japan.
- Glines 1998, p. 218.
- Prange et al. 1982, pp. 22–26.
- Gill 1968, p. 24.
- Glines 1998, pp. 215–216.
- Prange 1982, p. 66.
- "One year later, Tokyo raid story told". UPI, April 20, 1943.
- Rightmyer, Don. "A Gut Check of Sorts: The Doolittle Brandy". Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. USAFA Class of 1973. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- " 'Doolittle Goblets' Find New Home". Department of Defense News. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
- Nelson-Gabriel, Melissa. "Doolittle Raiders hold final reunion". Military.com, 15 February 2014.
- Kenney, Jerry. "Doolittle Raiders Offer Final Toast To 71-Year-Old Mission". NPR. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Joyce, Todd. "80 Brave Men: The Doolittle Tokyo Raiders Roster". The Doolittle Tokyo Raiders, 10 December 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- Joyce, Todd. "Richard E. Cole, 0-421602, Colonel, Co-Pilot Crew 1". Doolittle Tokyo Raiders, 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Lt. Col. Robert Hite, of 'Doolittle Tokyo Raiders,' dead at 95". Fox News, 30 March 2015.
- Roberts, Sam."Robert Hite, 95, Survivor of Doolittle Raid and Japanese imprisonment, dies". The New York Times, 31 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Note: Frank Kappeler and Thomas Griffin also lived to age 96, but did not live as many months as Doolittle.
- "Col. William Marsh 'Bill' Bower, February 13, 1917 – January 10, 2011". Camera, 12 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- Rees Shapiro, T. "Bill Bower, last surviving bomber pilot of WWII Doolittle Raid, dies at 93". The Washington Post, 15 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
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- Sam Roberts (30 March 2015). "Robert Hite, 95, Survivor of Doolittle Raid and Japanese Imprisonment, Dies". The New York Times.
- Special, "B-25 Makes Last Flight During Ceremony at Eglin", Playground News, Fort Walton Beach, Florida, Thursday 26 May 1960, Volume 15, Number "17" (actually No. 18), p. 2.
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- "The B-21 has a name: Raider". USAF. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
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- Glines 1988, p. 226.
- Gutthman, Edward. "'Pearl' – Hyped, yet promising / Movie to honor vets, nation's wartime spirit". MyUSA, 7 December 2000.
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- "Doolittle's Raiders: A Final Toast Documentary to Premiere at the Capitol in Washington, DC". WWII Foundation. 6 November 2015.
- Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking. New York: Basic Books, 1997. ISBN 0-465-06835-9.
- Chun, Clayton K.S. The Doolittle Raid 1942: America's First Strike Back at Japan (Campaign: 16). Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey, 2006. ISBN 1-84176-918-5.
- Coletta, Paolo. "Launching the Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 18, 1942". The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 63, No. 1, February 1993.
- Craig, John S. Peculiar Liaisons: In War, Espionage, and Terrorism in the Twentieth Century. New York: Algora Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-0-87586-331-3.
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- Culbertson, Charles. Forgotten Hero: The Story of Jack Manch, 30 Seconds Over Tokyo and the Self-Sacrifice of An American Warrior. Staunton, Virginia: Clarion Publishing, 2013. ISBN 978-1493501847.
- Doolittle, James H. and Carroll V. Glines. I Could Never Be So Lucky Again: An Autobiography. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. ISBN 0-553-58464-2.
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