Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families. It functions both as a hormone and a neurotransmitter, plays several important roles in the brain and body, it is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA, synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine is synthesized in plants and most animals. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons to send signals to other nerve cells; the brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior. The anticipation of most types of rewards increases the level of dopamine in the brain, many addictive drugs increase dopamine release or block its reuptake into neurons following release. Other brain dopamine pathways are involved in motor control and in controlling the release of various hormones; these pathways and cell groups form a dopamine system, neuromodulatory.
In popular culture and media, dopamine is seen as the main chemical of pleasure, but the current opinion in pharmacology is that dopamine instead confers motivational salience. Outside the central nervous system, dopamine functions as a local paracrine messenger. In blood vessels, it acts as a vasodilator. With the exception of the blood vessels, dopamine in each of these peripheral systems is synthesized locally and exerts its effects near the cells that release it. Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system, some of the key medications used to treat them work by altering the effects of dopamine. Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra, its metabolic precursor L-DOPA can be manufactured. There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, most antipsychotic drugs used to treat this are dopamine antagonists which reduce dopamine activity.
Similar dopamine antagonist drugs are some of the most effective anti-nausea agents. Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with decreased dopamine activity. Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD. Dopamine itself is available as a manufactured medication for intravenous injection: although it cannot reach the brain from the bloodstream, its peripheral effects make it useful in the treatment of heart failure or shock in newborn babies. A dopamine molecule consists of a catechol structure with one amine group attached via an ethyl chain; as such, dopamine is the simplest possible catecholamine, a family that includes the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine. The presence of a benzene ring with this amine attachment makes it a substituted phenethylamine, a family that includes numerous psychoactive drugs. Like most amines, dopamine is an organic base; as a base, it is protonated in acidic environments.
The protonated form is water-soluble and stable, but can become oxidized if exposed to oxygen or other oxidants. In basic environments, dopamine is not protonated. In this free base form, it is less water-soluble and more reactive; because of the increased stability and water-solubility of the protonated form, dopamine is supplied for chemical or pharmaceutical use as dopamine hydrochloride—that is, the hydrochloride salt, created when dopamine is combined with hydrochloric acid. In dry form, dopamine hydrochloride is a fine powder, white to yellow in color. Dopamine is synthesized in a restricted set of cell types neurons and cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands; the primary and minor metabolic pathways are: Primary: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → p-Tyramine → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → m-Tyrosine → m-Tyramine → DopamineThe direct precursor of dopamine, L-DOPA, can be synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or directly from the non-essential amino acid tyrosine.
These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and so are available in food, with tyrosine being the most common. Although dopamine is found in many types of food, it is incapable of crossing the blood–brain barrier that surrounds and protects the brain, it must therefore be synthesized inside the brain to perform its neuronal activity. L-Phenylalanine is converted into L-tyrosine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, with molecular oxygen and tetrahydrobiopterin as cofactors. L-Tyrosine is converted into L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, with tetrahydrobiopterin, O2, iron as cofactors. L-DOPA is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, with pyridoxal phosphate as the cofactor. Dopamine itsel
Eicke's House is a listed residential timber frame building in north German Renaissance style, located in the pedestrian zone of Einbeck, Germany. It was named after its early 1900s owner, Eicke; the structure features double jettying and rich sculptural facade ornamentation by an unknown 17th-century wood carver. Conservation efforts have been successful for most of the sculptures which include the Christian Apostles and Jesus Christ, the seven Liberal arts, the four cardinal virtues as well as some of the Greek muses; the building now houses the regional tourist information. Holger Reimers: Das Eickesche Haus. In: Einbecker Jahrbuch Band 50, 2007, S. 12–105 German link with picture German homepage
Gabriel "Gabe" Sapolsky is an American professional wrestling promoter and creative writer focused on Evolve. He is the vice-president of talent relations and marketing of the World Wrestling Network, a consultant for WWE. Sapolsky has held various creative and marketing positions in the professional wrestling industry, notably as Paul Heyman's Personal Assistant with Extreme Championship Wrestling, the co-founder and head of talent relations at Ring of Honor, the vice-president of Dragon Gate USA, he attended Runkle Elementary School, Brookline High School, graduating in 1990. He received his B. A. in Communications from Temple University and graduated in 1994. Sapolsky began his career with Extreme Championship Wrestling writing a company newsletter in September 1993. Sapolsky was hired full-time shortly after graduating from Temple University, about the same time that ECW opened its first office in Philadelphia. Sapolsky became a protege of Paul Heyman and handled many different responsibilities, including marketing and public relations throughout his tenure with the company.
He became an official RF Video employee in 2001. In 2002, Sapolsky co-founded Ring of Honor with RF Video owner Rob Feinstein and was named the booker of the promotion, he introduced a new style of booking. As the booker of ROH, Sapolsky won Wrestling Observer Newsletter's Best Booker award four years in a row from 2004 to 2007. Sapolsky was the booker for Full Impact Pro, an independent promotion in Florida that used to be the sister promotion of ROH. Sapolsky used Jimmy Bower, for commentary. On October 26, 2008, ROH made an announcement stating that Gabe Sapolsky was no longer working there. After Gabe's departure, he ceased his roles with FIP. On April 14, 2009, Sapolsky announced the launch of Dragon Gate USA with himself serving as its vice-president; the promotion's first show, Open the Historic Gate was held July 25, 2009 at The Arena in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was voted in 2009 by the Wrestling Observer Newsletter as the Show of the Year. DGUSA was the American branch of Japan's popular Dragon Gate promotion and as per this connection, it featured the top stars of Japan, various independent wrestlers in the United States.
In early 2010, Sapolsky co-founded Evolve along with Sal Hamaoui. Evolve began as a means of featuring American based wrestlers while DGUSA focused on Japanese wrestlers. DGUSA held its last event in 2014 and is dormant. Following the dormancy of DGUSA, in August 2014, EVOLVE was relaunched. Evolve and DGUSA both became subsidiaries under the parent company World Wrestling Network. In 2011, WWN launched its live iPPV streaming service, www. WWNLive.com, where Sapolsky helped market and produce the infrastructure in order to start up WWNLive.com. Soon after, WWN held its first "Supershows" with a two-week tour of China; the first WWN Supershow in the United States took place in 2014. The idea behind the WWN Supershow is to combine title matches and talent from all WWN brands, as well as special guest attractions to the affiliated promotions. WWN signed a deal to help launch the FloSlam. TV channel in November, 2016; the deal featured more brands under the WWN umbrella. The FloSports deal allowed Sapolsky to co-found Style Battle, a promotion based on tournaments on every event.
Sapolsky returned as head booker of FIP. However, FloSlam filed a lawsuit against WWN on September 2017, ending the relationship. On January 10, 2018, Sapolsky signed a contract with WWE as consultant. Sapolsky has been featured on the WWE DVD and network releases of My Name Is Paul Heyman and Journey to Summerslam: The Destruction of The Shield, featuring former mentor Heyman, former DGUSA and ROH talent in Dean Ambrose and Seth Rollins. Mick Foley mentioned Sapolsky in his book "Foley Is Good.", a #1 New York Times best seller. Former ROH World Champion, Daniel Bryan, prominently mentioned Sapolsky in his book, "Yes: My Improbable Journey to the Main Event of WrestleMania.", another best seller. In the book, Bryan writes: "It was the first time anybody had chosen me to be "the Man" – the only time, really- and I can't thank Gabe, ROH, the ROH fans enough for giving me the opportunity to be the guy to carry the promotion." Wrestling Observer Newsletter awardsBest Booker Gabe Sapolsky on Facebook