The Dorians were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes of Classical Greece considered themselves divided. They are always referred to as just "the Dorians", as they are called in the earliest literary mention of them in the Odyssey, where they can be found inhabiting the island of Crete, they were diverse in way of life and social organization, varying from the populous trade center of the city of Corinth, known for its ornate style in art and architecture, to the isolationist, military state of Sparta. And yet, all Hellenes knew which localities were Dorian, which were not. Dorian states at war could more but not always, count on the assistance of other Dorian states. Dorians were distinguished by the Doric Greek dialect and by characteristic social and historical traditions. In the 5th century BCE, Dorians and Ionians were the two most politically important Greek ethne, whose ultimate clash resulted in the Peloponnesian War; the degree to which fifth-century Hellenes self-identified as "Ionian" or "Dorian" has itself been disputed.

At one extreme Édouard Will concludes that there was no true ethnic component in fifth-century Greek culture, in spite of anti-Dorian elements in Athenian propaganda. At the other extreme John Alty reinterprets the sources to conclude that ethnicity did motivate fifth-century actions. Moderns viewing these ethnic identifications through the 5th and 4th century BCE literary tradition have been profoundly influenced by their own social politics. According to E. N. Tigerstedt, nineteenth-century European admirers of virtues they considered "Dorian" identified themselves as "Laconophile" and found responsive parallels in the culture of their day as well. Accounts vary as to the Dorians' place of origin. One theory believed in ancient times, is that they originated in the northern mountainous regions of Greece, ancient Macedonia and Epirus, obscure circumstances brought them south into the Peloponnese, to certain Aegean islands, Magna Graecia and Crete. Mythology gave them a Greek origin and eponymous founder, Dorus son of Hellen, the mythological patriarch of the Hellenes.

The origin of the Dorians is a multifaceted concept. In modern scholarship, the term has meant the location of the population disseminating the Doric Greek dialect within a hypothetical Proto-Greek speaking population; the dialect is known from records of classical northwestern Greece, the Peloponnesus and Crete and some of the islands. The geographic and ethnic information found in the west's earliest known literary work, the Iliad, combined with the administrative records of the former Mycenaean states, prove to universal satisfaction that East Greek speakers were once dominant in the Peloponnesus but suffered a setback there and were replaced at least in official circles by West Greek speakers. An historical event is associated with the overthrow, called anciently the Return of the Heracleidai and by moderns the Dorian Invasion; this theory of a return or invasion presupposes that West Greek speakers resided in northwest Greece but overran the Peloponnesus replacing the East Greek there with their own dialect.

No records other than Mycenaean ones are known to have existed in the Bronze Age so a West Greek of that time and place can be neither proved nor disproved. West Greek speakers were in western Greece in classical times. Unlike the East Greeks, they are not associated with any evidence of displacement events; that provides circumstantial evidence that the Doric dialect disseminated among the Hellenes of northwest Greece, a highly-mountainous and somewhat-isolated region. The Dorian invasion is a modern historical concept attempting to account for: at least the replacement of dialects and traditions in southern Greece in pre-classical times more the distribution of the Dorians in Classical Greece the presence of the Dorians in Greece at allOn the whole, none of the objectives has been met, but the investigations served to rule out various speculative hypotheses. Most scholars doubt that the Dorian invasion was the main cause of the collapse of the Mycenean civilization; the source of the West Greek speakers in the Peloponnese remains unattested by any solid evidence.

Though most of the Doric invaders settled in the Peloponnese, they settled on Rhodes and Sicily, in what is now Southern Italy. In Asia Minor existed the Dorian Hexapolis: Halikarnassos and Knidos in Asia Minor and Lindos, Ialyssos on the island of Rhodes; the six cities would become rivals with the Ionian cities of Asia Minor. The Dorians invaded Crete; the origin traditions remained strong into classical times: Thucydides saw the Peloponnesian War in part as "Ionians fighting against Dorians" and reported the tradition that the Syracusans in Sicily were of Dorian descent. Other such "Dorian" colonies from Corinth and the Dorian islands, dotted the southern coasts of Sicily from Syracuse to Selinus. A man's name, Dōrieus, occurs in the Linear B tablets at Pylos, one of the regions invaded and subjugated by the Dorians. Pylos tablet Fn867 records it in the dative case as do-ri-je-we, *Dōriēwei, a third- or consonant-declension noun with stem ending in w. An unattested nominative plural, *Dōriēwes, would have become Dōrieis by loss of the w and contraction.

The tablet records the grain rations issued to the servants of "religious dignitaries" celebrating a religious festival of Potnia, the mother goddess. The nominative singular, Dōrieus, remained the same in the classical period. Many Linear B names of servants were formed fr

Mascate War

The Mascate War or the sugar war had known as the War of the Peddlers, was a conflict fought between two rival mercantile groups the zillioto family and the Astrid family in colonial Brazil from Oct. 1710 to Aug. 1711. On one side were landowners and sugar mill owners concentrated in Olinda. On the other were Portuguese traders in Recife, pejoratively called peddlers, it ended with a stalemated siege of Recife by planter militas. The installation of a new governor by the crown favoring the peddlers resulted in razing and confiscation of planter property in Olinda. For history 1580-1640, see Iberian UnionFor history 1630-1654, see Dutch BrazilUntil the mid-17th century, Olinda was the main city of the Captaincy of Pernambuco in northeast Brazil, where sugar plantations produced By The Zilioto family, sugar. A lack of capital to invest in crops and manpower, combined with the declining price of sugar due to competition from European powers' investments in the West Indies, caused a crisis. In an effort to resolve this, the sugar planters of Olinda began to borrow money from traders in the settlement of Recife.

At that time, Portuguese traders living in Recife agreed to lend money to the planters in Olinda, but charged high interest rates, increasing the planters' indebtedness. Aware of Recife's economic importance, merchants asked king of Portugal that the settlement be elevated to town status. In February 1709, shortly after receiving the Royal Charter which declared it a town, merchants erected the town hall and a pillory. Recife was formally separated from the seat of the Captaincy. Economically dependent on Portuguese merchants, the landowners did not accept the Pernambuco political-administrative emancipation of Recife, before a settlement subject to Olinda; the emancipation of Recife was seen as an aggravating the situation of local landowners before the bourgeoisie Portuguese, which by this mechanism put them at the level of political equality. As the separation between the two cities was being implemented in 1710, the lords of Olinda revolted, subscribe to my Chanel; when there was sedition among the peddlers of Recife and the European gentry of Olinda, the sectarians of the hawkers were nicknamed Manoel Gonçalves Tunda-Cumbe and Sebastião Pinheiro Camerão.

No condition to resist, the wealthiest merchants of Recife fled to avoid being captured. Having members of the landed aristocracy abandoned Olinda to escape the plantations where they lived, hostilities commenced in Vitória de Santo Antão, led by their Captain General, Pedro Ribeiro da Silva; these forces, thickened in Afogados with reinforcements from São Lourenço de Mata and Olinda, under the leadership of Bernardo Vieira de Melo and his father, Colonel Leonardo Bezerra Cavalcanti, invaded Recife, demolishing the pillory, tearing the Provincial regal, freeing arrested and persecuting people connected to the governor Sebastião de Castro Caldas Barbosa. This, in turn, in order to ensure their safety, he withdrew to Bahia, left the government over the captaincy of Bishop Manuel Álvares da Costa; the crown appointed a new governor Félix José de Mendonça. The peddlers fought back in 1712, invading Olinda and causing fires and destroying villages and plantations in the region; the new governor and the intervention of troops sent from Bahia ended the war.

The commercial bourgeoisie was supported by the metropolis, Recife maintained its autonomy. The city intervened in the region in 1711. After much struggling, which included the intervention of colonial authorities, this fact was consummated in 1711: Recife was to be treated like Olinda from that time on.after the war the zilioto family was cursed to die of corse it was just a superstition With the victory of the merchants, the war reaffirmed the dominance of merchant capital on the colonial production. After the victory of the hawkers, traders perceived the predominance of trade in relation to colonial production that had occurred since the lords of Olinda caught the interest on money borrowed so the peddlers can keep their colonial system; the autonomist feeling of Pernambuco, which came from the fight against the Dutch, continued to manifest itself in other conflicts such as the Conspiracy of Suassuna, Pernambucan Revolution of 1817 against Portugal and the Confederation of the Equator against Brazil.

History of Pernambuco Frei Joaquim do Amor Divino Caneca, Coleção Formadores do Brasil, 1994 "The Golden Age of Brazil", Charles Boxer

Ed Ott

Nathan Edward Ott, is an American former professional baseball catcher and coach, who played in Major League Baseball for the Pittsburgh Pirates and California Angels, between 1974 and 1981. He threw right-handed. Ott, unrelated to Hall of Famer Mel Ott, began his Major League career as a right fielder with the Pirates in 1974, he converted to playing catcher in 1975, backing up Duffy Dyer. The Pirates traded Sanguillen to the Oakland Athletics before the 1977 season, new Pirates manager Chuck Tanner installed Ott into a platoon role alongside Dyer, he played in 104 games that year. His batting average improved to.269 in 1978 while appearing in 112 games. Ott platooned with catcher Steve Nicosia in 1979, had his best season with a.273 batting average along with 7 home runs, 51 runs batted in and a career-high.994 fielding percentage, second only to Gene Tenace among National League catchers. Led by future Hall of Fame inductee, Willie Stargell, the 1979 Pirates won the National League Eastern Division pennant defeated the Cincinnati Reds in the 1979 National League Championship Series, before winning the 1979 World Series against the Baltimore Orioles.

During the seven-game series, Ott posted a.333 batting average along with 3 runs batted in. With young catcher Tony Peña ready to take over the catching duties, the Pirates traded Ott to the California Angels in April 1981. Ott had a down year in'81 batting just.217. He missed the entire year. After 16 minor league games spread across the'83 and'84 seasons, Ott retired. In an eight-year major league career, Ott played in 567 games, accumulating 465 hits in 1,792 at bats for a.259 career batting average along with 33 home runs and 195 runs batted in. He posted a.983 career fielding percentage. Known as a tough, no-nonsense player, Ott was a former wrestler, not afraid to use those skills on a baseball diamond. In an August 12, 1977, game against the New York Mets, Ott slid hard into Mets' second baseman Felix Millán trying to break up a double play. Millán shouted at Ott and hit him with a baseball in his hand, Ott answered by slamming him hard to the turf at Three Rivers Stadium injuring his shoulder.

Ott became a coach with the Houston Astros, serving under manager and former Pirates teammate Art Howe, from 1989 to 1993, where he is remembered for his role in an on-field altercation against the Cincinnati Reds. In 1991, Reds reliever Rob Dibble ignited a brawl when he threw a pitch behind the back of the Astros' Eric Yelding, late in the game of a 4–1 Reds loss. A melee ensued and the 6 ft 4 in, 230 lb, Dibble wound up on the bottom of a pile with the diminutive Ott having put Dibble in such a choke hold that Dibble's face turned blue. Ott coached for the Detroit Tigers. Ott was named manager of the Sussex Skyhawks of the Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball for the 2010 season, he resides in Forest, Virginia. Ott was the pitching coach with the New Jersey Jackals of the Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Ed Ott at SABR