Transfiguration Cathedral in Odessa
The Transfiguration Cathedral in Odessa is the Orthodox Cathedral in Odessa, dedicated to the Saviour's Transfiguration and belongs to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. The first and foremost church in the city of Odessa, the cathedral was founded in 1794 by Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni. Construction lagged several years behind schedule and the newly appointed governor of New Russia, Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, employed the Italian architect Francesco Frappoli to complete the edifice; the cathedral was designated the main church of New Russia in 1808 and was continuously expanded throughout the 19th century. The belltower was built between 1825 and 1837, the refectory connecting it to the main church several years later; the interior was lined with polychrome marble, the icon screen was of marble. Several churches in the region, including the Nativity Cathedral in Chişinău, were built in conscious imitation of the Odessa church; the cathedral was the burial place of the bishops of Tauride and Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, the famous governor of New Russia.
The original structure was demolished by the Soviets in 1936. It was rebuilt starting from 1999; the new cathedral was consecrated in 2003. The remains of Vorontsov and his wife were subsequently reburied in the cathedral. There is a statue of him on the cathedral square; the cathedral bells are controlled by an electronic device capable of playing 99 melodies. List of largest Orthodox cathedrals Official website Transfiguration Cathedral
Lviv is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. Named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great who became known as the King of Poland and Ruthenia. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic. After the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Lviv became part of the Soviet Union, in 1944–46 there was a population exchange between Poland and Soviet Ukraine.
In 1991, it became part of the independent nation of Ukraine. Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance. Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Galicia; the historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and German occupations during World War II unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet; the historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Besides its Ukrainian name, the city is known by several other names in different languages: Polish: Lwów. Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland 70 kilometres from the Polish border and 160 kilometres from the eastern Carpathian Mountains; the average altitude of Lviv is 296 metres above sea level.
Its highest point is 409 meters above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture; the old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas. Lviv's climate is humid continental with mild summers; the average temperatures are − 18.3 °C in July. The average annual rainfall is 745 mm with the maximum being in summer. Mean sunshine duration per year at Lviv is about 1,804 hours. Archaeologists have demonstrated; the area between the Castle Hill and the river Poltva was continuously settled since the 9th century. In 1977 it was discovered that the Orthodox church of St. Nicholas had been built on a functioning cemetery; the city of Lviv was founded by King Daniel of Galicia in the Principality of Halych of Kingdom of Rus` and named in honour of his son Lev as Lwihorod, consistent with name of other Ukrainian cities such as Myrhorod, Novhorod, Horodyshche and many others.
Lviv was invaded by the Tatars in 1261. Various sources relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through to a complete razing of the town. All the sources agree; the Shevchenko Scientific Society informs. The Galician-Volhynian chronicle states that in 1261 "Said Buronda to Vasylko:'Since you are at peace with me raze all your castles'". Basil Dmytryshyn states that the order was implied to be the fortifications as a whole "If you wish to have peace with me destroy your towns". According to the Universal-Lexicon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit the town's founder was ordered to destroy the town himself. After King Daniel's death, King Lev rebuilt the town around the year 1270 at its present location, choosing Lviv as his residence, made Lviv the capital of Galicia-Volhynia; the city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle regarding the events that were dated 1256. The town grew due to an influx of Polish people from Kraków, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.
Around 1280 Armenians lived in Galicia and were based in Lviv where they had their own Archbishop. In the 13th and early 14th centuries, Lviv was a wooden city, except for its several stone churches; some of them, like the Church of Saint Nicholas, have survived to this day, although in a rebuilt form. The town was inherited by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1340 and ruled by voivode Dmytro Dedko, the favourite of the Lithuanian prince Lubart, until 1349. During the wars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia Principality in 1339 King Casimir III of Poland undertook an expedition and conquered Lviv in 1340, burning down the old princely castle. Poland ultimate
Crimea is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe, completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge; the Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey. Crimea has been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe, its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Alans, Huns, Kipchaks and the Golden Horde.
Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century. In 1783, Crimea became a part of the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was formed as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine; the 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol.
Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas. In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia; the classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. Strabo and Ptolemy refer variously to the Strait of Kerch as the Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος, its easternmost part as the Κιμμέριον Ἄκρον (Kimmerion Akron, Roman name: Promontorium Cimmerium, as well as to the city of Cimmerium and whence the name of the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
The earliest recorded use of the toponym “Crimea” for the peninsula occurred between 1315-1329 AD by the Arab writer Abū al-Fidā where he recounts a political fight in 1300-1301 AD resulting in a rival's decapitation and having “sent his head to the Crimea”. The Crimean Tatar name of the peninsula is Qırım and so for the city of Krym, now called Stary Krym which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde; some sources hold that the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty. The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain. Suggestions argued in various sources: a corruption of Cimmerium. A derivation from the Turkic term qirum, from qori-. Other suggestions either unsupported or contradicted by sources based on similarity in sound, include: a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi. However, Herodotus identifies the port not in Crimea, but as being on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. No evidence has been identified that this name was in use for the peninsula.
The Turkic term is related to the Mongolian appellation kerm "wall", but sources indicate that the Mongolian appellation of the Crimean peninsula of Qaram is phonetically incompatible with kerm/kerem and therefore deriving from another original term. The name "Crimea" is the Italian form, i.e. la Crimea, since at least the 17th century and the "Crimean peninsula" becomes current during the 18th century replacing the classical name of Tauric Peninsula in the course of the 19th century. In English usage since the early modern period the Crimean Khanate is referred to as Crim Tartary; the omission of the definite article in English became common during the 20th century. The classical name was used in 1802 in the name of the Russian
St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral, Kiev
The Roman Catholic Church of St. Nicholas is the second oldest Roman Catholic church standing in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine after the St. Alexander Roman Catholic Cathedral. Today the building is shared between the Roman Catholic Church of Ukraine and the National House of Organ and Chamber Music, it was constructed from 1899–1909 and was built by the Latin Rite Catholic community in a Gothic type construction, by Kyiv architects Vladyslav Horodetskyi and Emilio Sala. It stands at vulytsia Velyka Vasylkivska in Pechersk Raion next to the Kyiv National Linguistic University between the National Sports Complex Olimpiysky and the Railroad station Kyiv-Tovarny. A competition was held in 1898 for the designs for a Roman Catholic church in Kyiv, won by architect Stanislav Volovskiy, his entry into the competition included a Gothic type construction with two 60 m towers. The final revision and management of the project was assigned to the Kyivan architect of Polish descent Władysław Horodecki, Emilio Sala added sculptural decoration in artificial stone to the construction.
To increase the stability of the construction on the uneven Kyiv ground, it was ensured by bore-and-stuffed piles, a newly introduced invention of Anton Strauss. The construction work was carried out by from voluntary donations, lasted for ten years. In 1909, the church was consecrated in the name of Saint Nicholas, however the construction was not yet completed. A Gothic style three-story house was built for the parish clergy to the left of the church. In 1938, Soviet authorities closed the church after its Roman Catholic priest was "absent" for two years due to the Soviet persecution of Christians. For some time after its closure, the building was used by the punitive organs for technical purposes, and, at some point, served as a KGB service building. After its restoration in 1979-1980, commissioned by the Rada of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, by the architects O. Grauzhis and I. Tukalevskiy, the church was turned into Chamber Music of Ukraine. For the reconstruction and restoration of the damaged church, the building's stained glass windows were manufactured in the Baltics, its furniture was created in Lviv, the high-quality wood floors were produced in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast.
The company, Rieger–Kloss located in Czechoslovakia, manufactured an organ for the church. Its manufacturer tried to architecturally tie the organ to the building itself. Since 1992, Catholic Masses and concerts have been held here. Bishop Jan Purwinski consecrated the church and a Mass was celebrated there on 4 January 1992, it belongs to the Kyivan Municipal Department for Culture, but the Roman Catholic Church hopes it will be returned to the local Latin rite Roman Catholic community. The Kyiv city municipality refuse to hand over the building until the issue of transferring the House of Organ Music will be solved. Since 2009 the building is in emergency conditions; the religious services are performed by priests of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Most of the services are conducted in the Ukrainian language, while on some days services conducted in Polish, Latin and in Spanish. Official website The National House of Organ and Chamber Music of Ukraine — official website
Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I was the Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825. He was Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first king of Congress Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825. Born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich Emperor Paul I, he succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered, he ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and during the early years of his reign, Alexander used liberal rhetoric, but continued Russia's absolutist policies in practice. In the first years of his reign, he initiated some minor social reforms and major, liberal educational reforms, such as building more universities. Alexander appointed the son of a village priest, as one of his closest advisors; the Collegia was abolished and replaced by the State Council, created to improve legislation. Plans were made to set up a parliament and sign a constitution. In foreign policy, he changed Russia's position relative to France four times between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality and alliance.
In 1805 he joined Britain in the War of the Third Coalition against Napoleon, but after suffering massive defeats at the battles of Austerlitz and Friedland he switched sides and formed an alliance with Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit and joined Napoleon's Continental System. He fought a small-scale naval war against Britain between 1807 and 1812 as well as a short war against Sweden after Sweden's refusal to join the Continental System. Alexander and Napoleon hardly agreed regarding Poland, the alliance collapsed by 1810. Alexander's greatest triumph came in 1812 when Napoleon's invasion of Russia proved to be a catastrophic disaster for the French; as part of the winning coalition against Napoleon, he gained some spoils in Poland. He formed the Holy Alliance to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as immoral threats to legitimate Christian monarchs, he helped Austria's Klemens von Metternich in suppressing all liberal movements. In the second half of his reign he was arbitrary and fearful of plots against him.
He purged schools of foreign teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative. Speransky was replaced as advisor with the strict artillery inspector Aleksey Arakcheyev, who oversaw the creation of military settlements. Alexander died of typhus in December 1825 while on a trip to southern Russia, he left no children. Neither of his brothers wanted to become emperor. After a period of great confusion, he was succeeded by his younger brother, Nicholas I. Alexander was born on 23 December 1777 in Saint Petersburg, he and his younger brother Constantine were raised by their grandmother, Catherine; some sources allege. From the free-thinking atmosphere of the court of Catherine and his Swiss tutor, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, he imbibed the principles of Rousseau's gospel of humanity, but from his military governor, Nikolay Saltykov, he imbibed the traditions of Russian autocracy. Andrey Afanasyevich Samborsky, whom his grandmother chose for his religious instruction, was an atypical, unbearded Orthodox priest.
Samborsky had long lived in England and taught Alexander excellent English uncommon for potential Russian autocrats at the time. On 9 October 1793, when Alexander was still 15 years old, he married 14-year-old Princess Louise of Baden, who took the name Elizabeth Alexeievna, his grandmother was the one. Until his grandmother's death, he was walking the line of allegiance between his grandmother and his father, his steward Nikolai Saltykov helped him navigate the political landscape, engendering dislike for his grandmother and dread in dealing with his father. Catherine had the Alexander Palace built for the couple; this did nothing to help his relationship with her, as Catherine would go out of her way to amuse them with dancing and parties, which annoyed his wife. Living at the palace put pressure on him to perform as a husband, when he only had a brother's love for the Grand Duchess, he began to sympathize more with his father, as he saw visiting his father's fiefdom at Gatchina as a relief from the ostentatious court of the empress.
There, they wore simple Prussian military uniforms, instead of the gaudy clothing popular at the French court they had to wear when visiting Catherine. So, visiting the tsarevich did not come without a bit of travail. Paul liked to have his guests perform military drills, which he pushed upon his sons Alexander and Constantine, he was prone to fits of temper, he went into fits of rage when events did not go his way. Catherine's death in November 1796, before she could appoint Alexander as her successor, brought his father, Paul, to the throne. Alexander disliked him as tsar more than he did his grandmother, he wrote that Russia had become a "plaything for the insane" and that "absolute power disrupts everything". It is that seeing two previous rulers abuse their autocratic powers in such a way pushed him to be one of the more progressive Romanov tsars of the 19th and 20th centuries. Among the rest of the country, Paul was unpopular, he accused his wife of conspiring to become another
Uzhhorod, Rusyn: Уґоград, translit. Ugohrad Rusyn: Ужгород, translit. Užhorod) and known as Ungvár is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary, it is the administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast, as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Uzhhorod Raion within the oblast. The city itself is designated as city of oblast significance, a status equivalent to that of a raion, does not belong to Uzhhorod Raion. Population: 115,163 ; the city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two parts, while horod is Rusyn for city, coming from Old Slavonic grad. However, this name is a recent construct, has been used only since the beginning of the 20th century. Before the city was known as Ungvár spelled Ongvár, Hungvár, Unguyvar, a name derived from Ung, the Hungarian name for the Uzh and vár, meaning castle, fort, it is known by several alternative names: Czech: Užhorod. The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs.
One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD. During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the center of a new Slavic principality, at the head of, a mythical prince Laborec, vassal of Great Moravia. Great Moravia, according to historians and experts did not extend as far east as Uzhgorod, in fact, it was west of what is now the City of Bratislava, Slovakia. In 895 AD, Hungarian tribes, headed by their leader Árpád, stormed the Hungvar fortress; the forces were not equal and Laborec was defeated and beheaded on the banks of the river that still carries his name. Again, this is mythical. There was not much of a settlement when the Magyar tribes arrived, having left Kiev and encountering no resistance. After the arrival of the Hungarians, the small town began to extend its borders. In 1241–1242 the Mongols of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. In the early 14th century, Uzhhorod showed strong resistance to the new Hungarian rulers of the Anjou dynasty.
Although the majority of inhabitants were Hungarians, they wanted more freedom. From 1318 for 360 years, the Drugeths owned the town. During that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle; the name Ungvar in Hungarian meaning Castle of Ung. Together with the castle, the city began to grow. From 1430, Uzhhorod became a free royal town. During the 16–17th centuries there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious fight between Protestant Transylvania and Catholic Austria. In 1646 the Ungvar Union was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established in Subcarpathia, in a ceremony held in the Ungvar castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Ungvar was the residence of Ferenc II Rákóczi, leader of the national liberation war of Hungarians against Vienna; the beginning of the 19th century was characterized by economic changes, including the first factories in the city. The greatest influence on Ungvar among the political events of the 19th century was made by the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, during which the native Hungarian nobility sought both get free of the Austrian Empire and to have authority over their own people.
27 March 1848 was celebrated in the city as the overthrow of the monarchy in Hungary. It is now celebrated in Hungary on 15 March. In 1872 the first railway line opened, linking the city to the important railway junction of Chop known as Csap. According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 were Magyars, 1,219 Slovaks, 1,151 Germans, 641 Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs. Since Jews were not counted as ethnicity, rather only religious group, this Austrian-Hungarian census does not mention the Jewish population, significant, consisted of about 31% in 1910. In the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population composed of 10,541 Hungarians, 9,908 Slovaks, 5,520 Rusyns; the First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On 10 September 1919, Subcarpathia was allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city. After the Treaty of Trianon 1920, Uzhhorod became part of the eastern half of the new Czecho-Slovak state.
After the First Vienna Award in 1938, Uzhhorod was given back to Hungary from which it was forcibly separated after WWI. The inhabitants did not wish to become a part of Czechoslovakia but their wishes were not honored; the city reverted to its original name of Ungvar, the name that the city had for 1000 years. In 1941 the Jewish population reached 9,576. On 19 March 1944, Germans troops entered the city, they established a Judenrat and set up 2 ghettos, at the Moskovitz brickyard and at the Gluck lumberyard. During May 1944, all Jews were deported to Auschwitz in 5 different transports and subsequently murdered. Only a few hundred Jews survived. On 27 October 1944, the city was captured by the troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front of the Red Army. Thousands of ethnic Hungarians were killed, expelled, or else taken to work in Soviet forced labor camps; the Hungarian majority population was decimated in order to strengthen the Soviet and Ukrainian right to the city. This period brought sign
St. George's Cathedral, Lviv
St. George's Cathedral is a baroque-rococo cathedral located in the city of Lviv, the historic capital of western Ukraine, it was constructed between 1744-1760 on a hill overlooking the city. This is the third manifestation of a church to inhabit the site since the 13th century, its prominence has made it a target for invaders and vandals; the cathedral holds a predominant position in Ukrainian religious and cultural terms. During 19th and 20th centuries, the cathedral served as the mother church of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. A church has stood on St. George Hill since around 1280, dating back to a time when the area was still part of the Principality of Halych-Volhynia. After the original wooden church and the fortress it was situated in were destroyed by King Casimir III of Poland in 1340, a four-column Byzantine basilica was constructed for the local Eastern Orthodox Church. In July 1700, the Act of Unification of the Lviv archeparchy with the Holy See was proclaimed in this older version of St. George's when Bishop Joseph Shumlanskyi embraced the Union of Brest.
Construction of the present Cathedral was started in 1746 by Metropolitan Athanasius Sheptytsky and finished by 1762 by Leo Sheptytsky. Following the necessity of transferring the seat of the metropolitan of the Church to Lviv in the 1800s, St. George's Cathedral became the mother church of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Following the Second World War, Soviet authorities began persecuting the UGCC, imprisoning the newly ordained Archbishop of Lviv, Josyf Slipyj, in 1945, as well as the rest of the church hierarchy. In March 1946, the cathedral hosted the Synod of Lviv. A young Volodymyr Sterniuk concealed in the church loft, witnessed the decision to enjoin the Metropolinate of Halychyna with the Russian Orthodox Church, along with the rest the catholic parishes across Soviet Ukraine; the Cathedral was reconsecrated as Saint Yury's, became the mother church of the Lvіv-Ternopіl diocese. The UGCC reemerged in 1989, when it was recognized by the Soviet authorities in the midst of Perestroika, began to reclaim parishes which they had ceded 45 years earlier.
On August 12, 1990, members of the nationalistic People's Movement of Ukraine party occupied and commandeered the cathedral. Two days the governing council of the Lviv Oblast recognized UGCC's claim of the cathedral, it has remained a centre for the UGCC throughout the early years of Ukraine's independence. Restoration of the cathedral took place in 1996 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the Union of Brest. However, restoration of the cathedral's grounds is ongoing. In August 2005, the seat of the Major Archbishop of the UGCC was moved to Kiev, the nation's capital, changing from The Major Archbishop of Lviv to The Major Archbishop of Kiev-Halych. However, the cathedral remains one of the most important churches in Ukraine, functions as the central church of the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Lviv. Designed by architect Bernard Meretyn and sculptor Johann Georg Pinsel, St. George's Cathedral reflects both Western influences and the traditions of Ukrainian church construction. An expressive statue of St. George the Dragon-slayer, by Pinsel, stands in the church attic.
Pinsel's hands created the stony images of St. Leo, the Pope and St. Athanasius who stand on guard over the church portal "warning with their stern look about their readiness to fight against anyone not showing enough venerability." In contrast, the architecture of the courtyard has a more soothing effect on visitors. An icon for the Church parish by Luka Dolynskyi depicts the banishment of merchants from the Temple. Another icon, conveys a strong expression of pain and desperate begging of the human being to the Almighty so that He would bestow eternity on "a feeble soul stiff with the fear of death."The most precious relic of the church is the Wonder-working Icon of the Virgin Mary. It was brought to Lviv from Terebovlia in 1674 by bishop Joseph Shumlianskyi. In the Cathedral's tombs are buried distinguished figures of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church. Among them are Cardinal Sylvester Sembratovych, Metropolitan Andrei Sheptytsky, Major Metropolitan Josyf Slipyj, Metropolitan Volodymyr Sterniuk, Cardinal Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky.
The architectural ensemble of St. George's Cathedral includes a belfry, the Baroque Metropolitan Palace and chapter house, as well as a garden, enclosed behind two gates. Saint George: Devotions and prayers 360-degrees interactive panorama of the interior Photos of St. George’s Cathedral in Lviv